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Wncennes in Picture and Jtory 

The City of Vincennes, which will form the 
subject of the following sftetch, is situated on 
the Wabash river, 120 miles above where its 
waters join with those of the beautiful Ohio. It 
is almost equi-distant from the two great cities 
of St Louis and Cincinnati, being 150 miles al- 
most directly east of the former, and 192 miles 
directly west of the latter, on the line of the 
Baltimore & Ohio South-Western R. R., and 
south 236 miles from Chicago. It is 117 miles 
southwest from Indianapolis, and fifty-one 
miles north of Evansville. It is the southwest- 
ern terminus of the Indianapolis & Vincennes 
railroad, a part of the Pennsylvania system, 
and the midway point on the Evansville & 
Terre Haute Railroad. It is also the northern 
terminus of the old Cairo & Vimcerines road, 
now a part of the Big Four system. 

It is a beautiful city of twelve thousand peo- 
ple, largely engaged in manufacturing indus- 
tries, which are, however, so far in the out- 
skirts, in the main, as to interfere little with 
the beauty of the city or the pleasure and com- 
fort of its inhabitants. 

Having thus located and briefly described 
our subject, our attention! will now be directed 
to its history proper and more will be said of 
the present city, its advantages and prospects 
in another place. 

It is perhaps quite generally known that 
Vincennes is one of the oldest settlements of 
the West. It is also known in a vague sort of 
way that it figured to some extent in the opera- 
tions of the Revolutionary war. It is probably 
not so generally known, however, how great a 
part the "Old Post" played in the game of war 
which resulted in the birth of the great nation 
on which the jealous eyes of the whole earth 
are turned to-day. In view of the importance 
its conquest assumed in the treaty of Paris, 
in 1783, it is deeply to be regretted that its 
early histoiy is enshrouded im misty doubt and 

uncertainty due to the want of official records 
and authentic historical data. 

In his e/forts to present to his readers a 
worthy and reliable account of the early set- 
tlement, growth and development of the city 
of VinJcennes, the compiler of this history has 
spent much time and labor and has consulted 
numerous authorities important among which 
are Judge Law's "History of Vincennes;" Hon. 
Win. H. English's "Conquest of the Territory 
Northwest of the River Ohio and Life of George 
Rogers Clark," and the "History of Indiana," as 
published in House Miscellaneous Documents, 
of the 50th congress; also a pamphlet entitled 
"Vincennes," by Hon. H. S. Cauthorn.. In this 
connection he desires to acknowledge valuable 
assistance rendered him by Hon. Henry S. 
Cauthorn, Dr. Hubbard M. Smith and Mr. Ed- 
ward L. Townsley, of the city. 

The city derives its name from a Canadian of- 
ficer, Francis Morgan de Vincenne, who, there 
is some reason to believe, planted the first 
French settlement here in the year 1702. It 
is not, however, due to this circumstance that 
the city bears his name. It had up to the year 
1736 been knk>wn variously as "The Post, "Old 
Post," "Au Post," "Post Ouabache," "St 
Francis Xavier Post." etc., no name having, 
apparently, been officially promulgated. De 
Vincenne, who was a resident of the town and 
probably a post officer, accompanied an expe- 
dition against the Chickasaw Indians. The 
French were defeated and De Vincenne was 
among the captured, scorning to leave the 
wounded. His heroic conduct on this occasion 
when he was burned at the stake, caused his 
praises to be sung to that extent that his name 
was given the post, without any formal action, 
but by a spontaneous movement which met 
with a general acceptance. Ttat the first set- 
tlement on the Wabash on the ?ite of Vincennes 
was made by French traders from Canada 
there seems to be no doubt, vrhatever. Under 
whose leadership and at what date are mat- 









colonial enterprizes which 
were undertaken by the 
French in America, two con- 
siderations doubtless operated 
to induce the settlement at 
Vincennes. The strengthen- 
ing and extension of the trade 
and empire of France, and 
the spread of the Christian re- 
ligion, as taught by the estab- 
lished church of that country. 
It is well kniown that in the 
latter part of the seventeenth 
century they attempted the 
construction of a cordon of 
posts to connect their settle- 
ments in Canada with those 
on the Mississippi, -and the 
Old Post may have had its 
origin as far back as that, in 
this effort. 



ters which do not seem capable of being re- 
duced to any degree of certainty. As in all the 

At the time when the light 
of history throws its first dim 
rays upon the site of our be- 
loved little city of the pres- 
ent, there was located here 
an Indian village called 
"Chip-pe-co-ke" or "Brush 
Wood." No doubt the exist-, 
ence of this village was the 
moving consideration for the 
settlement at this point for 
dual reason that it gave the 
priest an opportunity to con- 
vert the savage denizens of 
the valley and furnished the 
thrifty trader an opportunity 
to traffic with the natives. 

Judge Law in his address 
before the "Vincennes His- 
torical and .Antiquarian Soci- 
ety," delivered in 1839, by 
a most plausible argument 
arrives at the conclusion that 
the settlement here must 
have been made about 1710. 
Quoting from a volume of 
"Letters Edifying and Curi- 
ous," published in Paris in 
1761, and from a letter therein 
contained written toy "Father 
Gabriel Marest, Missionary of the company of 
Jesus, to Father Germon, of the same com- 










pany," dated at Kaskaskia, Illinois, Nov. 12, 
1712, says: 'The French having lately estab- 
lished a fort on the river Wabash, demanded a 
missionary, and Father Mermet was sent to 
them." From the statement that the fort has 
been built, Judge Law arrives at the conclusion 
that the settlement must have been made a 
year or so previous to the date of the letter. 

In a memoir of M. de Denomville, on the 
French limits in North America, dated March 
8, 1688, it is stated that the French at that time 
had divers establishments on the river Missis- 
sippi "as well as on the Oyo, Ouabache, etc., 
which flow into the said river Mississippi." 
This is taken from the "Paris Documents" 
which are copies of the "originals in the ar- 
chives of the department of the marin/e and the 
colonies in the archives of the department of 
war, and in the Royal library of Paris." 

nin passant it may be as well to note the fact 
that there appears to be good authority for the 
statement that the society before which Judge 
Law delivered this discourse in 1839 had in the 
early part of the nineteenth century fixed the 
date 1680 as that of the first French settlement 
here. Onl what they based their conclusions is 
not known at the present day. 

Judge Law sees no reason to doubt that the 
post mentioned in Father Marest's letter was 
the one afterwards variously known as "Au 
Post," "The Post," and "Post Vincennes." 

The statement is made in the 'History of In- 
diana" previously referred to, published by au- 
thority of Congress, that "after La Motte Cad- 
illac founded a permanent settlement at Detroit, 
and about the close of 1702, Sieur Juchereau, a 
Canadian officer, assisted by the Missionary 
Mermet, made an attempt to establish a post 
on the Ohio, near the mouth of that river; or 
according to some on the Wabash at the site 
which is now occupied by Vincentnes." Two 
anecdotes are there related as told by Father 
Mermet in connection with this settlement, 
which Judge Law connects with his later date 
of 1710. One of these related to a religious 
controversy with the medicine men of the In- 
dian village: the other to an epidemic malady 
of malignant type from which the Indians suf- 
fered and with which neither the "Big Medi- 
cine's" sorcery nor the good priest's knowledge 
was able to cope. In their extremity the poor, 
ignorant red men determined on an effort to ap- 
pease the evil spirit by a great sacrifice of 

dogs. The rest is told in Bishop Brute's lan- 

"Forty of these poor animals, innocent as 
they were of the cause of the epidemic, were 
immolated, and carried on poles in solemn pro- 
cession around the fort While the procession 
was moving, the jugglers were uttering excla- 
mations, which as recorded by Father Mermet 
were as follows: 'Manitou of the French, do 
not kill us all! Softly, softly then! Do not 
strike too hard. Spare us ere we all die.' 
Then turning to the father (Mermet) they 
would say 'O, Manitou, truly thou hast life and 
death in thy sack. Keep in death and give out 
life.' " It is added that "the Indians soon 
moved away from the place of mortality, Mer- 
met retired to the village of Kaskaskia, and 
the Sieur Juchereau abandoned the sickly post. 

In the narrative last referred to it is stated 
that the total French population within the 
province from Lake Michigan to the Gulf of 
Mexico did not exceed four hunldred in 1713, 
three years" after the date fixed by Judge Law 
for the settlement of Vincennes, from which we 
may infer that at all events the population of 
Vincennes must have been exceedingly limited. 

But we find another bit of evidence in favor 
of the date 1762 for the settlement at the "Old 
Post," in the petition of the French inhabitants 
thereof to General Gage in 1772, in which they 
allege, in response to a proclamation previously 
issued by General Gage, commanding them "to 
retire, at their choice, into some one of the 
colonies of his majesty, where they will be re- 
ceived and treated as the other subjects of his 
majesty." They claim in their petition that 
they hold their lands by "sacred titles;" that 
the French settlement at this place was of 
'seventy years' standing," and that their lands 
had been granted by order and under protec- 
tion of "his most Christian Majesty," the King 
of France. To this petition Gen. Gage trans- 
mitted the following reply: 

"New York, April 2d, 1773. 

"Gentlemen: I have received your letter of 
the 14th of September last, with the representa- 
tions annexed, which I intend to cause in a 
few days to be transmitted to the fleet of his 

"As you claim your possession by sacred ti- 
tles, insinuating that your settlement is of 
seventy years' standing, and that the lands 
have been granted by order and under protec- 
tion of his most Christian Majesty, it is nee- 


essary that His Majesty should be informed 
very particularly on these points: and it is> im- 














portant to you to giye con- 
vincing proofs of all that 
you allege in this respect. 

"To this end I have to de- 
mand, without delay, the 
name of every inhabitant at 
Yincennes and its neighbor- 
hood, and by what title each 
one claims; if it is by con- 
cession, the year of the con- 
cession must be added, as 
the name of the officer who 
made it, and the name of the 
governor-general who ap- 
proved and confirmed it 
with (illegible word, probab- 
ly "page" or "number";) also 
of the records where each 
concession shall have been 
registered. That the report 
which I expect may be bet- 
ter understood, I annex here- 
to a form, which I beg you 
to follow exactly, and to put 
me as early as possible in a 
position to push forward 
your business. 
I am, Gentlemen, 

Your most humble, 
And obedient servant, 

"Mr. de St. Marie, and the 
other inhabitants settled at 
Post Vincenues." 

It is worthy of remark! 
that the seventy years' ten- 
ure of lands at the 
Post" would carry these pe- 
titioners back exactly to the 
date alleged in the history of 
Indiana, heretofore referred 
to as that of the arrival of 
Sieur Juchereau and his fol- 
lowers, with Father Merniet 

Father Merniet subse- 
quently died at Kaskas- 
kia, but whether he ever 
returned to Viucennes 

we are not told. 
On the subject of the date of settlement it 



may be further said the Count de Volney, who 
was here in 1796, and who talked with many 
of the old settlers, gives it as his opinion that 
the settlement was made in 1735. The facts 
and circumstances before related, however, 
render it altogether probable his estimate is 
too conservative and that the correct date is 
many years prior. 



The noble fortitude, perseverance and endur- 
ance exhibited by these learned missionaries 
of the Jesuit order are worthy the admiration 
of the world, and did more, perhaps, toward 
conquering the wilderness, so far as it was 
done by the French than all other agenteies. No 
other nation had so litle trouble with the In- 
dians as the French and we can readily believe 
the Christly deportment, unselfish devotion to 
the relief of suffering, exhibited by their de- 
voted priesthood, did more than all other agen- 
cies to produce that happy state of affairs. 

As throwing some light on their labors anld 
the manner in which they gained so great an 
-ascendancy over the natives we quote below 
from a letter written from Kaskaskia, by Fath- 
er Marest, giving an account of a journey 
through the wilderness. He thus describes the 
character of the country over which he trav- 
eled in making a journey from Kaskaskia to 
Michilimackinac: "We have marched," says 
the Rev. Father, "twelve days without meet- 
ing a single human creature. Sometimes we 
found ourselves in vast prairies of which we 
could not see the boundaries through which 
there flowed many brooks and rivers, but with- 
out any path to conduct us. Sometimes we 
were obliged to open a path through thick for- 
ests, through bushes and underwood filled with 
briars and thorns. Sometimes we had to pass 
through deep marshes in) which we sank up to 
the middle. After being fatigued through the 
day we had the earth for our bed or a few 
leaves exposed to the wind, the rain, and all 
the injuries of the air." 

Writing of the customary religious exercises 
at Kaskaskia. Father Marest says: "The fol- 
lowing is the order we observe each day in 
our mission: Early in the morning we assem- 
ble the catechumens at the church, where they 
have prayers; they receive instruction and 
chant some canticles. When they have retired, 
mass is said, at which all the Christians as- 

sist, the men placed on one side and the wom- 
en on the other; then they have prayers, which 
are followed by giving them a homily; after 
which each one goes to his labor. We then 
spend our time in visiting the sick to give them 
the necessary remedies, to instruct them, and 
to console those who are laboring under any 
affliction.. After noon the cathechising is held, 
at which all are present, Christians and 
catechumens, men and children, younig and old, 
and where each, without distinction of rank or 
age, answers the questions put by the mission- 
ary. As the people have no books and are nat- 
urally indolent, they would shortly forget the 
principles of religion! if the remembrance of 
them were not recalled by these almost con- 
tinual instructions. In the evening all assem- 
ble again at the church to listen to the instruc- 
tions which are given, to hear prayers and to 
sing praise hymns. * * * These hymns are 
their best insti uctions, which they retain more 
easily, since the word's are set to airs with 
which they are familiar and which they like." 

Could anything be more calculated to gain 
and retain an ascendancy over any people than 
such a course of instruction and such devotion 
and service to the sick and suffering? Is it 
any wonder' that wherever the Jesuit mission- 
ary went there was for the most part a friendly 
greeting and that he gained this not only for 
himself but for his associates and followers? 

But if the picture painted by the Count de 
Volney in 1796 of the conditions prevailing at 
Vincennes on the occasion of his visit of that 
date be a true one the vigilance of the priest- 
hood hereabout must have been somwhat re- 
laxed. Mr. Volney says: "My stay at Vin- 
cennes afforded me some knowledge of the In- 
dians who were assembled to barter away the 
produce of their red hunt. There were four 
or five hundred of them, men, women) and 
children, of various tribes, as the Weas, Peor- 
ias, Sawkies, Peankeshaws and Miamis. The 
men and women roamed all day about the 
town merely to get rum; for which they eager- 
ly exchanged their peltry, their toys, their 
clothes, and at length, when they had parted 
with their all, they offered their prayers and 
entreaties never ceasing to drink rill they had 
lost their senses." 

It should be remembered, however, that this 
was long after the conquest of the country by 
George Rogers Clark, and in the meantime 
there had come into the vicinity many traders 



of English extraction over whom and whose 
dealings with the natives the Jesuit mission- 
aries could have no control. A further rea- 
son/ for the more abundant flow of rum Is 
found in the fact that communication with the 
settlements was at this time far easier than in 
the time of Fr. Marest.. A few years later, in 

Photo by Ttnvnsley. 

Jesuitical priesthood certainly render it prob- 
able that it is possible even at this day to find 
the facts. We are, however, compelled at the 
present to content oneselves with conjecture as 
to the lapse of a quarter of century or more 
until the year 1749 when the first entry appears 
in the records of St. Francis Xavier Cathedral. 


1805, Governor Harrison, in a letter addressed 
to Governor Tiffin, of Ohio, said: "The dread- 
ful effects which have beem produced among 
our Indian neighbors by the immense quanti- 
ties of ardent spirits which have been poured 
in upon them by our citizens, have long been 
known and lamented by every fiiend of hu- 

But these digressions find us far ahead of 
our story. Let us return to the early years of 
the eighteenth century. They give us little but 
conjecture it is true, but we are safe in sur- 
mising that the Piankeshaw villages in the vi- 
cinity of Vincennes were not strangers to the 
zealous priests whose labors were begun al- 
most with the dawns of the century and that if 
we know nothing of the events of that period 
it is probably due to the fact that the archives 
of the order in France have not been searched 
by a competent historian sufficiently interested 
to delve so deep as would be required. The 
thorough system of reports required of the 

It was made by Father Meurin, who appears to 
have arrived here at that date. We are told 
that in the course of the next year, 1700, a 
small fort was built and that the white popu- 
lation was considerably increased in the course 
of the years 1754-55-56 by the arrival of immi- 
grants from Kaskaskia, Detroit, Canada amd 
New Orleans. 

It will be remembered that it was in the last 
year mentioned, 1854, that war was precipitated 
between France and England, known in Eng- 
lish history as the French and Indiani war. 
Washington leading a force against Fort Du 
Quesne suffered his first disaster, at Fort Ne- 
cessity, Great Meadows, being compelled to 
capitulate to De Villiers, the French command- 
ant, who generously permitted his little army 
to retire toward the English settlements. This 
war resulted in victory for the English arms 
and the cession of Canada and the territory 
westward to the Mississippi, to England, by 
"( treaty of 1763. * 

Felix Bouchie, who died in Vincennes at an advanced age, in 1897, related an experience his grand- 
father, Vetal Bouchie, had with the Indians during this war. He came to Vincennes from Canada in 1760. 
Young Bouchie, who was a man of herculean proportions, applied to Mrs. Cardinal, a widow, for work, 
and was engaged to assist in mowing a meadow south of town, in the vicinity of the elevation known 
as "Bunker Hill." While at work in company with another white man and two negro slaves, they 
were set upon by a party of Indians, who had approached by the well known stratagem of moving 
bushes held in front of them. At the moment of the discovery of the Indians, who had taken the precau- 




The first official act affecting the repose of the 
French settlement was a proclamation issued 
by General Gage in 1772 which read as follows: 

'By his Excellency, Thomas Gage, Lieutenant 
General of the King's armies, colonel of the 
twenty-second regiment, general commanding 
in chief all the forces of his majesty in North 
America, etc., etc., etc., 

'Whereas, many persons, contrary to the posi- 
tive orders of the King upon the subject, have 
undertaken to make settlements beyond the 
boundaries fixed by the treaties made with the 
Indian nations, which boundaries ought to 
serve as a barrier between) the whites and the 
said nations; and a great number of persons 
have established themselves, particularly on 
the Ouabache, where they lead a Wandering 
life, without government and without laws, in- 
terrupting the free course of trade, destroy- 
ing the game anid causing infinite disturbance 
in the country, which occasions considerable 
injury to the affairs of the King, as well as to 
those of the Indians his majesty has been 
pleased t:> order, and by these presents orders 
are giver* in the name of the King, to all who 
have established themselves on the lands upon 
the Ouabache, whether at St. Vincent or else- 
where, tD quit those countries without delay, 
and to retire at their choice, into some one of 
the colonies of bis majesty, where they will be 
received and treated as the other subjects of 
his majesty. Done and given at headquarters, 
New York. Signed with our hand, sealed with 
our seal at arms, and countersigned by our 
secretary, this 8th of .April, 1772. By order of 
the King. 

"By His Excellency, G. Maturin, Sec." 

It was this proclamation which drew forth 

the protest and petition from the inhabitants 
of Vincennes, to which reference was made 
above, in which they claimed a seventy years' 
tenure of their lands at "Old Post." 

The ostensible grounds upon which this or- 
der of Gen. Gage was issued were by nto means 
the real reason for its promulgation. It was in 
pursurance of a policy inaugurated in 1763, by 
a proclamation from King George, which for- 
bade his subjects from making any purchases 
or settlements whatever, or taking possession 
of any of the lands "beyond the sources of any 
of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean 
from the west or northwest," and at the sug- 
gestion of the "English Board of Trad* and 
Plantations," the British government took 
measures to confine the English settlements in 
America to such a distance from the seacoast 
as that those settlements should be within the 
reach of the trade and commerce of Great 
Britain." In line with this policy the govern- 
ment rejected the propositions of various per- 
sons and companies who desired to establ'sh 
colonies in the west. 

The jealousy of the English people and gov- 
ernment of their colonies was already mani- 
festing itself in various oppressive policies and 
measures designed to repress their growth and 
confine the benefits of their commerce to the 
English people. The nuclei furnished by the 
French settlements within the imhibited terri- 
tory provided a potent attraction to enterpris- 
ing Englishmen and Americans to lead them in- 
to infractions of the English policy, hence the 
determination) to remove the French population. 
No doubt the policy thus inaugurated would 
have been carried out and the "Old Post" and 
other French settlements depopulated but for 
the fact that the events supervening gave the 
English government all it could attend to and 
more in the eastern section of its domain. 

tion to get between them and the village, the Indians rushed upon them. The negroes escaped by taking 
to the swamp: the other white man was killed and Bouchie captured after a brave resistance, which 
resulted in his being beaten into insensibility. He was carried south, and when he recovered conscious- 
ness was many miles away and on the west side of the Wabash. After several days march, during which 
he was greatly maltreated', they reached an Indian village, where he became the special charge of aj 
old squaw. He took pains to placate her and she soon became attached to him. Finally she came to Mm 
one night with the announcement that the Indians in council had determined that he must die, and 
token of it had buried their tomahawks in a tree. She bade him follow her and led the way 'to a 
thicket, where she concealed him and where she promised to feed him. At dusk the next day she ap- 
peared with the news that a white man had come to the camp and wanted to buy him. He returned 
with her to camp to find a French trader on his way to Fort Mobile. He was duly delivered to the 
trader, who later told him that he was on friendly terms with the Indians, and seeing their tomahawks 
buried in the tree rightly interpreted the circumstance to mean that a white man was to be killed and 
had determined to secure his release. This he had done at a cost of thirty horses. He conducted 
Bouchie into the vicinity of an English fort and then disappeared. Bouchie was arrested as a spy by the 
English and kept in confinement until the fort later fell into the hands of the French, when he made 
his way back to Vincennes and married Mrs. Cardinal's daughter, residing here till his death, leaving 
numero'us respectable descendants. I 








Croghan's Journal is authority for the state- 
ment that "in 1765 the total number of French 
families within the limits of the Northwestern 
territory (comprising the settlements about De- 
troit, those near the Wabash and the colony in 
the neighborhood of Fort Chartres), did mot 

probably exceed six hundred. Of these fami- 
lies about eighty or ninety resided at Post Vin- 

Pursuant to a policy of conciliation adopted 
toward its Canadian subjects with a view to 
the approaching colonial troubles, and in re- 



sponse to a memorial presented by the inhabi- 
tants of Quebec, the government of that colony 
was made commensurate with its former boun- 
daries under the French regime. This included 
"all the upper countries, known under the 
names of Michilimackinac, Detroit, and other 
adjacent places as far as the Mississippi." And 
thus the inhabitants of Vincennes again passed 
under the government of the French (now ow- 
ing allegiance to Great Britain) colony of Que- 
bec. By an act of parliament, passed in 1774, 
the British government guaranteed the French 
inhabitants "the free exercise of their religion 
and to the Catholic clergy those rigthts which 
were agreeable to the articles of capitulation 
at the time of the surrender of Canada and its 
dependencies." The same act of parliament 
removed from the French inhabitants the ob- 
ligation of trial by jury in civil cases, to which 
they exhibited a great antipathy. 

Tthis act was viewed with alarm and jealousy 
by the English colonists, who saw in it an ef- 
fort to enlist the sympathies of the French sub- 
jects of Great Britain in behalf of that country 
in the event of war. And in fact their estimate 
of its design and effect were by no means with- 
out foundation, as the French colonists, in the 
early days of the war, ardently supported the 
British government, and we are told that "at 
the French settlements northwest of the Ohio 
Indian war parties were often supplied with 
arms and ammunition and sent to assail the 
western frontiers of the English colonies." 

In 1775, Louis Viviat, a merchant of the Illi- 
nois country, began negotiations with the Pian- 
keshaw Indians for the purchase of two large 
tracts of land lying on both side of the Wa- 
bash, one north of Vincennes and reaching as 
far south as "Point Coupee (about twelve 
leagues above Post St. "Vincent," the other from 
the "mouth of White river, where it empties it- 
self Into the Wabash (about twelve leagues be- 
low Post St. Vincent), then down the Ouabache 
river, by the several courses thereof, until it 
empties itself into the Ohio river/' These two 
tracts were to extend on the Illinois side of the 
river thirty leagues back and on the Indiana 
side forty leagues "(the intedmediate space of 
twemty-four leagues, or thereabouts, between 
point Coupee and the mouth of the "White river 
aforesaid, being reserved for the use of the in- 
habitants of Post St. Vincent aforesaid, with 
the same width or breadth on both sides of the 
Ouabache river, as is hereby granted in the 

two other several tracts of land above bound- 
ed and described.)" 

The negotiations conducted by Viviat were 
on behalf of an association) called the "Wabash 
Land Co.," and were conducted with eleven 
Piankeshaw chiefs. A deed conveying this im- 
mense and wealthy domain was eventually exe- 
cuted and delivered, in consideration of "Four 
hundred blankets, twenty-two pieces Stroud, 
two hundred and fifty shirts, twelve gross of 
star gartering, one hundred and twenty pieces 
of ribbon, twenty-four pounds of vermillion, 
eighteen pairs of velvet housings, one piece of 
malton, fifty-two fusils, thirty-five dozen buck- 
horn-handle knives, forty dozen couteau knives, 
five hundred pounds of brass kettles, ten thous- 
and gun flints, six hundred pounds of gun pow- 
der, two thousand pounds of lead, four hun- 
dred pounds of tobacco, forty bushels of salt, 
three thousand pounds of flour, three horses; 
also the following quantities of silver ware, 
viz: Eleven very large armands, forty wrist- 
bands, six wholemoons, six half moons, nine 
ear wheels, forty-six large crosses, twenty-nine 
hairpipes, sixty pairs of earbobs, twenty dozen 
small crosses, twenty dozen nosecrosses and 
one hundred and tem doz-en brooches, the re- 
ceipt whtreof is hereby acknowledged," etc. 
The lands which this deed purported to convey 
for this trifling consideration amounted to no 
less than 37,497,600 acres and worth to-day, at 
a conservative estimate, leaving out of consider- 
ation city and town valuations, $1,200,000,000. 
The approach of hostilities between the colo- 
nists and Great Britain soon after distracted 
the attention) of the people from all matters of 
this character and it was not until the year 1780 
that further steps were taken in reference to 
this grant. In that year the Wabasn Land 
Company and the Illinois Land Company, an 
association that had in a similar manner at- 
tempted to grab large holdings in the Illinois 
country, consolidated their interests under the 
name of the "United Illinois and Wabash Land 
Companies," and sought a confirmation of their 
several grants at the hands of congress. TheL' 
petitions were denied but they kept up the fight 
for thirty years, until 1810; to no purpose, how- 
ever, as congress refused to acknowledge the 
validity and binding force of the grants. 

In the month of May, 1777, in response to a 
proclamation from Edward J. Abbott, British 
commandant many of the inhabitants of Post 
Vincennes took the oath of allegiance to Great 



Britain. The oath taken was that prescribed 
by the British parliament and is as follows: 

"I, A. B., do sincerely promise and swear 
true allegiance to His Majesty, King George, 
and him will defend to the utmost of my power, 
against all traitorous conspiracies, and attempts 
whatsoever, which shall be made against his 
person, crown or dignity; and I will do my ut- 
most endeavors to disclose and make known 
to his Majesty, his heirs and successors, all 
treasons and traitorous conspiracies and at- 
tempts, which I shall know to be against him 
or any of them; and all this I do swear with- 
out any equivocation, mental evasion or secret 
reservation; and renouncing all pardons and 
dispensations from any power or person to the 
contrary. So help me God." 

It was about this time that Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor Hamilton began to send from Detroit 
messages and proclamations to the various 
French trading posts within the territory north- 
west of the Ohio river as well as to the various 
Indian villages within the same territory, de- 
signed to incite a border warfare against the 
frontier settlers in Kentucky, Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania. In these proclamations Governor 
Hamilton offered rewards for scalps and gave 
no encouragement to the Indians to bring in 
prisoners. Hence, it often happened the In- 
dians would take prisoners on their forays 
and compel them to carry the plunder they 
stole into the vicinity of the English post and 
then tomahawk and scalp them in order to 
claim the hellish reward. 



In the spring and summer of 1778 was or- 
ganized, chiefly in Kentucky, an expedition 
fraught with the most important consequences 


From an OifPainfing in Vincennes University Chapel. 

to the country northwest of the Ohio, and in- 
deed to the entire country in rebellion, and hav- 
ing its culmination in the capture of Vin- 
cennes by a small band of hardy frontiersmen, 
after incredible suffering and hardship, under 
the leadership of the gallant and daring Col. 
George Rogers Clark.* 

George Rogers Clark, a young man of 
only 25 years, conceived the daring en- 
terprise of marching through the wilder- 
ness to Kaskaskia and Vincennes and captur- 
ing those posts from the British, who he knew 
to be responsible for the depredations from 
which the frontier settlements had suffered so 
greatly. Securing authority from Governor 

*George Rogers Clark, the hero of this expedition, on whose valiant deeds rested the demands of 
of the Americans for the cession of the territory northwest of the Ohio, comprising the States of Illi- 
nois, Indiana and Michigan , was born in Albemarle County. Va., November 19, 1752. His middle name 
was his mother's patronymic. He was of prominent family on both sides of the house, both the Clarks 
and the Rogerses being people of wealth and influence. Several on both sides gained distinction in the 
revolutionary war. One brother of George Rogers became a lieutenant colonel in the Continental armies. 
The birthplace of George Rogers Clark was two miles east of Charlottsville, and one and a half miles 
from Monticello, the home of Jefferson in later life, and two and a half miles northeast of Shadwell, 
where Jefferson was born. They were doubtless playmates in boyhood, and certain it is that in later 
life Jefferson retained the strongest attachment and friendship for Clark. Like the Father of his Coun- 
try, young Clark became a surveyor, and in 1771, at 'the age of nineteen years, crossed the mountains for 
the purpose of following his vocation and also with a view to locating some lands for himself. He lo- 
cated a claim In Ohio, twenty-five or thirty miles below the present site of Wheeling, and spent sev- 
eral years In its vicinity, making occasional visits home, carrying glowing accounts of the country, 
which did much to induce immigration thither. Unconsciously he was fitting himself for the brilliant 
career that was in store for him. The situation of the settlers In this part of the territory was very un- 
satisfactory, owing to a doubt which existed as to whether or not they owed allegiance to, and were en- 
titled to the protection of, the State of Virginia. To settle this point Clark, in 1776. agitated the ques- 
tion and called a meeting at Harrodsburg. Ky. Clark was elected as one of two delegates to represent 
the settlements in the Virginia House of Delegates. This was not exactly what Clark had had in mind, 
but he determined to accept. The journey to Williamsburg. then capital of Virginia, began shortly after- 



Patrick Henry, of Virginia, to organize a force 
and proceed according to bis proposed plan 
Clark proceeded to Kentucky and began to re- 
cruit bis force, leaving arrangements for a part 
of his proposed army of 350 to be recruited 
in Virginia. Almost every conceivable obstacle 
presented itself to prevent realization of his 
hopes. Of the four companies he expected from 
Virginia but one arrived. On learning to what 
region they were bound these deserted, almost 
to a man. So that when he got ready to start 
he could muster less than half the proposed 
number. Nothing daunted, however, and with 
a merve and determination such as mark the 
truly great commander, he struck into the wil- 
derness, headed for Kaskaskia. 

Limitations of space forbid our giving an 
account of the march of Col. Clark to Kas- 
kaskia and its easy capture, 'however in- 
teresting it would prove. It must suffice to 
say that departing on the 24th of June, 1778, 
he passed from Louisville down the Ohio 
river, leavinig it at a point a short distance 
above Fort Messac, which stood near the pres- 
ent little city of Metropolis, 111.; that he se- 
cured guides and made an uneventful march 
across the country, arriving at Kaskaskia on 
the evening of the Fourth of July, and by 

great tract and address succeeded in getting his 
men over the river and taking the British gar- 
rison by surprise, while the inmates were 
asleep. Quickly every resident of the town 
was disarmed and precautions taken to pre- 
vent an alarm being sent to neighboring vil- 
lages, should the people of Kaskaskia be so 

With a great display of severity, Clark threw 
a few of the leading citizens of the town into 
irons and made threats of dire vengeance 
against them should the people transgress his 
regulations or show a disposition to aid the 
English in any manner, and after he had, as 
he conceived, worked them up to a feeling of 
distress and fear sufficient for his purposes, he 
appeared to relent, on the discovery that their 
unfriendliness was due to false allegations and 
misrepresentations on the part of the English. 
He thus surprised them and gained their con- 
fidence in a degree that amounted to enthusi- 
asm. This served materially to strengthen his 
hands in his approaching campaign against 
Vincennes, as we shall see from his own ac- 
count. The arrests were made on the morning 
of the fifth of July.. Soon afterwards M. 
Gibault, the village priest, accompanied by five 
or six of his aged parishioners, appeared be- 

ward, in company with his colleague. It led through rough and sparsely settled country, full of hostile 
Indians. They arrived in November, to find the Legislature adjourned. Clark's colleague returned home 
immediately, but Clark, determined to accomplish something toward the end for which he had come to the 
capital, called upon the Governor, Patrick Henry. Governor Henry, though sick, received him graciously 
and gave him an attentive hearing. Among the things Clark demanded was 500 pounds of gunpowder. 
The Governor gave him a letter to the Executive Council, from whom he at first received a denial. By 
a skillful combination of threats and diplomacy he finally carried his point and had the satisfaction of 
delivering to his harrassed countrymen the powder they so much needed. At this time, though not 
twenty-five years of age, Clark had already acquired so strong a hold upon the confidence, respect and 
affections of the people of Kentucky that they looked to him as their natural leader in all matters of 
public concern. 

Clark and his colleague attended the next session of the Virginia Legislature, and, though denied seats 
as members of that body, they were permitted to lay their business before it and succeeded in getting 
their settlement erected" into the County of Kentucky. Clark early discovered that the troubles of the fron- 
tier colonists were largely due to the commandants of the British posts in Illinois and Indiana, and de- 
termined on their reduction, but kept his plans to himself. In the summer of 1777 he had sent two young 
hunters as spies, with specific Instructions, to Kaskaskia, to learn the strength of the garrison and such 
other information as would be of value, but without Imparting to them his designs. The information re- 
ceived was most satisfactory and made Clark all the more anxious to undertake the enterprise. While 
In attendance on the Legislature, in 1777. he used his eyes and ears to the best advantage aud finally, 
at an opportune moment, laid his plans before Governor Henry. The latter was pleased with the 
Idea and brought Clark's plan to the attention of the Council, where it was so warmly received that he 
had little trouble In getting matters adjusted, and on the second day of January, 1778, he received his 
"instructions, 1,200 Virginia paper currency, and an order on Pittsburg for boats, ammunition, etc." 

After the events 'related in this narrative relative to the expedition against Kaskaskia and Vin- 
cennes. Clark did further honorable service to his country, but seems to have been the subject of bitter 
animosity and to have been frequently misunderstood and misrepresented, and It is a grief to relate that 
he died at the home of a sister near Louisville, deprived of the rights his services to Virginia and 
the whole country sholud have made them glad to grant him. Moneys withheld from him for many years 
when he was a feeble, impoverished old man, were paid his heirs after his death. Retiring to a cabin 
on his grant of lands north of the Ohio, near Louisville, In the platted town of Clarksville, he lived alone 
for many years, save for occasional visits of old friends. Here, ft is pitiable to relate, he fell into habits 
of great dissipation, and here when alone one day about the year 1808, he suffered a stroke of paralysis 
and fell so near the fire that his left leg was burned to such an extent as to render its amputation 
necessary. Though he lived for ten years after that date, he never walked again. His left leg gone 
and his right one paralyzed, he was a helpless cripple. He was taken to the home of his sister, wife of 
Major Craghan, near Louisville, where he spent the remainder of his life, dying February 13, 1818. It 
is related that on the occasion of the amputation of his leg, anaesthetics being unknown, at the re- 
quest of Clark music on drums and fifes was played, to which Clark kept time. When the music 
ceased he asked, "Well, is it off?" having apparently been unconscious of the operation. 



Photo by Shores. 

VINCENNES ON A CIRCUS DAY. 3 Views at 2d and Main 

fore Col. ' Clark and 
stated that as the in- 
habitants expected to 
be separated, perhaps 
never to meet again, it 
was their desire that 
habitants expected to be 
meet at their church 
and bid each other fare- 
well. Disclaiming any 
desire or intention to in- 
terfere in any manner 
with their religion or 
worship. Clark gave 
the permission sought, 
but warned them not to 
attempt to leave the vil- 
lage. At the close of 
the meeting a deputa- 
tion headed by the 
good priests again 
waited upon Col. Clark. 
They stated that "their 
present situation was 
the fate of war, and 
that they could submit 
to the loss of their prop- 
erty, but they solicited 
that they might not be 
separated from their 
wives and children, and 
that some clothes and 
provisions might be al- 
lowed for their sup- 
port." Feigning great 
surprise at this prayer 
of the affrighted popu- 
lace, Clark exclaimed, 
as he says in his me- 
morial: "Do you mis- 
take us for savages? I 
am almost certain you 
do from your language. 
Do you think Ameri- 
cans intend to strip 
women and children 
and take the bread 
out of their mouths T' 
"My countrymen," con- 
tinued he, "disdain to 
make war on helpless 
innocence. It was 
to prevent the hor- 
rors of Indian butch- 



ery upon our wives and children that we have 
taken arms and penetrated into this remote 
stronghold of British and Indiani barbarity, and 
not the despicable prospect of plunder. Now 
that the King of France had united his power- 
ful armies with those of America, the war 
would not, in all probability, continue long, but 
the inhabitants of Kaskaskia were at liberty 
to take which side they pleased, without the 
least danger to either their property or their 
families. Nor would their religion be any 
source of disagreement, as all religions were 
regarded with equal respect in the eye of the 
American law, and that any insult offered it 
would be immediately punished. And now, to 
prove my sincerity, you will please inform your 
fellow citizens that they are quite at liberty 
to conduct themselves as usual, without the 
least apprehension. I am mow convinced, from 
what I have learned since my arrival among 
you. that you have been misinformed and pre- 
judiced against us by the British officers; and 
your friends who are in confinement shall be 
immediately released." The result of this 
stroke of policy on) the part of the brilliant 
young officer was electric. The gloom that 
had overspread the village was dissipated in an 
instant; the news of the Franco- American 
treaty, added to Clark's magnanimous conduct, 
induced the imhabitants quickly to take the 
oath of allegiance to the State of Virginia. 
Their arms were restored to them and a volun- 
teer company of French militia was immedi- 
ately placed at Clark's disposal and accom- 
panied Captain Bowman when he marched to 
the capture of Cahokia. 



"Post Vincennes never being out of my 
mind," says Clark, "and from some things that 
I had learned, I had some reason to suspect 
that M.. Gibault, the priest, was inclined to the 
American interest previous to our arrival in 
the country. He had great influence over the 
people at this period, and Post Vincennes was 
under his jurisdiction. I made no doxibt of his 
integrity to us. I sent for him und had a long 
conference with him on the subject of Post 
Vincennes. In answer to all my queries, he 
informed me that he did mot think it worth my 
while to cause any military preparation to be 
made at the Falls of the Ohio for the attack 

of Post Vincennes, although the place was 
strong, and a great number of Indians in its 
neighborhood, who, to his knowledge, were 
generally at war that Governor Abbott had, 
a few weeks before, left the place on some 
business to Detroit that he expected that 
whem the inhabitants were fully acquainted 
with what 'had passed at the Illinois, and the 
present happiness of their friends, and made 
fully acquainted with the nature of the war, 
that their sentiments would greatly change 
that he knew that his appearance there would 
have great weight, even among the savages 
that if it was agreeable to me he would take 
this business on himself, and had no doubt of 
his being able to bring that place over to the 
American interest without my being at the 
trouble of marching against it that his busi- 
ness being altogether spiritual, he wished that 
another person might be charged with the 
temporal part of the embassy, but that he 
would privately direct the whole; and he named 
Doctor Lafont as his associate. 

"This was perfectly agreeable to what I had 
been secretly aimimg at for some days. The 
plan was immediately settled, and the two 
doctors, with their intended retinue, among 
whom I had a spy, set about preparing for 
their journey and set out on the 14th of July, 
with an address to the inhabitants of Post 
Vincenes, authorizing them to garrison their 
own town themselves, which would convince 
them of the great confidence we put- in them, 
etc. All this had its desired effect. Mr. 
Gibault and his party arrived safe, and, after 
spending a day or two in explaining matters 
to the people, they universally acceded to the 
proposal, (except a few emissaries left by Mr. 
Abbott, who immediately left the country), 
and went in a body to the church, where the 
oath of allegiance was administered to them in 
the most solemn manner. An officer was elect- 
ed, the fort immediately garrisoned, and the 
American flag displayed, to the astonishment 
of the Indians, and everything settled far be- 
yond our most sanguine hopes. The people 
here began to put on a new face, and to talk 
in a different style, and to act as perfect free- 
men. With a garrison of their own, with the 
United States at their elbow, their language 
to the Indians was immediately altered. They 
began as citizens of the United States, and in- 
formed the Indians that their old father, the 
King of France, was come to life again, an<7 



was mad at them for fighting for the English, 
that they would advise them to make peace 
with the Americans as soon as they could, 
otherwise they might expect the land to be 
very bloody, etc. The Indians began to think 
seriously. Throughout the country this was 
generally the language they got from their an- 
cient friends of the Wabasli and Illinois. 

"Through the means of their correspondence 
spreading among the nations, our batteries be- 
gan now to play in a proper channel. Mr. Gi- 
bault and party, accompanied by several gentle- 
men of Post Vincennes, returned to Kaskaskia, 

POST OFFICE. Rural Carriers Ready to Start 

about the first of August, with the joyful news. 
During his absence on this business, which 
caused great anxiety in me, (for without the 
possession of the post all our views would 
have been blasted), I was exceedingly engag- 
ed in regulating things in the Illinois. The re- 
duction of these posts was the period of the 
enlistment of our troops. I was nt a great loss 
at this time to determine how to act, and how 
far I might venture to strain my authority. My 
instructions were silent on many important 
points, as it was impossible to fors'ee the 
events that would take place. 

"To abandon the country, and all the prospects 
that opened to our view in the Indian depart- 

ment at this tUne, for the want of instruction 
in certain cases, I thought, would amount to a 
reflection on government, as having no confi- 
dence in me. I resolved to usurp all the author- 
ity necessary to carry my points. I had the 
greater part of our (troop) re-enlisted on a dif- 
ferent establishment commissioned French of- 
ficers in the country to command a company of 
the young inhabitants; established a garrison 
at Cahokia, commanded by Captain Bowman; 
and another at Kaskaskia, commanded by Cap- 
tain Williams. Post Vincennes remained in the 
situation as mentioned. 

"Col. William 
Linn, who had ac- 
companied us a 
volunteer, took 
charge of a party 
that was to be 
dis c h a r g e d on 
their arrival at 
the Falls, and or- 
ders were sent 
for the removal 
of that post to 
the mainland. 
Captain John 
Montgomery was 
dispatched to 
government with 
letters. * * * I 
again turned my 
attention to Post 
Vincennes. I 
plainly saw that 
It would be high- 
ly necessary, to 
have an Ameri- 
can o tH c e r at 

that post. Captain Leonard Helm appeared 
calculated to answer my purpose; he was past 
the meridian of life, and a good deal acquainted 
with the Indian! (disposition). I sent him to 
command at that post; and also appointed him 
agent for Indiana affairs in the department of 
the Wabash. * * * About the middle of August 
he set out to take possession of his new com- 

"An Indian chief called the Tobacco's Son, a 
Piankeshaw, at this time resided in) a village 
adjoining Post Vincennes. 

"This mam was called by the Indians, 'The 
Grand Door to the Wabash;' and as nothing of 
consequence was to be undertaken by the 



league om the Wabash without his assent, I dis- 
covered that to win him was an object of sig- 
nal importance. 

"I sent him a spirited compliment by Mr. 
Gibault; he returned it. I now by Captain 
Helm, touched him on the same spring that I 
had done the inhabitants, and sent a speech 
with a belt of wampum; directing Captain 
Helm how to manage, if the chief was pacific- 
ally inclined, or otherwise. The captain arrived 
safe at Post Vincennes, and was received with 
acclamations by the people. After the usual 
ceremony was over, he sent for the Grand 
Door, and delivered my letter to him. After 
having it read, 'he informed the captain that he 
\\jas happy to see him, one of the Big Knife 
chiefs, in- this town It was here that he had 
joined the English against him; but as the 
contents of the letter was a matter of great 
moment, he could not give an answer for some 
time that he must collect his counselors on 
the subject; and was in hopes the captain 
would be patient. 

"In short, he put on all the courtly dignity that 
he was master of; and Captain Helm, following 
his example, it was several days before this 
business was finished, as the whole proceeding 
was very ceremonious. At length the captain 
was incited to the Indian council, and informed 
by the Tobacco that they had maturely con- 
sidered the case in hand, and had got the 
nature of the war between the English and us 
explained to their satisfaction; that, as we 
spoke the same language, and appeared to be 
the same people, he always thought that he 
was in the dark as to the truth of it; but now 
the sky was cleared up; that he found that the 
Big Knife was in the right: that perhaps, if the 
English conquered, they would serve them in 
the same manner they had intended to serve 
us; that his ideas were quite changed; and that 
he would tell all the people on the Wabash to 
bloody the land no more for the English. He 
jumped up, struck his breast, called himself a 
man and a warrior, said that now he was a Big 
Knife, and took Captain Helm by the hand. 
His example was followed by all present, and 
the evening was spent in merriment. Thus 
ended this valuable negotiation, and the saving 
of much blood. * * * In a short time, almost 
the whole of the various tribes of the different 
nations along the Wabash, as high as the 
Ouiatenon, came to Post Vincennes and fol- 
lowed the example of the Grand Door chief; 

and as expresses were continually passing be- 
tween Captain Helm and myself the whole 
time of these treaties, the business was settled 
to my satisfaction and greatly to the advantage 
of the public. The British interest daily lost 
ground in this quarter, and in a short time our 
influence reached the Indians on the river St. 
Joseph, and the border of Lake Michigan!. The 
French gentleman at the different posts that 
we now had possession of, engaged warmly in 
our interest. They appeared to vie with each 
other in promoting the business; and through 
the means of their correspondence, trading 
among the Indians, and otherwise, in a short 
time, the Indians of the various tribes inhabit- 
ing the region of Illinois, came in great num- 
bers to Cahokia, in order to make treaties of 
peace with us. From the information they gen- 
erally got from the French gentlemen (whom 
they implicitly believed) respecting us they 
were truly alarmed; and, consequently, we 
were visited by the greater part of them with- 
out any invitation from us: of course we had 
greatly the advantage, in making use of such 
language as suited our (interest). Those treaties 
which commenced about the last of August, 
and continued between three and foiyr weeks, 
were probably conducted in a way different 
from any other known in America at that time. 
I had been always convinced that our general 
conduct with the Indians was wrong; that in- 
viting them to treaties was considered by them 
in a different manner to what we expected, and 
imputed, by them, to fear; and that giving 
them great presents confirmed it. I resolved 
to guard against this, and I took great pains 
to make myself acquainted fully with the 
French and Spanish methods of treating In- 
dians, and with the manners, gen'ius, and dis- 
position of the Indians in general. As in this 
quarter they had not been spoiled by us, I was 
resolved that they should not be. I began the 
business fully prepared, having copies of the 
British treaties." 

At the first great council, which was opened 
at Cahokia, am Indian chief with a belt of peace 
in his hand, advanced to the table at which 
Colonel Clark was sitting; another chief, bear- 
ing the sacred pipe of the tribe, went forward 
to the table; and a third chief then advanced 
with fire to kindle the pipe. When the pipe 
was lighted it was figuratively presented to the 
heavens, then to the earth, anfl then to all the 
good spirits; thus invoking the heavens, the 



earth and all the good spirits to witness what 
was about to be done. After the observance of 
thes*e forms, the pipe was presented to Clark, 
and afterward to every person present. An 
Indian speaker then! addressed the Indians as 
follows: "Warriors, you ought to be thankful 
that the Great Spirit has taken pity on you, and 
cleared the sky and opened your ears and 
hearts, so that you may hear the truth. We 
have been deceived by bad birds flying through 
the land; but we will take up the bloody 
hatchet no more against the Big Knife; and 

existence as a nation, depended, etc., and dis- 
missed them not suffering any of our people 
to shake hands with them, as peace was not 
concluded, telling them it was time enough to 
give the hand when the heart could be given 
also. They replied that 'such sentiments were 
like men who had but onto heart, and did not 
speak with a double tongue.' The next day I 
delivered them the following speech: 'Men and 
Warriors! pay attention to my words. You in- 
formed me yesterday that the Great Spirit had 
brought us together, and that you hoped, as He 


we hope as the Great Spirit has brought us to- 
gether for good, as He is good, that we may be 
received as friends, and that the belt of peace 
may take the place of the bloody belt." 

"I informed them," says Clark, "that I had 
paid attention to what they had said; and that 
on the next day I would give them an answer, 
when I hoped the ears and hearts of the peo- 
ple would be open to receive the truth, which 
should be spoken without deception. I advised 
them to keep themselves prepared for the re- 
sult of this day, on which perhaps their very 

was good, that it would be for good. I have 
also the same hope, and expect that each party 
will strictly adhere to whatever may be agreed 
upon whether it be peace or war and hence- 
forward prove ourselves worthy the attention 
of the Great Spirit. I am a man and a war- 
rior not a counselor. I carry war in my 
riglit hand, and in my left, peace. I am sent by 
the great council of the Big Knife, and their 
friends, to take possession of all the towns pos- 
sessed by the English in this country; and to 
watch the motions of the red people; to bloody 



the paths of those who attempt to stop the 
river; but to clear the roads from us to those 
who desire to be in peace, that the women and 
children may walk in them without meeting 
anything to strike their feet against. I am or- 
dered to call upon the Great Fire for warriors 
enough to darken the land, and that the red 
people may hear no sound, but of birds who 
live on blood. I know there is a mist before 
your eyes. I will dispel the clouds, that you 
may clearly see the cause of the war between 
the Big Knife and the English; then you may 
judge for yourselves which party is in the 
right. And if you are warriors as you profess 
to be, prove it by adhering faithfully to the 
party which you shall believe to be entitled to 
your friendship, and not show yourselves to the 

"The Big Knives are very much like the Red 
People; they don't know how to make blankets, 
and powder, and cloth. They buy these things 
from the English from whom they are sprung. 
They live by making corn, hunting arid trade, 
as you and your neighbors, the French, do. 
But the Big Knives, daily getting more numer- 
ous, like the trees in the woods, the land be- 
came poor, and hunting scarce; and having but 
little to trade with, the women began to cry at 
seeing their children naked, and tried to learn 
how to make clothes for themselves. They soon 
made blankets for their husbands and children 
and tne men learned to make guns and powder. 
In this way we did not want to buy so much 
from the English. They then got mad with us 
and sent strong garrisons through our country; 
as you 'see they have done among you on the 
lakes and among the French. They would not 
let our women spin, nor oitr men make powder, 
nor let us trade with anybody else. The Eng- 
lish said we should buy everything from them; 
and, since we had got saucy, we should pay two 
bucks for a blanket, which we used to get for 
one; we should do as they pleased; and they 
killed some of our people to make the rest fear 
them. This is the truth and the real cause of 
the war between the English and us, which did 
not take place for some time after this treat- 
ment. But our women became hungry and 
cold, and continued to cry. Our young men got 
lost for want of counsel to put them in the 
right path. The whole land was dark. The old 
men held down their heads for shame, because 
they could not see the sun; and thus there was 

mourning for many years over the land. At 
last the Great Spirit took pity on us, and kin- 
dled a great council fire, that never goes out, 
at a place called Philadelphia. He then stuck 
uown a post and put a war tomahawk by it, 
and went away. The sun immediately broke 
out; the sky was blue again: and the old men 
held up their heads and assembled at the fire. 
They took up the hatchet, sharpened it, and 
put it into the hands of our young men, ordered 
them to strike the English as long as they 
could find one on this side of the great waters. 
The young men immediately struck the war 
post and blood was shed. In this way the war 
began; and the English were driven from one 
place to another until they got weak, and then 
they hired you Red People to fight for them. 
The Great Spirit got angry at this, and caused 
your old father, the French king, and other 
great nations, to join the Big Knives and fight 
with them against all their enemies. So the 
English have become like deer in the woods; 
and you may see that it is the Great Spirit that 
has caused your waters to be troubled, because 
you have fought for the people he was mad 
with. If your women and children' should now 
cry, you must blame yourselves for it and not 
the Bi^ Knives. 

"Yon can now judge who is in the right. I 
have already told you who I am. Here is a 
bloody belt and a white one; take which you 
please. Behave like men; and don't let your 
being surrounded by Big Knives, cause you to 
take up the one belt with your hands while 
your hearts take up the other. If you take the 
bloody path, you shall leave the town> in safety, 
and may go and join your friends the English. 
We \vill then try, like warriors, who can put 
the most stumbling blocks in each other's way, 
and keep our clothes longest stained with 
blood. If on the other hand you should take 
the path of peace, and be received as brothers 
to the Big Knives, with their friends, the 
French, should you them listen to bad birds 
flying through the land, you will no longer de- 
serve to be counted as men, but as creatures 
with two tongues that ought to be destroyed 
without listening to anything you might say. 
As I am convinced you never heard the truth 
before, I do not wish you to answer before you 
have taken time to counsel. We will, therefore, 
part this evening; and when the Great Spirit 
shall bring us together again, let us speak and 



think like men with but one heart and one 

"The n<ext day after this speech, a new fire 
was kindled with more than usual ceremony: 

paid great attention to what the Great Spirit 
had put into my heart to say to them. They 
believed the whole to be the truth; as the Big 
Knives did not speak like amy other people 







z < 



an Indian speaker came forward and paid, 
'they ought to be thankful that the Great 
Spirit had taken pity on them, and opened their 
ears and hearts to receive the truth.' He had 

they had ever heard. They now saw they had 
been deceived, and that the English had told 
them lies, and that I had told them the truth 
just as some of their old men had always told 



them. They now believed that we were in 
the right; and as the English had forts in their 
country, they might, if they got strong enough, 
want to serve the Red People as they had 
treated the Big Knives. The Red People ought, 
therefore, to help us; and they had with a 
cheerful heart taken up the belt of peace and 
spurned that of war. They were determined 
to iiold the former fast; and they would have 
no doubt of our friendship from the manner of 
our speaking so different from that of the 

"They would now call in their warriors and 
throw the tomahawk into the river, where it 
could never be found. They would suffer no 
more bad birds to fly through the land, dis- 
quieting the women and children. They would 
be careful to smooth the roads for their 
brothers, the Big Knives, whenever they might 
wish to come to see them. Their friends should 
hear of the good talk I had given them, and 
they hoped I would send chiefs among them, 
with my eyes, to see myself that they were 
men, and strictly adhered to all they had said 
at this great fire, which the Great Spirit had 
kindled at Cahokia, for the good of all people 
who would attend it." 

The sacred pipe was again' kindled and pre- 
sented, figuratively, to the heavens and the 
earth and to all the good spirits, as a witness 
of what they had done. The Indians and the 
white men then closed the council, by smoking 
the pipe and shaking hands. With no material 
variation either of the forras that were ob- 
served or of the speeches that were made, at 
this council, Colonel Clark and his officers con- 
cluded treaties of peace with the Piankeshaws, 
Ouiatenons, Kickapoos, Illinois, Kaskaskias, 
Peorias, and branches of some other tribes that 
inhabited the country between Lake Michigan 
and the Mississippi. 



Clark had acquainted Governor Henry with 
the happy result of his expedition against 

Kaskaskia and the other settlements in the Illi- 
nois. In view of the fact that the French in- 
habitants of Kashaskia, Cahokia and Post 
Vincennes had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the State of Virginia, the legislative assembly 
of that state, in October, 1778, passed an act 
erecting the country northwest of the Ohio into 
a county to be known as Illinois County, and 
the governor was empowered to appoint a 
county lieutenant or commander-in-chief, "dur- 
ing pleasure, who shall appoint and commission 
as many deputy commandants, militia officers 
and commissaries as he shall think proper in 
the different districts, during pleasure; all of 
whom, before they enter into office, shall take 
the oath of fidelity to this commonwealth, and 
the oath of office, according to the form of 
their own religion." Provision* was made for 
the election of all necessary civil officers by the 
inhabitants in their respective districts, for 
which purpose they should be convened by the 
county lieutenant or his deputy. 

Before the provisions of this law were carried 
into effect, Henry Hamilton, the British lieu- 
tenant-governor of Detroit, collected a force 
consisting of about thirty regulars, fifty French 
volunteers and 400 Indians and passing down 
the Wabash took possession of Post Vincennes 
on the 15th of December, 1778, the inhabitants 
of the town making no resistance and Captain 
Helm being powerless. Captain Helm was de- 
tained a prisoner and the French inhabitants 

Clark's position at Kaskaskia now became 
perilous. Detached parties of hostile Indians 
began to appear in the neighborhood of his 
forces in the Illinois. Realizing his position, he 
recalled Bowman from Cahokia to Kaskaskia, 
and began a serious consideration of measures 
to meet the exigencies of his situation. His 
memoir now continues: 

"I could see," says Clark, "but little proba- 
bility of keeping possession of the country, as 
my number of men were too small to stand a 
siege, and my situation too reniote to call for 
assistance. I made every preparation I pos- 
sibly could for the attack and was necessitated 
to set fire to some houses in town to clear them 

*Butler's History of Kentucky relates the following anecdote as to what took place at the fort: 
"When Governor Hamilton entered Vincennes there were hut two Americans there, Capt. Helm, the 
commandant ond one Henry. The latter had a cannon well charged and placed in the open gate of 
the fort, while Helm stood by with a lighted match in his hand. When Hamilton and his troops got 
within nailing distance, the American officer, in a loud voice, called out 'Halt!' This stopped the move- 
ments of Hamilton, who, in reply, demanded a surrender of the garrison. Helm exclaimed, with an 
oath. 'No man shall enter until I know the terms." Hamilton answered, 'You shall have the honors of 
war,' and then the fort was surrendered, with its garrison of one officer and one private." 



out of the way. But on the 29th of January, 
1771), in the height of the hurry, a Spanish mer- 
chant (Francis Vigo) who had been* at Post 
Vincennes, arrived and gave the following in- 
telligence: That Mr. Hamilton had weakened 
himself by sending his Indians against the 
frontiers, and to block up the Ohio; that he had 
ntt more than eighty men in garrison, three 
pieces of cannon and some swivels mounted; 
that the hostile Indians were to meet at Post 
Vincennes in the spring, drive us out of Illi- 
nois and attack the Kentucky settlements, in a 
body, joined by their southern friends; that all 
the goods were taken from the merchants of 
Post Vincennes for the king's use; that the 
troops under Hamilton were repairing the fort, 
and expected a reinforcement from Detroit in 
the spring; that they appeared to have plenty 
of all kinds of stores; that they were strict in 

'Photo by Shores. 

mediately make our way good to Kentucky we 
were convinced that before we could raise a 
force even sufficient to save that country, it 
would be too late, as all the mem in it, joined 
by the troops we had, would not be sufficient, 
and to get timely succor from the interior was 
out of the question. We saw but one alterna- 
tive, which was to attack the enemy in their 
quarters. If we were fortunate it would save 
the whole. If otherwise, it would be nothing 
more than what would certainly be the conse- 
quence if we should not make the attempt. 

"These and many other similar reasons, in- 
duced us to resolve to attempt the enterprise, 
which rnet with the approbation of every indi- 
vidual belonging to us. 

"Orders were immediately issued for prepara- 
tions. The whole country took fire at the alarm, 
and every order was executed with cheerful- 


their diciplinte, but he did not believe they were 
under much apprehension of a visit; and be- 
lieved, that if we could get there undiscovered, 
we might take the place. In short, we got 
every information from this gentleman that we 
could wish for, as he had had good opportuni- 
ties and had taken great pains to inform him- 
self with a design to give intelligence. 

"We now viewed ourselves in a very critical 
situation in a manner cut off from any inter- 
course between us and the United States. We 
knew that Governor Hamilton, in the spring, 
by a junction of his northern and southern In- 
dians, (which he had prepared for) would be 
at the head of such a force that nothing in this 
quarter could withstand his arms that Ken- 
tucky must immediately fall: and well if the 
desolation would end there. If we could im- 

ness by every description of inhabitants pre- 
paring provisions, encouraging volunteers, etc., 
etc., and as we had plenty of stores, every man 
was completely rigged with what he could de- 
sire to withstand the coldest weather. * * * 
To convey our artillery and stores, it was con- 
cluded to send a vessel around by water, so 
strong that she might force her way. A large 
Mississippi boat was immediately purchased, 
and completely fitted out as a galley, mounting 
two four-pounders, and four large swivels. She 
was manned by forty-six men under the com- 
mand of Captain John Rogers.. He set sail on 
the 4th of February, with orders to force his 
way up the Wabash as high as W T hite river, and 
to secrete himself until further orders: but if 
he found himself discovered, to do the enemy 
all the damage he could, without running too 



great a risk of losing his vessel, and not to 
leave the river until he was out of hope of our 
arrival by land. We had great dependence on 
this galley. She was far superior to anything 
the enemy could tit out without building a ves- 
sel; and at the worst, it' we were discovered, 
we could build a number of large pirogues, 
such as they possessed, to attend her, and with 
such a little fleet, perhaps, pester the enemy 
very much; and if we saw it our interest, force 
a lauding; at any rate it would be some time 
before they could be a match for us on the 

"Everything being ready, on the 5th of Febru- 
ary, after receiving a lecture and absolution 
from the priest, we crossed the Kaskaskia 
river with one hundred and seventy men 
marched about three miles and encamped, 
where we lay until the 7th, and set out. The 
weather wet, but fortunately not cold for 
the season, and a great part of the plains under 
water several inches deep; it was difficult and 
very fatiguing marching. My object now was 
to keep the men in spirits. I suffered them to 
shoot game on all occasions; and feast on it 
like Indian war-dancers each company by 
turns inviting the others to their feasts, which 
was the case every night, as the company that 
was to give the feast was always supplied with 
horses to lay up a sufficient store of wild meat 
in the course of the day myself and principal 
officers putting on the woodsman now and then, 
and running as much through the mud and 
water as any of them. Thus, insensibly, with- 
out a murmur, were those men led on to the 
banks of the Little Wabash, which we reached 
on the thirteenth through incredible difficulties, 
far surpassing anything that any of us had 
^ver experienced. Frequently the diversions of 
the night wore off the thoughts of the preced- 
ing day. We formed a camp on a height which 
we found on the bank of the river, and suffered 
our troops to amuse themselves. I viewed this 
sheet of water for some time with distrust, 
without holding any consultation about it or 
suffering anybody else to do so in my presence, 
ordered a pirogue to be built immediately, and 
acted as though crossing the water would be 
only a piece of diversion. As but few could 
work at the pirogue, at a time, pains were 
taken to find diversion for the rest, to keep 
them in spirits. * * * In the evening of the 
14th. our little vessel was finished, manned, 
and sent to explore the drowned lands on the 

opposite side of the Little Wabash, with pri- 
vate instructions what report to make, and, if 
possible, to find some spot of dry land. They 
found about half an acre, and marked the 
trees irom thence back to camp, and made a 
very favorable report. 

"Fortunately, the 15th happened to be a 
warm, moist day for the season. The channel 
of the river where we lay was about thirty 
yards wide. A scaffold was built on the oppo- 
site shore (which was about three feet under 
water) and our oaggage ferried across, and put 
on it; our horses swam across, and received 
their loads at the scaffold; by which time the 
troops were also brought across, and we be 
gan our march through the water. * * * 

"By evening we found ourselves encamped 
on a pretty height in high spirits; each party 
laughing at the other, in consequence of some- 
thing that had happened in the course of 'this 
ferrying business,' as they called it. A little 
antic drummer afforded them great diversion 
by floating on his drum, etc. All this was 
greatly encouraged; and they really began to 
think themselves superior to other men, and 
that neither the rivers nor the seasons could 
stop their progress. Their whole conversation 
now was concerning what they would do when 
they got about the enemy. They now began to 
view the main Wabash as a creek, and made 
no doubt that such men as they were could 
find a way to cross it. They wound themselves 
up to such a pitch that they soon took Post 
Yincennes, divided the spoils, and before bed- 
time were far advanced on their route to De- 
troit. All this was no doubt pleasing to tliose 
of us who had more serious thoughts. * * * 

"We were now convinced that the whole of 
the low country on the Wabash was drowned, 
and that the enemy could easily get to us, if 
they discovered us, and wished to risk an 
action; if they did not, we made no doubt of 
crossing the river by some means or other. 
Even if Captain Rogers, with our galley, did 
not get to the station agreeable to his appoint- 
ment, we flattered ourselves that all would be 
well, and marched on in high spirits." 

Here follows an extract from the manuscript 
journal of Major Bowman: 

"February Kith, 1770. .Marched all day 
through rain and water. Crossed the Fur 
River. Our provisions begin to be short. 

"17th. Marched early: crossed several runs 
very deep; sent Mr. Kernedy. our commissary, 



with three men, to cross river Embarrass, if 
possible, and proceed to a plantation opposite 
Post Vinicennes, in order to steal boats or 
canoes to ferry us across the Wabash. About 
an houv by sun, we got near the river Embar- 
rass, found the country all overflown by water. 
We strove to find the Wabash. Traveled till 
eight o'clock in mud and water, but found no 
place to encamp on. Still keep marching on, 
but after some time Mr. Kernedy and his party 
returned. Found it impossible to cross the 
Embarrass River. We found the water falling 
from a small spot of ground. Staid there the 
remainder of the night. Drizzling and dark 

'Photo by Townsley. 

McCarty, with three of his men embarked in 
the canoe, and made the next attempt to steal 
boats; but he soon returned, having discovered 
four large fires about a league distant from 
our camp. They seemed to be the fires of 
whites and Indians. Immediately Colomel Clark 
sent two men in the canoe, down to meet the 
galley, with orders to come on day and night 
that being our last hope, and (we) starving. 
Many of the men were much cast down, par- 
ticularly the volunteers. No provision of any 
sort, now two days. Hard fortune. 

20th. Camp very quiet, but hungry. Some 
almost in despair. Many of the Creole volun- 
teers talking of returning. Fell to making 


"18th At daybreak hear Governor Hamil- 
ton's morning gun. Set off, and marched down 
the river (Embarrass) saw some fine land. 
About two o'clock, came to the bank of the 
Wabash; made rafts for four men; to cross and 
go up to town and steal boats; but they spent 
the day and night in the water to no purpose; 
for there was not one foot of dry land to be 

"19th. Captain McCarty's company set to 
making a canoe; and at three o'clock the four 
men returned, after spending the night on some 
logs in the water. The canoe finished; Captain 

more canoes, when about twelve o'clock^ our 
sentry on the river brought. to a boat with five 
Frenchmen from the fort, who told us we were 
not yet discovered that the inhabitants were 
well disposed to us, etc. * * * They informed 
us of two canoes they had seen adrift some dis- 
tance above us. Ordered that Captain Worth- 
ington, with a party, go in search of them. 
Returned late, with one only. One of our men 
killed a deer, which was brought into camp; 
very acceptably. 

"21st. At break of day, began to ferry our 
men over (the Wabash) in two canoes to a 



small bill called the Mamelle. Captain 
Williams, with two men, went to look for a 
passage, and were discovered by two men in 
a canoe, but could not fetch them to. The 
whole army being over, we thought to get to 
town that night, so plunged into the water, 
sometimes to the neck, for more than one 
league, when we stopped on a hill of the same 
name there being no dry land on any side for 
many leagues. Our pilots say we cannot get 
along that it is impossible. The whole army 
being over, we encamped. Rain all this day. 
No provisions." 

The Memoir of Clark proceeds: "This last 
day's march through the water, was far 
superior to anything the Frenchmen had any 
idea of. They were backward in speaking 
said that the nearest land to us was a small 
league called Sugar Camp, on the bank of the 
river (?). A canoe was sent off, and returned 
without finding that we could pass. I went in 
her myself, and sounded the water, found it 
deep as to my neck. I returned 'with a design 
to have the men transported on board the 
canoes to the Sugar Camp, which I knew would 
spend the whole day and ensuing night, as the 
vessels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time, to men half starved, 
was a matter of consequence. I would have 
given now, a great deal for a day's provision, 
or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly 
to the troops, giving myself time to think. On 
our arrival, all ran to hear what was the re- 
port. Every eye was fixed on me. I unfortun- 
ately spoke in a serious manner to one of the 
officers; the whole were alarmed without know- 
ing what I said. I viewed their confusion for 
about one minnite whispered to those near me 
to do as I did; immediately put some water in 
my hand, poured on powder, blackened my 
face, gave the war whoop, and marched into 
the water without saying a word. The party 
gazed, and fell in, one after another, without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. 

"I ordered those near me to begin a favorite 
song of theirs; it soon passed through the line 
and the whole went on cheerfully. I now in- 
tended to have them transported across the 
deepest part of the water; but when about 
waist deep, one of the men informed me that 
he felt a path. We examined, and found it so; 
and concluded that it kept on the highest 
ground, which it did; and by taking pains to 
follow it we got to Sugar Camp without the 

least difficulty, where there was about an acre 
of dry ground, at least not under water, where 
we took up our lodging. 

"The Frenchmen that we had taken on the 
river appeared to be uneasy at our situation. 
They begged that they might be allowed to go 
in the two canoes to towm in the night. They 
said that they would bring from their own 
houses provisions, without a possibility of any 
persons knowing it; that some of our men 
should go with them, as a security of their 
good conduct; that it was impossible we could 
march from that place till the water fell, for 
the plain was too deep to march. Some of the 
(officers) believed that it might be done. I 
would not suffer it. I never could well account 
for this piece of obstinacy, and give satis- 
factory reasons to myself, or to anybody else, 
why I denied a proposition apparently so easy 
to execute, and of so much .advantage; but 
something seemed to tell me that it should not 
be done, and it was not done. 

"The most of the weather that we had on 
this march, was moist and warm, for the sea- 
son. This was the coldest niight we had. The 
ice, in the morning, was found one-half to 
three-quarters of an inch thick, near the shores, 
and in still water. The morning was the finest 
we had on our march. A little after sunrise 
I lectured the whole.. What I said to them I 
forget; but it may be easily imagined by a per- 
son that could possess my affections for them 
at that time. I concluded by informing them 
that passing the plain that was then in full 
view, and reaching the opposite woods, would 
put an end to their fatigue that in a few 
hours they would have a sight of their long- 
wished-for object and immediately stepped 
into the water without waiting for any reply. 
A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
through the water in a line, before the third 
entered, I halted and called to Major Bowman, 
ordering him to fall In the rear with twenty- 
five men and put to death any man who refused 
to march, as we wished to have no such person 
among us. The whole gave a cry of approba- 
tion, and on) we went. This was the most try- 
ing of all the difficulties we had experienced. 
I generally kept fifteen or twenty of the strong- 
est men next myself; and judged by my own 
feelings what must be that of others. Getting 
about the middle of the plain the water about 
middeep, I found mysolf sensibly failing, and 
as there were no trees nor bushes for the men 



to support themselves by, I feared that many 
of the most weak would be drowned. I ordered 
the canoes to make the land, discharge their 
loading, and play backward and forward with 
all diligence, and pick up the men; and to en- 
courage the party, sent some of the strongest 
men forward with orders, when they got to a 
certain distance, to pass the word backward 
that the water was getting shallow, and when 
getting near the woods to cry out 'Land.' This 

built fires. Many would reach the shore and 
fall with their bodies half in the water, not be- 
ing aole to support themselves without it. 

This was a delightful dry spot of ground of 
about ten acres. We soon found that the fires 
answered no purpose; but that two strong men 
taking a weaker one by the arms was the only 
way to recover him and being a delightful day 
it soon did. But fortunately, as if designed by 
Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws and chil- 


stratagem had its desired effect. The men, en- 
couraged by it, exerted themselves almost be- 
yond their abilities the weak holding by the 
stronger. * * * The water never got shallower, 
but continued deepening. Getting to the woods, 
where the men expected land, the water was 
up to my shoulders; but gaining the woods 
was of great consequence. All the low men. 
and the weakly, hung to the trees and floated 
on old logs, until they were taken off by the 
canoes. The strong and tall got ashore and 

dren was coming up to town, and took through 
part of this plain as a nigh way. It was dis- 
covered by our canoes as they were out after 
the men. They gave chase and took the Indian 
canoe, on board of which was near half a quar- 
ter of a buffalo, some corn, tallow, kettles, etc. 
This was a grand prize and was invaluable. 
Broth was immediately made and served out 
to the most weakly, with great care; most of 
the whole got a little; but a great many gave 
their part to the weakly, jocosely saying 



something cheering to their comrades. This 
little refreshment and tine weather, by the 
afternoon, gave new life to the whole. Cross- 
ing a narrow, deep lake, in the canoes, and 
marching some distance, we came to a copse of 
timber called the Warrior's Island * We were 
now in full view of the fort and town, not a 
shrub between us, at about two miles' dis- 
tance. Every man now feasted his eyes, and 
forgot that he had suffered anything saying 
that all that had passed was owing to good 
policy, and nothing but what a man could bear; 
and that a soldier had no right to think, etc. 
passing from one extreme to another, which 
is common in such cases. It was now we had 
to display our abilities. The plain between us 
and the town was not a perfect level. The 
sunken grounds were covered with water full 
of ducks. We observed several men out on 
horseback, shooting them, about half a mile 
from us; and sent out as many of our young 
Frenchmen to decoy and take one of them 
prisoner, in such a manner as not to alarm the 
others, which they did. The information which 
we got from this person, was similar to that 
which we had got from those we took on the 
river, except that of the British having com- 
pleted the wall of the fort, and that there was 
a good many Indians in town. 


'"Our situation was now truly critical and 
in) full view of a town that had, at this time 
upward of six hundred men in it, troops, in- 
habitants and Indians. The crew of the galley, 
though not fifty men, would have been now a 
reinforcement of immense magnitude to our 
little army (if I may so call it), but we would 
not think of them. We were now in the sit- 
uation I had labored to get ourselves in. The 
idea of being made prisoners was foreign to 
almost every man, as they expected nothing 
but torture from the savages, if they fell into 
their nands. Our fate was now to be determ- 
ined, probably in a few hours. W^ knew that 
nothing but the most daring conduct would In- 
sure success. I knew that a number of the in- 
habitants wished us well that many were 
lukewarm to the interest of either and I also 
learned that the grand chief, the Tobacco's 
son, had, but a few days before, openly de- 

clared, in council with the British, that he was 
a brother and friend to the Big Knives. These 
were favorable circumstances, and as there 
was but litle probability of our remaining un- 
til dark undiscovered, I determined to begin 
the career immediately, and wrote the follow- 
ing placard to the inhabitants: 

CENNES Gentlemen: Being now within two 
miles of your village, with my army, determ- 
ined to take your fort this night, and not being 
willing to surprise you, I take this method to 
request such of you as are true citizens, and 
willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to re- 
main still in your houses :and those, if any 
there be, that are friends to the king, will in- 
stantly repair to the fort, and join the hair- 
buyer general, and fight like men. And if any 
such as do not go to the fort, shall be discov- 
ered afterward, they may depend on severe 
punishment. On the contrary, those who are 
true friends to liberty may depend on being 
well treated; and I once more request them 
to keep out of the streets. For every one I 
find in arms on my arrival, I shall treat him 
as an enemy. 

(Signed) 'G. R. CLARK.' 

"I had various ideas on the supposed results 
of this letter. I knew that it could do us no 
damage; but that it would cause the lukewarm 
to be decided, encourage our friends and as- 
tondsh our enemies.* * * We anxiously viewed 
this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes could discover by our glasses 
some stir in every street that we could pene- 
trate into, and great numbers runndng or riding 
out into the commons, we supposed to view us, 
which was the case. But what surprised us 
was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance of the garrison being alarmed 
no drum nor gun. We began to suppose that 
the information we got from our prisoners was 
false, and that the enemy already knew of 
us and were prepared.* * * A little before 
sunset we moved and displayed ourselves in 
full view of the town crowds gazing at us. 
We were plunging ourselves into certain de- 
struction, or success. There was no midway 
thought of. We had but litle to say to our 
men, except inculcating an idea of obedience, 
etc. We knew they did not want encouraging, 
and that anything might be attempted with 

*This island was undoubtedly what is now familiarly known as "Bunker Hill." 



them that was possible with such a number 
perfectly cool, under subordination, pleased 
with the prospect before them, and much at- 
tached to their officers. They all declared that 
they were convinced that an implicit obedience 
to orders was the only thing that would insure 
success, and hoped that no mercy would be 
shown the person that should violate them. 
Such language as this, from soldxers in, our sta- 
tion must have been exceedingly agreeable. We 

Fftoto by Shores 

best of advantage, and as the low plain we 
marched through was not a perfect level, but 
had frequent raisings in it seven or eight feet 
higher than the common level, (which was cov- 
ered with water), and as these raisings gen- 
erally run in an oblique direction to the town, 
we took the advantage of one of them, march- 
ing through the water under it, which com- 
pletely prevented our being numbered. But 
our colors showed considerably above the 


moved on slowly in full view of the town, but, 
as it was a point of some consequence to us to 
make ourselves appear as formidable, we, in 
leaving the covert that we were in, marched 
and countermarched in such a manner that we 
appeared numerous. In raising volunteers in 
the Illinois, every person that set ' about the 
business had a set of colors given him. which 
they brought with them to the amount of ten 
or twelve pairs. These were displayed to the 

heights, as they were fixed on long poles pro- 
cured for the purpose, and at a distance, made 
no despicable appearance, and as our young 
Frenchman had, while we lay on the Warrior's 
Island, decoyed and taken several fowlers, with 
their horses, officers were mounted on these 
horses, and rode about more completely to de- 
ceive the enemy. In this manner we moved, 
and directed our march in such a way as to 
suffer it to be dark before we had advanced 



more than half way to the town. We then 
suddenly altered our direction, and crossed 
ponds where they could not have suspected us, 
and about eight o'clock gained the heights back 
of the town. As there was yet no hostile ap- 
pearance, we were impatient to have the cause 
unriddled. Lieutenant Bayley was ordered, 
with fourteen) men to march and fire on the 
fort. The main body moved in a different di- 
rection, and took possession of the strongest 
part of the town. 

"The firing now commenced on the fort, but 
they did not believe it was an enemy, until one 
one of their mem was shot down through a port, 
as drunken Indians frequently saluted the fort 
after night. The drums were sounded, and bus- 
iness fairly commenced on both sides. Reip- 
forcement were sent to the attack of the garri- 
son", while other arrangements were makinig in 
town. * * * We now found that the garrison 
had known nothing of us; that, having finished 
the fort that evening, they had amused them- 
selves at different games, and had just retired 
before my letter arrived, as it was near roll 
call. The placard beinig made public, many of 
the inhabitants were afraid to show themselves 
out of the houses for fear of giving offence, and 
not one dare give information.* 

"Our friends flew to the commons or other 
convenient places to view the pleasing sight. 
This was observed from the garrison, and the 
reason asked, but a satisfactory excuse was 
given, and as a part of the town lay between 
our line of march and the garrison, we could 
not be seen by the sentinels on the walls. Cap- 
tain W. Shannon and another being some time 
before taken prisoners by one of their (scout- 
inig parties), and that evening brought in, the 
party had discovered at the sugar camp some 
signs of us. They supposed it to be a party 
of observation that intended to land on the 
hight some distance below the town. Captain 
^amotte was sent to intercept them. It was 
at him the people said they were looking, when 
they were asked the reason for their unusual 
stir. Several suspected persons had been taken 
to the garrison: among them was Mr. Moses 
Henry. Mrs. Henry went under the pretense 
of carrying him provisions, and whispered him 
the news and what she had seen. Mr. Henry 
conveyed it to the rest of his fellow prisoners, 

which gave them much pleasure, particularly 
Captain Helm, who amused himself very much 
during the seige, and I believe, did much dam- 

"Ammunition was scarce with us, as the 
most of our stores had been put on board of 
the Galley. Though her crew was but few, 
such a reinforcement to us, at this time, would 
have been invaluable in many instances. But 
fortunately at the time of its being reported 
that all of the goods in the town were to be 
taken for the king's use (for which the own- 
ers were to receive bills), Colonel LeGras, Ma- 
jor Bosseran, and others, had buried the great- 
est part of their powder and ball. This was 
immediately produced, and we found ourselves 
well supplied by those gentlemen. 

"The Tobacco's son, being in town with a 
number of warriors, immediately mustered 
them and let us know he wanted to join us, 
saying that by the morniing he would have a 
hundred men. He received for answer that we 
would counsel on the subject in the morning; 
and as we knew that there were a number of 
Indians in and near the town, that were our 
enemies, some confusion might happen if our 
men should mix in the dark; but hoped that 
we might be favored with his counsel and 
company during the night which was agree- 
able to him. 

"The garrison was soon) completely surround- 
ed, and the firing continued without intermis- 
sion (except about fifteen minutes a little be- 
fore day), until about nine o'clock the follow- 
ing morning. It was kept up by the whole of 
the troops joined by a few young mem of the 
town who got permission, except fifty men kept 
as a reserve. * * * I had made myself ful- 
ly acquainted with the situation of the fort 
and town, and the parts relative to each. The 
cannon of the garrison was on the upper floors 
of strong blockhouses, at each angle of the 
fort, eleven; feet abore the surface, and the 
ports so badly cut that many of our troops lay 
under the fire of them within twenty or thirty 
yards of the walls. They did no damage, ex- 
cept to the buildings of the town, some of 
which they much shattered, and their mus- 
ketry, employed against woodsmen, covered by 
houses, palings, ditches, the banks of the river, 
etc., was but of little avail, and did no injury 

*"The town immediately surrendered with joy, and assisted nt the siege." Letter, dated Kaskaskia, III. 
April 29, 1779. from Colonel Clark to the Governor of Vii-j*inia.J 



to us except wounding a man 1 or two. As we 
could not afford to lose men, great care was 
taken to preserve them sufficiently covered, 
and to keep up a hot fire in order to intimidate 

they were opened, that men could not stand to 
the guns seven or eight of them in a short 
time got cut down. Our troops would frequent- 
ly abuse the enemy in order to aggravate them 

the enemy as well as to destroy them. The 
embrasures of their cannon were frequently 
shut, for our riflemen, finding the true direc- 
tion of them, would pour in such volleys when 

to open their ports and fire their cannon, that 
they might have the pleasure of cutting them 
down with their rifles, fifty of which, perhaps, 
would be leveled the moment the port flew 



open; and I believe that if they had stood at 
their artillery, tln> greater part of them would 
have been destroyed in the course of the night, 
as the greater part of our men lay within thirty 
yards of the walls; and in a few hours were 
covered equally to those within the walls, and 
much more experienced in that mode of fight- 
ing. * * * Sometimes an irregular fire, as 
hot as possible, from different directions was 
kept up for a few minutes, and then only a 
continual scattering fire at the ports as usual, 
and a great noise and laughter immediately 
commenced in different parts of the 
town by the reserved parties, as if they 
had only fired on the fort a few minutes for 
amusement, and as if those continually firing 
at the fort were only regularly relieved. Con- 
duct similar to this kept the garrison' constant- 
ly alarmed. They did not know what moment 
they might be stormed or (blown up), as they 
could plainly discover that we had thrown >ip 
some intrenchments across the streets, and ap- 
peared to be frequently very busy under the 
bank of the river which was within thirty feet 
of the walls. The situation of the magazine 
we knew well. Captain Bowman began some 
works in order to blow it up in case our ar- 
tillery shouM arrive, but as we knew that we 
were daily liable to be overpowered by the 
numerous bands of Indians on ths river, in 
case they had again joined the enemy (the cer- 
tainty of which we were acquainted with), we 
resolved to lose no time, but to get the fort 
in our possession as soon as possible. If the 
vessel did not arrive before the ensuinig night, 
we resolved to undermine the fort, and fixed on 
the spot and plan of executing this work, 
which we intended to commence the next day. 
The Indians of different tribes that were 
iminical. had left the town and neighborhood. 
Captain Lamotte continued to hover about it, 
in order, if possible, to make his way good in- 
to the fort. Parties attempted in vain to sur- 
prise him. A few of his party were taken, one 
of which was Maisonville, a famous Indian 
partisan. Two iads that captured him, tied 
him to a post in the street and fought from 
behind him as a breastwork supposing that 
the enemy would not fire at them for fear of 
killing him. as he would alarm them by his 
voice. The lads were ordered, by an officer 
who discovered them at their amusement, to 
untie their prisoner and take him off to the 
guard, which they did; but were so inhuman 

as to take part of his scalp on the way. There 
happened to be no other damage. As almost 
the whole of the persons who were most ac- 
tive in the department of Detroit, were either 
in the fort or with Captain Lamotte, I got ex- 
tremely uneasy for fear that he would not fall 
into our power knowing that he would go off 
if he could not get into the fort in the course 
of the night. Finding that, without some un- 
forseen accident, the fort must inevitably be 
ours, and that a reinforcement of twenty men, 
although considerable to them, would not be 
of great moment to us in the present situation 
of affairs, and knowing that we had weaken- 
ed them by killing or wounding many of their 
gunners, after some deliberation we concluded 
to risk the reinforcement in) preference of his 
going again among the Indians; the garrison 
had at least a month's provision, and if they 
could hold out, in the course of that time he 
might do us much damage. A little before day 
the troops were withdrawn from their positions 
about the fort, except a few parties of observa- 
tion, and the nring totally ceased. 

"Orders were given, in) case of Lamotte's ap- 
proach, not to alarm or fire on him, without a 
certainty of killing or taking the whole. In 
less than a quarter of an hour he passed with- 
in ten feet of an officer and a party that lay 
concealed. Ladders were flung over to them, 
and as they mounted them our party shouted. 
Many of them fell from the top of the walls 
some within), and others back; but as they 
were not fired on, they all got over much to 
the joy of their friends. But, on considering 
the matter, they must have been convinced 
that it was a scheme of ours to let them in, 
and that we were so strong as to care but lit- 
tle about them or the manner of their getting 
into the garrison. * * * The firing imme- 
diately commented on both sides with double 
vigor, and I believe that more noise could not 
have been made by the same number of men 
their shouts could not be heard for the fire- 
arms, but a continual blaze was kept around 
the garrison, without much being done until 
about daybreak, when our troops were drawn 
off to posts prepared for them, about sixty or 
seventy yards from the fort. A loophole then 
could scarcely be darkened, but a rifle ball 
would pass through it. To have stood to their 
cannon would have destroyed their men, with- 
out a probability of doing much service. Our 
situation was nearly similar. It would have 



been imprudent in either party to have wasted 
their men, without some decisive stroke re- 
quired it. 

"Thus the attack continued until about nine 
o'clock of the twenty-fourth. Learning that 
the two prisoners they had brought in the day 
before had a considerable number of letters 
with them. I supposed it an express that we 
expected about this time, which I knew to be 
of the greatest moment to us, as we had not 
received one since our arrival in the country 

Photo by Shores 

impending storm that now threatens you, I or- 
der you immediately to surrender yourself, 
with all your garrison, stores, etc., etc. For 
if I am obliged to storm, you may depend on 
such treatment as is justly due a murderer. 
Beware of destroying stores of any kind, or 
any papers or letteis that are in your possess- 
ion, or hurting one house' in town for, by 
heavens! if you do, there shall be no mercy 
shown you. 
(Signed) G. R. CLARK." 


and not being fully acquainted with the char- 
acter of our eniemy, we were doubtful that 
those papers might be destroyed to prevent 
which, I sent a flag (with a letter) demanding 
the garrison.." 

Following is a copy of the letter which was 
addressed by Colonel Clark to Lieutenant 
Governor Hamilton on this occasion: 

"Sir: In order to save vourself from the 

The British commandant immediately re- 
turned the following answer: 

" 'Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton begs leave 
to acquaint Colonel Clark, that he and his gar- 
rison are not disposed to be awed into any 
action unworthy British subjects.' 

"The firing then commenced warmly for a 
considerable time, and we were obliged to be 
careful in preventing our men from exposing 



themselves too much, as they were now much 
animated having been refreshed during the 
flag. They frequently mentioned their wishes 
to storm the place and put an end to the busi- 
ness at once. * * * The firing was heavy 
through any crack that could be discovered in 
any part of the fort. Several of the garrison 
got wounded, and no possibility of standing 
near the embrasures. 

'Toward the evening a flag appeared with 
the following proposals: 

" 'Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton proposes to 
Colonel Clark a truce for three days, during 
which time he promises there shall be no de- 
fensive works carried on in the garrison, on 
condition that Colonel Clark shall observe, on 
his part, a like cessation of any defensive 
work: that is, he wishes to confer with Colonel 
Clark as soon as can be, and promises that 
whatever may pass between them two, and 
another person, mutually agreed upon to be 
present, shall remain secret till matters be fin- 
ished, as he wishes that whatever the result 
of the conference may be, it may tend to honor 
and credit of each party. If Colonel Clark 
makes a difficulty of coming into the fort, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Hamilton will speak to him 
by Ihe gate. 


24th February. 1179.' 

"I was at a great loss to conceive what rea- 
son Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton could have 
for wishing a truce of three days, on such 
terms as he proposed. Numbers said it was a 
scheme to get me into their posession. I had 
a different opinion, and no idea of his possess- 
ing such sentiments; as an act of that kind 
would infallibly ruin him. Although we had 
the greatest reason to expect a reinforcement 
in less than three days, that would at. once put 
an end to the siege, I yet did not think it pru- 
dent to agree to the proposals, and sent the 
following answer: 

" 'Colonel Clark's compliments to Lieutenant- 
Governor Hamilton, and begs leave to inform 
him that he will not agree to any terms other 
than his surrendering himself and garrison 
prisoners at discretion. If Mr. Hamilton is 
desirous of a conference with Colonel Clark, he 
will meet him at the church, with Captain 

(Signed) G. R. CLARK.' 

February 24th, 1779.' 

"We met at the church, about eighty yards 

from the fort, Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton, 
Major Hay, Superintendent of Indian affairs, 
Captain Helm, their prisoner, Major Bowman 
and myself. The conference began. Hamil- 
ton produced terms of capitulation 1 , signed, that 
contained various articles, one of which was 
that the garrison should be surrendered on 
their being permitted to go to Pensacola on 
parole. After deliberating on every article, I 
rejected the whole. He then wished that 1 
would make some proposition. I told him 
that I had no other to make than what I had 
already made that of his surrendering as pris- 
oners at discretion. I said that his troops had 
behaved with spirit that they could not sup- 
pose that they would be worse treated in con- 
sequence of it that if he chose to comply with 
the demand, though hard, perhaps, the sooner 
the better that it was in vain to make any 
proposition to me that he, by this time, must 
be sensible that the garrison would fall; that 
both of us must (view) all blood spilt for the 
future, by the garrison, as murder; that my 
troops were already impatient anid called aloud 
for permission to tear down and storm the 
fort, if such a step was taken, many, of course, 
would be cut down, and the result of an en- 
raged body of woodsmen breaking in, must be 
obvious to him; it would be out of the power 
of an American officer to save a single man. 
Various altercations took place for a consider- 
able time. Captain Helm attempted to mod- 
erate our fixed determination. I told him he 
was a British prisoner, and it was doubtful 
whether or not he could, with propriety, speak 
on the subject. Hamilton then said that 
Helm was from that moment liberated, and 
might use his pleasure. I informed the cap- 
tain that I would not receive him on such 
terms; that he must return to the garrison, and 
await his fate. I then told Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor Hamilton that hostilities should not com- 
mence until five minutes after the drums gave 
the alarm. We took our leave, and parted but 
a few steps, when Hamilton stopped and po- 
litely asked me if I would be so kind as to 
give him any reasons for refusing the garrison 
on any other terms than those I had offered. 
I told him I had no objections in giving my 
real reasons, which were simply these: that I 
knew the greater part of the principal Indian 
partizans of Detroit were with him; that I 
wanted an excuse to put them to death, or 
otherwise treat them as I thought proper; that 






H j. 

S I 
> "i 

o ^ 

W >S 

co .< 






the cries of the widows and the fatherless, on 
the frontiers, which they had occasioned, now 
required their blood from my hands, and that 
I did not choose to be so timorous as to diso- 
bey the absolute commands of their author- 
ity, which I looked upon to be next to divine; 
that I would rather lose fifty men, than not 
to empower myself to execute this piece of 
business with propriety; that if he chose to 
risk the massacre of his garrison for their 
sakes, it was his own pleasure, and that I 
might, perhaps, take it iato my head to send 
for some of those widows to see it executed. 
Major Hay, paying great attention, I had ob- 
served a kind of distrust in his countenance, 
which in a great measure influenced my con- 
versation during this time. On my concluding, 
'Pray sir,' said he, 'who is it that you call In- 
dian partizans?' 'Sir I replied, 'I take Major 
Hay to be one of the principal.' I never saw 
a man in the moment of execution so struck as 
he appeared to be, pale and trembling, scarcily 
able to stand. Hamilton blushed, and, I ob- 
served, was much affected at bis behavior. 
Major Bowman's countenance sufficiently ex- 
pressed his disdain for the one, and his sorrow 
for the other. * * * Some moments elapsed 
without a word passing on either side. From 
that moment my resolutions changed respect- 
ing Hamilton's situation. I told him that we 
would return to our respective posts; that I 
would consider the matter and let him know 
the result: no offensive measures should be 
taken in the meantime. Agreed to, and we 
parted. What had passed, being made known 
to our officers, it was agreed that we should 
moderate our resolutions." 

In the course of the afternoon of the 24th, 
the following articles were signed, and the 
garrison capitulated: 

"(1) Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton engages 
to deliver up to Colonel Clark, Fort Sackville, 
as it is at present with all the stores, etc. 

"(II) The garrison are to deliver themselves 
as prisoners of war; and march out with their 
arms and accouterments, etc. 

"(Ill) The garrison to be delivered up at ten 
o'clock to-morrow. 

"(IV) Three days' time to be allowed the 
garrison to settle their accounlts with the in- 
habitants and traders of this place. 

"(V) The officers of the garrison to be al- 
lowed their necessary baggage, etc. 

"Signed at Post St. Vincent (Vincennes), 24th 
Feb'y., 1779. 

"Agreed for the following reasons: The re- 
moteness from succor; the state and quality of 
provisions, etc., unanimity of officers and men 
in its expediency, the honorable terms allowed, 
and lastly, the confidence in a generous enemy. 


Lieut.-Gov. and Superintendent." 

"The business being now nearly at an end, 
troops were posted in several strong houses 
around the garrison, and patroled during the 
night to prevent any deception that might be 
attempted. The remainder on duty lay on their 
arms, and, for the first time for many days 
past, got some rest. During the siege I got 
omly one man wounded, not being able to lose 
many I made them secure themselves well. 
Seven were badly wounded in the fort, through 
ports. * * * Almost every man had conceived 
a favorable opinion of Lieutenant-Governor 
Hamilton I believe what affected myself, 
made some impression on the whole and I 
was i>appy to find that he never deviated, while 
he stayed with us, from that dignity of con- 
duct that became an officer in his situation. The 
morning of the 25th approaching, arrangements 
were made for receiving the garrison, (which 
consisted of seventy-nine men,) and about ten 
o'clock it was delivered in form; and every- 
thing was immediately arranged to the best 
advantage. * * * On the 27th, our galley ar- 
rived, all safe the crew much mortified, al- 
though they deserved great credit for their dili- 
gence. They had, on their passage, taken up 
William Myres, express from government. The 
dispatches gave much encouragement: Our own 
battalion was to be completed, and an addi- 
tional one to be expected in the course of the 


On the 26th of February, the next day after 
the surrender of Governor Hamilton, Clark, 
having information of the approach of a de- 
tachment with clothing and provisions from 
Detroit which was coming by boats down the 
Wabash. dispatched sixty men under command 
of Captain Helm, Major Boseron and Major Le- 
Gras to intercept and capture them. This 
force proceeding in three armed boats about 



120 miles up the Wabash, surprised and cap- 
tured the enemy wifh their supplies in seven 
boats. These boats, containing supplies to the 
value of about $50,000, were manned by forty 
men who were made prisoners. 

Col. Clark states that the goods, with the ex- 
ception of about $4,000 worth, were divided 

Photo by Shores. 


among the soldiers, that amount being retained 
to clothe an expected reinforcement. 

Clark's eyes now turned longingly 'toward 
Detroit, which he knew to be in a poor state 
of defense, and he was anxious to organize an 
expedition for its capture, but, embarrassed by 

his prisoners, doubtful as to the attitude of 
many tribes of Indians, he was in a auandary. 
However, the Indians soon began to show a 
pacific disposition and a number of the tribes 
came to him. with overtures of peace, and 
treaties were concluded. 

On the 7th of March a detachment of twenty- 
five men, under com- 
mand of Captains 
Williams and Rog- 
ers, set out with the 
British officers and. 
eighteen privates to 
conduct them to 
Kentucky, whence 
they were forwarded 
to Virginia under 
command of Captain 
Rogers, who re- 
ceived orders after 
he reached the Falls. 
Relieved in some 
measure by the de- 
parture of a part of 
prisoners, Clark took 
every possible means 
to organize his de- 
sired expedition 
against D e t r o i t. 
Promised reinforce- 
ments were delayed 
and Clark was con- 
fronted with the 
necessity of postpon- 
ing his enterprise. 
He made the best 
possible use of the 
time, however, pre- 
paring the minds of 
the French people of 
Detroit for his ap- 
pearance. The com- 
pany of French vol- 
unteers from De- 
troit, who had been 
made prisoners with 
Hamilton, and who 
expected to be sent 
into the states and held as prison- 
ers of war, w r ere lectured and paroled, 
supplied with boats, arms and provisions and 
told to return 'home. They did -so and so pleased 
were they with their treatment that they be- 
came loud in' the praise of the Americans and 

Mayor Greene in Rear 



created at Detroit a strong pro-American senti- 

By a masterful strategy Clark had contrived 
to create an exceedingly strong sentiment at the 
Old rost in favor of the Detroit expedition, 
while assuming an attitude of indifference or 
disapproval, with a view to preventing prema- 
ture knowledge of his intentions reaching that 
post. In furtherance of this design, on the 20th 
Df March he "set sail" on board his galley and 
five armed boats, with seventy men, for Kas- 
kaskia, where he arrived safely a few days 
later. Lieutenant Brashear was left in com- 
mand of the garrison of forty picked men, Cap- 
tain Helm commandant of the town, superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs, etc. 

From Kaskaskia Clark directed war to be 
made from Vincennes against the Delawares, 
who were settled at the forks of the White 
River and who had become troublesome and 
had committed a number of murders. Deter- 
mined to give them a lesson that would im- 
press all the tribes, he ordered that no quarter 
should be shown the warriors, but that women 
and children should be spared. So merciless 
and vigorous was the campaign that the Dela- 
wares were quickly brought to terms, but, hav- 
ing once broken their treaty, Clark refused to 
treat with them unless they could induce some 
of the neighboring Indians to become sureties 
in 1 their behalf. This the Tobacco's son agreed 
to do, and peace was restored. 

A rendezvous had been appointed for Vin- 
cennes in June, against which time it was 
hoped a sufficient force would have been re- 
cruited in Kentucky and Virginia for the ac- 
complisihmenit of his designs against Detroit. 
But in this Colonel Clark was doomed to bitter 
disappointment. Less than half the expected 
reinforcements arrived. The depression of the 
continental currency gave him great trouble in 
securing supplies. Clark returned with his 
forces to Vincennes, but was compelled on ac- 
count of the paucity of his resources to aban- 
don the proposed expedition, and retired soon 
afterward to Louisville ("the Falls") as the 
most convenient spot from which to direct the 
operations of the forces anid posts in the newly 
acquired territory. 

The conquest of the territory northwest of the 
Ohio by General Clark was soon followed by 
a considerable influx of emigrants from the 
states, and it is stated that in the spring of 
1780 no less than three hundred large "family 

boats" arrived at the Falls of the Ohio, and it 
may be fairly surmised that Post Vinceunes 
came ini for its full share of the new popula- 
tion. n the spring of 1779 Colonel John Todd, 
\vlio had been appointed county lieutenant of 
Illinois county, which embraced all the terri- 
tory covered by Clark's conquests, visited Vin- 
cennes and Kaskaskia and took steps to organi- 
ize local governments suitable to the require- 
ments of the people. One of his first acts was 
to issue a proclamation designed to forestall the 
location of all the best lands by greedy specu- 
lators and adventurers. The proclamation for- 
bade the location of claims in the rich lands 
in the river valleys or within a league of these 
lands, "unless in manner and form of settle- 
ments as heretofore made by the French in- 
habitants, until further orders herein given." 
The proclamation also required every claimant 
of lands to file with an officer, to be appointed 
in each district, a description of his claim, the 
name of the original grantee, with date of 
grant, with vouchers, "deducing the title 
through the various occupants to the present 
owner." Depositions were required to estab- 
lish ownership when no vouchers could be pro- 

A court of civil and criminal jurisdiction, 
composed of several magistrates, with Colonel 
J. M. P. Legras as president, was established 
at Vincennes, in the month of June, 1779. The 
members of this court assuming that they were 
vested with authority to grant lands, soon be- 
gan to make grants in various amounts "from 
the size of a house lot to 400 acres," after the 
manner of the former French grants. Finally 
we are told they became of opinion that they 
might dispose of the entire tract given in 1742 
to the French inhabitants of Vincennes by the 
Piankeshaw Indians, amounting to a very large 
domain, and then conceived the idea that if 
they tould grant to others they should not be 
debarred from granting to each other. They 
accordingly divided this large tract among 
themselves, each absenting himself from the 
court on the day his grant was to be made. 

The surrender of Lord Corn wall is, at York- 
town, Va., Oct. 19, 1781, followed by an armis- 
tice and finally by the definitive treaty of peace, 
concluded at Paris Sept. 3, 1783. having put an 
end to hostilities by granting the independence 
of tne colonies, and including the territory west 
to the Mississippi in that ceded, the fate of this 
territory was thenceforward to be controlled by 



the state of Virginia and Congress. The terri- 
tory was in 1784 ceded by Virginia to the 
Uniteu States. 

Conflicting claims among land speculators, 
the inhabitants of Vincennes and vicinity, uow 
attracted the attention of the government. The 
lands claimed by the French settlers at Vin- 
cennes by virtue of Indian grants, court con- 
cessions, etc., and other lands claimed in the 
northwestern territory aggregated about 15,000 

'Photo by Todd 

establish a boundary line between the United 
States and the Potawatomie, Twightwee, Pian- 
keshaw and other western nations, a treaty be 
held with the said Indians at Post Vincennes, 
om the Wabash River, on the 20th day of June. 
1785, or at such other time and place as the 
commissioners may find more convenient." 
Pursuant to a subsequent resolution of Con- 
gress the treaty was held on the Ohio River at 
the mouth of the Great Miami. In August, 

SECOND STREET Looking North-east from Bosseron 

square miles, and the claims of the Illinois & 
Wabash land companies were far larger in ex- 
tent. The Indians had become jealovis of the 
encroachments of the whites and were becom- 
ing restless. To quiet, if possible, this seething 
and threatening mass of conflicting claims, but 
primarily to keep down the turbulent spirits of 
the Indian tribes. Congress, on the 18th of 
March, 1785. resolved "That in order to give 
greater security to the frontier settlement and 

1785. the Wabash Indians held a grand counsel 
at Ouiatenon. About the same time a French 
inhabitant of Vincennes was killed by an In- 
dian and in retaliation four Indians were killed 
and others wounded by friends of the French- 
man. Soon afterwards an Indian chief de- 
manded of the French inhabitants of Vincennes 
that they all leave the post against a certain 
d'ate, as the Indian* had declared war against 
the Americans and that such French as re- 



mained would receive the same treatment as 
that accorded the Americans. In the following 
year settlers who arrived at Viucennes in boats 
were fired on at the mouth of the Embarrass. 
A settler by the name of Small headed a com- 
pany of thirty or forty and proceeded to attack 
the Indians, with the result that several were 
killed and wounded on each side. 

So troublesome had the Indians become by 
this time that a strong military force was 
raised in Kentucky tor the purpose of subduing 
them. About 1,000 men, undei command of 
General George Rogers Clark, marched from 
the Falls of the Ohio for Vincennes and arrived 
here early in October. Here the army went 
into camp to nwalt the arrival of provisions 
that were to come by boat. At the end of nine 
days the boats arrived and it was found that 
half the provisions were spoiled. That part 
which had been transported by land was al- 
most exhausted. Discontent had already be- 
gun to manifest itself in the camp and when 
the state of the provisions became known it 
was greatly increased. Re-enforced by volun- 
teers from Vincennes, however, the force 
moved up the river to near the mouth of the 
Vermillion, the army finding all Indian villages 
deserted. Here a false rumor was spread 
among them to the effect that Gen. Clark had 
sent a flag of truce to the Indians, "with an 
offer of peace or war." "This rumor," we are 
told, "combined with a lamentable change 
which had taken place in the once temperate, 
bold, energetic and commanding character of 
General Clark, excited among the troops a spirit 
of insubordination which neither the commands 
nor the entreaties nor the tears of the general 
could subdue." Three hundred troops deserted 
in a body and the expedition was abandoned. 

General Clark, feeling that to abandon the 
territory after this demonstration would be but 
to embolden the Indians and endanger not only 
the people of Vincennes but the settlements in 
Kentucky, called a council of his officers, at 
which it was decided to garrison the town with 
one field officer and 250 men (exclusive of a 
company of artillery to be commanded by Cap- 
tain Valentine Thomas Dalton) which force was 
to be recruited here. It was further decided 
that the command should be entrusted to 
Colonel Holder. General Clark began to levy 
recruits, appoint officers and impress provisions 
for the support of the garrison. General Clark 
also opened communications with the Indian 

chieftains, looking to treaties of peace, and ap- 
pointing a meeting for "the last of Aprtt," 1787. 
The agitation in the west over the Spanish 
claims to exclusive right to navigate the Mis- 
sissippi, which imposed onerous restrictions on 
the people of this section, and the rising hos- 
tility of the people of the west against Spain, 
at least gave color to the charges made that 
General Clark's action was in reality taken 
with a view to a movement against the Spanish 
settlements and the fact that his first impress- 
ments at Vincennes were from a Spanish mer- 
chant lent not a little force to this construction 
of it. The matter was investigated by the gov- 
ernment of Virginia and by Congress, but ap- 
parently not very thoroughly, and the acts of 
General Clark were disavowed. Congress 
passed a resolution on the 24th of April, 1789, 
directing the secretary of war to order the 
commanding officer of the United States troops 
on the Ohio to take immediate and efficient 
measures "for dispossessing a body of men 
who had in a lawless and unauthorized manner, 
taken possession of Post Vincennes, in defi- 
ance of the proclamation and authority of the 
United States." 

Mr. English, in his Life of General Clark, 
takes pains to defend General Clark against 
the charges made against him in this connec- 
tion. But whether just or not, it is certain 
western sentiment would have supported him 
in such a move at this time against the prepos- 
tuous claims of Spain; and certain it is that 
war was narrowly averted. 



The first governor of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory after its cession to the United States was 
Major General Arthur St. Glair. He was as- 
sisted by a council consisting of three judges, 
and in the governor and judges was the law- 
making power. Governor St. Clair and the 
judges established themselves at Marietta, 
Ohio, at the mouth of the Muskingum River, 
winch was therefore the first capital. From 
this place a code of laws was promulgated near 
the close of 1788. In accordance with his in- 
structions from Congress. Governor St. Clair 
early turned his attention to securing treaties 
with the Indians, but a number of tribes de- 



dined to treat and others to acknowledge the 
validity of treaties formed with their sachems. 
Roving bands of marauding Indians caused 
much trouble and in this regard the Wabash 
country was not exempt. In a report to the 
president in June, 1789, General Knox, secre- 
tary of war, says, among other things: "It is 
to be observed that the United Staes have not 
formed any treaties with the Wabash Indians. 
On the contrary, since the conclusion of the 
war with Great Britain, hostilities have almost 
constantly existed between he people of Ken- 
tucky and the said Indians. The injuries and 
murders have been so reciprocal that it would 
be a point of critical investigation to know on 
which side they have been the greatest. Some 
of the inhabitants of Kentucky during the past 
year, roused by injuries, made an incursion 
into the Wabash country, and possesing an 
equal aversion to all bearing the -name of In- 

Photo by Shoies 

call upon the President for directions for his 
government in dealing with the problem and he 
likewise does not lose sight of the fact that the 
peaceable Indians of the Wabas'h have been 
made to suffer for the wrongs of others, by the 
people of Kentucky. 

So threatening has the situation become be- 
fore the close of the year 1789 that President 
Washington, ini replying to Governor St. Clair, 
authorizes him, in case of necessity, to call out 
the militia of Virginia and Pennsylvania to the 
extent of 1,500 men. The president says, to- 
ward the close of his communication, "I would 
have it observed, forcibly, that a war with the 
Wabash Indians ought to be avoided by all 
means consistently with the security of the 
troops and the national dignity." 

The president, in closing, directs General St. 
Clair to proceed "as soon as you can with 
safety, to execute the orders of the late con- 


dians, they destroyed a number of the peace- 
able Piankeshaws, who prided themselves on 
their attachment to the United States. In the 
course of this communication General Knox 
discusses the Indian problem in a most en- 
lightened and humane manner. He advocates 
the formation of treaties of peace "ini which 
their rights and limits should be explicitly de- 
fined and the treaties observed on the part of 
the United States with the most exact justice, 
by punishing the whites who should violate the 
same. The alternative of this, he says, is the 
extermination of the Indians, for which he 
argues there is no warrant in right or justice. 
He further shows its impracticability. He esti- 
mates the Wabash tribes at 1,500 to 2,000 war- 
riors, and says to accomplish their destruction 
will require 2,500 men and cost $200,000, and 
that the government cannot furnish the 
money for the campaign. 
Governor St. Clair soon found it necessary to 

gress respecting the inhabitants of Post Vin- 
cennes and Kaskaskia, and the other villages 
on the Mississippi. It is a circumstance of 
some importance that the said inhabitants 
should, as soon as possible, possess the lands 
to which they are entitled, by some known and 
fixed principles." 

This had reference to the resolutions of Con- 
gress of the 20th of June, and the 28th of 
August, 1788. By these resolutions provision 
was made to confirm the titles of French and 
Canadian settlers and others about Kaskaskia 
and Vincennes, who on or before the year 1783, 
"had professed themselves citizens of the 
United States or any of them." A tract of four 
hundred acres was donated to each head of a 
family of this description of settlers. 

Governor St. Clair started from Marietta for 
the various outlying posts on the first of Janu- 
ary, 1790. Before leaving Clarksville he sent 
dispatches to Major Hamtramck, commandant 



at Vincennes, among which appears the follow- 
ing, dated Fort Steuben, January 23, 1790: 

"It is with great pain that I have heard of the 
scarcity of corn which reigns in the settlements 
about the post. I hope it has been exaggerated; 
but it is represented to me that, unless a supply 
of that article can be sent forward, the people 
must actually starve. Corn can be had here in 
any quantity; but can' the people pay for it? 
I entreat you to inquire into that matter, and if 
you flnil they cannot do without it, write to the 
contactor's agent here, to whom I will give or- 
ders to send forward such quantity as you shall 
find to be absolutely necessary. They must pay 
for What they can of it; but they must not be 
suffered to perish; and though I have no direct 
authority from the government for this purpose, 
I must take it upon myself." Whether the re- 
lief offered was availed of we are not informed. 
In his report from Kaskaskia, in 1790, Governor 
St. Clair draws a sorry picture of the condi- 
tions at that post, where the people had suf- 
fered from flood and frost as well as from the 
Indians, and ho calls attention to their cheerful 
assistance rendered Clark, and failure of the 
State of Virginia and of Congress to repay 
them for advances made Clark, which they 
were ill able to bear. A pathetic memorial in 
behalf of his parishioners is presented Governor 
St. Clair by Father Gibault, from which we 
take the following sentence as indicative of its 
character: "Loaded with misery, and groaning 
under the weight of misfortunes accumulated 
since the Virginia troops entered their country, 
the unhappy inhabitants throw themselves un- 
der the protection of your excellency, and take 
the liberty to solicit you to lay their deplorable 
situation before Congress." 

The attitude of the Indian nations, with 
whom Governor St. Clair had been endeavoring 
to conclude treaties of peace, becoming so 
menacing as to require active preparations for 
war, the governor left Kaskaskia on the llth 
of June to consult with General Harmer, in 
command of the military forces in the west, 
arriving at Fort Washington on the 13th of 
July. Before his departure he instructed his 
secretary, Winthrop Sargent, to proceed to Post 
Vincennes and execute the requirements of the 
congrssional resolutions with reference to the 
lands of settlers in the Wabash, &c. 

Mr. Sargent proceeded immediately to Post 
Vincennes, laid out the county of Knox, ap- 
pointed various civil and military officers and 

took steps to secure proofs of land titles, etc., 
according to his instructions. 

In a report to the president at the end of July 
he thus portrays the conditions as he found 
them here. "Although," says Mr. Sargent, "the 
lands and lots which were awarded to the in- 
habitants appeared, from very good oral testi- 
mony, to belong to those persons to whom they 
were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
cfrase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one 
case in twenty where the title was complete, 
owing to the desultory manner in which pub- 
lic business had been transacted, and some 
other unfortunate causes. The original conces- 
sions by the French and British commandants 
were generally made on a small scrap of paper, 
which it was customary to lodge in the notary's 
office, who has seldom kept any book of record, 
but committed the most important land con- 
cerns to loose sheets, which in the process of 
time have come into possession of persons who 
have fraudulently destroyed them, or, unac- 
quainted with their consequence, innocently lost 
or trifled them away; for by the French usage 
they are considered as family inheritances, and 
often descend to women and children. In one 
instance, and during the government of Mr. 
St. Ange here, a royal notary ran off with all 
the papers in his possession, as by a certificate 
produced to me. And I am very sorry further 
to observe that in the office of Mr. LeGrand, 
which continued from 1777 to 1787, and where 
should have been the vouchers for important 
land transactions, the records have been so 
falsified and there is such gross fraud and 
forgery as to invalidate all evidence and in- 
formation which I might otherwise have ob- 
tained from his papers." 

In this connection it may be of interest to re- 
produce a few samples of descriptions preva- 
lent in deeds of that date, which are taken from 
notes made by Judge Law to his lecture on 
Vincennes. The judge says: "Judging from the 
description of the concessions as then made, it 
would be somewhat troublesome in these mod- 
ern times, to find them." Examples follow: 

"The widow of Peter Gormare. A house and 
lot, the boundaries oot expressed, but to be sur- 
veyed agreeably to possession, and not inter- 
fering with the streets." 

"Robert Buntin. A house and lot in Vin- 
cennes, front on the Wabash, back to the In- 
dian fields, one side by Maonaman, on the other 
by Francis the Catspaw, about one acre in 



length each way." "Five pieces of land, for- 
merly held by Kettle Carrier, sold by Quiquila- 
quia, the grandson of Kettle Carrier, with the 
approbation of Montour and the other 

"Five pieces of land In the old Piankeshaw 
town at Vincennes, sold by Montour." 

On the 13th of July, 1790, there were in Post 
Vincennes one hundred forty-three heads of 
families, who were entitled, by reason of resi- 
dence prior to 1783, to confirmation of their 
grants. While making preparations for this 
Mr. Sargent received numerous petitions for 

'Photo by Shores 


confirmation of grants made by the court under 
Major LeGras's regime, and he demanded of 
this court by what authority these grants were 
made, receiving a frank and full explanation 
by letter, which, however, failed to establish 
such authority. The matter of these grants was 
treated in a liberal spirit by Congress, and in 
1791 the governor of the northwest territory 
was empowered, when lands had been actually 
improved under supposed grants, to confirm the 
titles, but limiting the amount of grant to 400 
During the summer of 1790, acting Governor 

Sargent and the judges enacted three stringent 
laws, designed to suppress gambling and con- 
trol the liquor traffic in the interests of the 
peace and good order of the village and vicin- 
ity. Om the 23d of July Mr. Sargent received 
a letter signed by nine citizens of the village, 
seven of whom signed as "Magistrates." 
Among the names to the letter was that of 
Francis Vigo, "Commandant of Militia." They 
commended in the strongest terms the efforts 
of Mr. Sargent in be'half of law and order and 
expressed great satisfaction with the new gov- 

On his arrival at 
Fort Washington on 
the 13th of July. 
Governor St. Clair 
found the situation 
so threatening that 
he desired, in pur- 
suance of the au- 
thority given him by 
the President, to 
levy 1,500 militia 
from Pennsylvania 
and Virginia and 
make a vigorous 
campaign against 
the Indians. This he 
did and 300 of the 
militia of Virginia 
were ordered to ren- 
dezvous at Fort 
Steuben and with 
the garrison of regu- 
lars at that fort to 
march to Vincennes 
and join Major 
Hamtramck, who 

had orders to call to his aid the local militia 
and to move- up the Wabash to attack any of 
the Indian \illages to which his force might be 
equal. The remainder of the troops were to 
join the garrison of regulars at Fort Washing- 
ton under General Harmer. 

The operations of the army under command 
of General Harmer in Ohio during the summer 
were by no means creditable, the militia behav- 
ing in a cowardly manner. The losses were 
fully as heavy as those of the Indians. From 
Vincennes Major Hamtramck marched up the 
Wabash and destroyed some deserted Indian 



villages at the inouth of the Vermillion and re- 
turned to Vincennes without meeting any oppo- 

These operations 'having produced no visible 
improvement in the situation, in March, 1791, 
General Knox, secretary of war, wrote Briga- 
dier General Scott, of Kentucky, authorizing 
him to raise a force of Kentuckians, not to ex- 
ceed 750, and proced against the Indians on the 
Wabash. This General Scott did, crossing the 
Ohio May 23. He does not appear, however, 
to have passed via Vincennes, but to the east 
of the post. On the 4th of June the first In- 

Thoto by Shores 


diau was sighted and soon afterwards a cum- 
ber of villages were destroyed, including 
Ouiatcnon. which had "a considerable French 
population, and many well furnished houses," 
according to General Scott's report. General 
Scott adds that "by the books, letters and 
other documents found there it is evident it 
was in close connection with, and dependent on, 
Detroit." General Scott, after the destruction 
of these villages returned to Kentucky, arriving 
at the Falls June 14, "without the loss of a sin- 
gle man by the enemy, and only five wounded; 
having killed thirty-two, chiefly warriors of size 

and figure, and taken fifty-eight prisoners." 

By authority of Governor St. Clair a second 
expedition was organized by the "Board of 
War" of Kentucky and ordered to rendezvous 
at Fort Washington not later than July 20, 
"well mounted on horseback, well armed and 
provided with thirty days' provisions." The 
command of this expedition was given to Brig- 
adier-General Wilkinson on the first of August, 
who, at the head of 525 men, directed his march 
toward an important village on the Eel River, 
near its junction with the Wabash. Taking a 
direction similar to that of General Scott he 
reached the town he 
sought on the even- 

ing of the 7th. The 

town was destroyed, 
six warriors, two 
squaws and a child 
killed and thirty-four 
prisoners taken. 
After destroying the 
crops he continued 
his march, destroy- 
ing a number of 
other villages, but 
meeting no further 
resistance, until the 
state of his provi- 
sions and the condi- 
tion of his horses 
warned him that he 
must return. On this 
expedition he reports 
that he destroyed 
"430 acres of corn in 
the milk." 

In the fall of 1791, 
Governor St. Clair, 
collecting another 

army of something like fifteen, hundred men, 
mostly undisciplined militia, moved against the 
Mia mis, only to meet with one of the most dis- 
astrous defeats in the history of the country, 
losing thirty-nine officers and 593 men killed 
and missing, among the officers killed being 
Major-General Butler. The retreat was a pre- 
cipitate flight, all wounded being left to their 
fate in the hands of the merciless savage foe. 

While the savages had suffered heavily in 
these campaigns it may be imagined that these 
successes, combined with the impression they 
had gained that the Americans meant to de- 



prive them of their lands, which, by the way, 
was not far from correct, did not act as a seda- 
tive to their war-like temper. General St. Clair 
resigned his commission! as 'major-general and 
was succeeded by General Wayne ("Mad An- 
thony") of revolutionary fame. These reverses 
had taught the lesson that a larger regular 
army was necessary. Steps were taken to en- 
large the army to something over 5,000 men. 
It had previously been about 1,000, of which 
not more than 400 to 600 were in the west. 

While General Wayne was organizing and 
drilling his little army, the United States gov- 

Phoio by Shores 


eminent was doing everything possible to ar- 
range treaties of peace with the various Indian 
tribes. Many messengers, commissioners and 
spies were sent among them, generally only to 
lose their lives. Major Trueman and Colonel 
Hardin, both distinguished Indian fighters, lost 
their lives on one of these missions, for which 
they had volunteered. At Vincennes, April 7, 
1792, Major Hamtramck the commandant, con- 
cluded treaties with small parties of the Weas 
and Eel River tribes, and on the 27th of Sep- 
tember, Brigadier-General Rufus Putnam con- 
cluded a treaty with thirty-one "Kings, chiefs 

and Warriors" of the Wabash and Illinois 
tribes "on the part of said tribes," but the Sen- 
ate refused to ratify this treaty on account of 
some of its provisions, which were regarded as 
objectionable. Legesse, the principal chief of 
the Potawatomies, wrote to Major Hamtramck 
a letter professing the strongest friendship, but 
advising him that the Americans had more In- 
dians to fight than ever before. The majority 
of the chiefs refused to treat on any other basis 
than that the Ohio River should be made the 
boundary line between the Indians and whites. 
General Wayne, having at his command a 
well organized force 
of about 2,600 effect- 
ive men and being 
joined at Fort 
Greenville by Gen- 
eral Scott, of Ken- 
tucky, with a bri- 
gade of cavalry, set 
forth from Fort 
Greenville on the 
?.8th of July to at- 
tacK the confeder- 
ated tribes. An* ad- 
vance section of this 
array, amounting to 
about 900 men, came 
up with a force of 
2,000 savages on the 
banks of the Mau- 
mee on the 20th of 
August, and after a 
hard fought battle. 
almost under the 
guns of the B-itish 
fort, which had been 
built here, in viola- 
tion of the treaty of 

Paris, routed them with great slaughter. As 
a result they were immediately ready for a 
treaty. They were invited to Fort Greenville 
to treat, and there, on the 10th of August of the 
next year, 1795, a satisfactory definitive treaty 
was concluded by General Wayne. 

In May, 1795, Governor St. Clair and Judges 
Symmes and Turner met at Cincinnati and en- 
acted a code of laws, containing thirty-eight 
sections for the government of the Northwest 

On the 3d of March, 1796, a treaty was signed 
between the United States and Spain, by which 



the boundary line became the middle of the 
Mississippi, and the long vexed question of the 
navigation of that stream was settled by its 
being freely conceded to the United States. 
Notwithstanding this treaty, however, Spandsh 
officials delayed the surrender of certain posts 
held on this side of the river and entered into 
intrigues with France and certain dissatisfied 
Americans of the western territory, by which 
it was hoped to induce the West to separate 
from the eastern states, by which those nations 
hoped to profit. Emissaries were sent from the 
Spanish headquarters in Louisiana, obsteusibly 
on an official mission to Gen. Wilkinson, com- 
manding the American forces, to whom a letter 
wase sent, but really to spy out the situation 
and report the prevailing sentiment of the peo- 
ple. General Wilkinson was not deceived, and 
sent the Spanish agent out of the country un- 
der escort. During the ensuing four years the 
diplomatic situation between the United States 
on the one side and France and Spain on the 
other was exceedingly strained and war was 
so imminent that Congress made vigorous 
preparations in view of it. Ex-President Wash- 
ington was appointed commander-in-chief of 
the American armies. But happily war was 
averted and treaties of peace and commercial 
relations concluded in 1800. 



On the 7th of May, 1798, William Henry Har- 
rison was appointed secretary of the territory 
northwest of the Ohio and the nomination con- 
firmed by the Senate on 1 the 28th of the same 
month. On the 29th of October Governor St. 
('lair issued a proclamation directing the quali- 
fied voters to hold elections in their respective 
counties on the third Monday in December, 
for representatives to a General Assembly, 
which he ordered to convene at Cincinnati on 
January 22. 1799. This was the, first general 
election within the bounds of this territory. 
The representatives met in accordance with the 
proclamation and in order to establish a "legis- 
lative council," as provided in the Ordinance of 
1787. for the government of the territory, nomi- 
nated ten persons whose names were sent to 

the president. From these the president nomi- 
nated for members of the council five, as fol- 
lows: Jacob' Burnet, James Findlay, Henry 
Vanderburgto, Robert Oliver and David Vance. 
They were immediately confirmed by the Sen- 
ate. The first territorial legislature met at Cin- 
cinnati on the 16th of September, 1799, but it 
was the 24th before an organization was ef- 
fected. Henry Vanderburgh was elected, presi- 
dent of the first Legislative Council. The House 
of Representatives consisted of nineteen mem- 
bers. Shadrach Bond was the member from 
Knox County. Edward Tiffin, of Ross County, 
was elected speaker. On October 3, 1799, Wm. 
Henry Harrison was elected by the Legislature 
delegate to the National Congress from this ter- 
ritory. During this session, which was closed 
December 19, thirty-seven acts were passed 


and approved by the governor. 

By the treaty of Greenville, negotiated by 
General Wayne, in 1795, the Indians were given 
all the lands lying within the present limits of 
Indiana, with the exception of certain specific 
tracts which included "the town of Vincennes, 
on the Waliash. and the adjacent lands, to 
which the Indian title had been extinguished." 
The earliest mention we have seen of Fort 
Knox is under date of 179G, when it is said 



there was "a small garrison at Fort Knox, un- 
der command of Captain Thomas Pasteur, of 
the First United States regiment, 'till Septem- 
ber, 1798, when, on the removal of this officer 
to Fort Massac, the garrison at Fort Knox was 
placed under the command of Captain Robert 
Buntin." The Count de Volney states that 
when he visited Vincennes in 1796 there were 
about fifty houses here, "whose cheerful white 
relieved the eye, after the tedious dusk and 
green of the woods." 

Volney, who was a French traveler and writ- 
er of distinction, thus describes some of his 

Photo by Shores 


"Adjoining the village and the river is a 
space, inclosed by a ditch eight feet wide, and 
by sharp stakes six feet high. This is called 
the fort, and is a sufficient safeguard against 
surprises by the Indians. I had letters to a 
principal man (Henry Vanderburgh) of the 
place, by birth a Dutchman, who spoke good 
French. I was accommodated at his house in 
the kindest and most hospitable manner for 
ten days. The day after my arrival (Aug. 3d) 
a court was held, to which I repaired to make 

my remarks on the scene. On entering I was 
surprised to find the audience divided into 
races of men in person and feature widely dif- 
ferent from each other. The fair or light brown 
hair, ruddy complexion, round face and plump 
body, indicative of health and ease, of the one 
set, were forcibly contrasted with the emaciated 
frame and meager, tawny visage of 
the other. The dress, likewise, of the latter 
denoted their indigence. I soon discovered that 
the former were new settlers from the states, 
whose lands had been reclaimed five or six 
years before, while the latter were French of 
sixty years' standing in the district The 
latter, three or four 
e x c e p te d. knew 
nothing of English, 
while the former 
were almost as ig- 
norant of French. I 
had acqiiired. in the 
course of the year, a 
sufficient knowledge 
of English to con- 
verse with them 
and was thus en- 
abled to hear the 
tales of both parties. 
"The French, in a 
querulous tone, re- 
counted the losses 
and hardships they 
had suffered. es- 
pecially since the 
last Indian war. in 
1788. * * * They 
complain e d that 
they were cheated 
and robbed. and 
especially that their 
rights were con- 
tinually violated by the .courts, in which 
two judges only out of live were French- 
men, who knew little of the laws or language 
of the English. Their ignorance, indeed, was 
profound. Nobody ever opened a school 
among them, till it was done by the able R. 
(Riveti a polite, well educated and liberal mind- 
ed missionary, banished hither by the French 
revolution. Out of nine of the French scarcely 
six could read or write, whereas, nine-tenths of 
the Americans or immigrants from the East 



could do both. * * * I could not fix, with 
accuracy, the date of the first settlement of 
Vincennes, and, notwithstanding the homage 
paid by some learned men to tradition, I could 
trace out but few events of the war of 1757, 
though some of the old men lived before that 
time. I was able to form a conjecture that it 
was formed about 1735. 

"These statements were confirmed for the 
most part by the new settlers. They only 
placed the same facts in a different point of 
view. They told me that the Canadians (for 
by that name the French of the Western colo- 

9hofo by Toiunslev 


nics are known to them) had only themselves 
to blame for all the hardships they complained 
of. We must allow, say they, that they are a 
kind, hospitable, sociable sect: but then for 
idleness and ignorance they beat the Indians 
themselves. They know nothing at all of our 
civil or domestic affairs. Their women neither 
sew. nor spin, nor make butter.* * * The 
men take to nothing but hunting, fishing, 
roaming through the woods and loitering in the 
sun. They do not lay up, as we do for winter, 
or provide for a rainy day. They cannot cure 
pork or venison, make sourkraut or spruce beer, 

or distilled spirits from apples or rye, all need 
ful arts to the farmer." 

The French inhabitants of Vincennes having 
become accustomed to the arbitrary govern- 
ment by commandants and being unacquainted 
with customs and usages of the people of the 
English colonies, preferred this form of gov- 
ernment. Colonel Clark appointed command- 
ants for Kaskaskia and Vincennes, and 
Colonel Todd, the first lieutenant for Illinois 
County did likewise. Colonel Legras was ap- 
pointed by Colonel Todd for Vincennes and 
carefully instructed in his duties. Having de- 
c i d e d, in 1780, 
to withdraw all the 
American forces to 
the mouth of the 
Ohio, and fearing to 
leave Vincennes 
without military pro- 
tection, Colonel 
Todd authorized 
Colonel Bosseron, 
then commandant at 
the Post, to raise a 
company to garrison 
the post, providing 
him with blank com- 
missions for the of- 
ficers, with assur- 
ances that the garri- 
son would be al- 
lowed pay and 
rations by the gov- 

Concerning the 
condition of things 
at Vincennes and 
Kaskaskia in 1783, 
a letter written by 

Walter Daniel, Esq., to Virginia officials, under 
date of February 3, says: "He (Captain Tarde- 
veaux) complains that they are wholly without 
law or government; that their magistrates, 
from ignorance or sinster views, having for 
some time been relax in the execution of their 
offices, are now altogether without authority; 
that crimes of the greatest enormity may be 
committed with impunity, and a man may be 
murdered in his own house and no person re- 
gards it; that they have no sheriffs nor pris- 
ons; and, to crown the general confusion, that 
many persons have made large purchases of 



three or four hundred leagues, and are en- 
deavoring to have themselves established lords 
of the soil, as some have done in Canada." 

This chaotic condition of affairs was relieved 
after the visit of Colonel Josiah Harmar, who, 
at the head of a detachment of U. S. infantry, 
visited Vincennes in July, 1787. Major John F. 
Hamtramck was stationed here with a strong 
garrison of infantry. 

A numerously signed petition was presented 


to Major Hamtramck soon after, by the citi- 
zens, for relief from land-grabbers, who had ap- 
propriated the "commons" for the purpose of 
carrying on an improper traffic with persons 
who are not permanent citizens." Relief was 
promptly granted by the major, as requested. 
To prevent other abuses Major Hamtramck is- 
sued an order prohibiting all persons from 
"selling, mortgaging or exchanging any of their 
goods, lands or slaves, without express per- 
mission from the officer commanding at this 
place." . 


On the division of the Northwestern Terri- 

tory by the act of May 7, 1800, the seat of gov- 
ernment of the Indian Territory was fixed at 
Viucennes, and William Henry Harrison, a 
native of Virginia, became its first governor, 
May 13, 1800. On the next day John Gibson, 
of Pennsylvania, became secretary. It was to 
this man, many years before, that the Indian 
chief, Logan, delivered his celebrated speech. 
William Clark, Henry Vanderburgh and John 
Griffin were soon afterwards appointed terri- 
torial judges. At 
this time the civil- 
ized population of 
the territory was es- 
timated at 4,875. 
The new secretary 
arrived at Vincennes 
in July and in the 
absence of the gov- 
ernor appointed a 
number of territorial 
officers to provide 
for the administra- 
tion of the laws. 
Governor Harrison 
arrived early in Jan- 
uary, 1801, and on 
the 10th of that 
month issued a 
proclamation requir- 
ing the attendance 
of the judges at the 
seat of government 
for the purpose of 

"adopting and publishing such laws as the ex- 
igencies of the times" required, and for 
the "performance of other acts conform- 
able to the ordinances and laws of Con- 
gress for the government of the terri- 
tory." The governor and the judges met 
on the 12th and continued in session till the 
26th of the same month, during which time 
they adopted and published seven laws and 
three resolutions. 

The first term of the territorial court was 
begun at Vincennes on the 24th day of March, 
1801. by the three judges named above. The 
first grand jury impaneled within the territory 
was composed of the following nineteen per- 
sons: Luke Decker, Antoine Marchal, Joseph 
Baird. Patrick Simpson, Antoine Petit, Andre 
Montplaiseur, John Ockiltree, Jonathan Mar- 
ney, Jacob Tevebaugh, Alexander Varley, 



Francois Turpin, Fr. Compagiioitte, Charles 
Languedoc, Louis Severe, Fr. Languedoc, 
George Catt, Johu Bt Barois, Abraham Decker, 
Philip Catt. 

One of the first questions which occupied the 
attention of the newly organized territory of 

'Photo by Tcnonsley 


1802. The main object of those who favored 
this convention was to consider the expediency 
of adopting measures to secure the repeal or 
suspension of that article of the ordinances of 
1787 which prohibited the holding of slaves 
in the territory. The convention declared in 
favor of the suspen- 
sion of the sixth 
article of the or- 

- dinances and so peti- 
tioned Congress. But 
Congress declined to 
accede to their de- 
m a n ds. Petitions 
and remonstrances 
by the friends and 
enemies of slavery 
began to be frequent 
subjects of consider- 
tion by Congress and 
the political caldron 
of the territory was 
seething for a num- 
ber of years. 

A majority of the 
electors of the ter- 
ritory having, Sept. 
11, 1804, declared in 
favor of electing a 
territorial le g i s 1 a- 
ture, Gov. Harrison 
issued a proclama- 
tion calling for such 
an election to be held 

Indiana was that of slavery, which had been 
introduced into the territory under the French 
laws. Louis XIII. of France had, in 1615, pro- 
mulgated a code of laws consisting of fifty-five 
articles, "in order to maintain the discipline of 
the apostolic Roman Catholic Church and to 
regulate the estate and condition of slaves in 
the said country" of Louisiana Territory. Vari- 
ous persons at both Kaskaskia and Vincennes 
were owners of slaves from the earliest times. 
The slave question began to agitate the people 
of the territory early in the administration of 
Governor Harrison, and at the earnest solicita- 
tion of many of the inhabitants Governor Har- 
rison, on the 22d of November. 1892. gave notice 
of an election to be held on the llth of Decem- 
ber, following, for delegates to meet in conven- 
tion at Yincennes on the 20th of December, 

on the 3d of January, 

1805, and fixing the number of members from 
each county. The members so elected were to 
meet in Vincennes on the first of February and 
nominate ten persons, from whose numbel% ac- 
cording to law, the president would select the 
legislative council, or upper house of the Legis- 
lature. The members so nominated for Knox 
County were John Rice Jones, who in subse- 
quent years became a judge of the Supreme 
Court of Missouri, and Jacob Kuykendall. 
President Jefferson, not knowing the men, 
wisely decided to depute to Governor Harrison 
the authority to name them. Accordingly he 
sent to the governor an instrument with 
blanks for the insertion of the names, caution- 
ing him to reject "land jobbers, dishonest men 
and those who, though honest, might suffer 



themselves to be warped by party prejudices." 
The first Legislature of Indiana Territory met 
at Vincennes, July 29, 1805, and the lower house 
was composed of seven members. The mem- 
bers from Knox County were Benjamin Parke 
and John Johnson. 

Governor Harrison's message called for need- 
ed legislation on a number of subjects, the first, 
and that on which he dwelt longest, being to 
prevent the sale of intoxicants to the Indians. 
On this subject he said: "The interests of your 
constituents, the interests of the miserable In- 
dians, and your own feelings, will sufficiently 
urge you to 'take it into your most serious con- 
sideration, and provide the remedy which is to 
save thousands of our fellow creatures. You 
are witnesses to the abuses; you have seen our 
town crowded with furious and drunken sav- 
ages; our streets flowing with their blood; 
their arms and clothes bartered for the liquor 
that destroys them; 
and their miserable Photo by Shores 
women and children 
enduring all the ex- 
tremities of cold and 
hunger. So destruct- 
ive has the progress 
of intern p e r a n c e 
been among them 
that whole villages 
have been swept 
away. A miserable 
remnant is all that 
remains to mark the 
names and situa- 
tion of many numer- 
ous and warlike 
tribes. In the en- 
ergetic language of 
one of their orators, 
'it is a dreadful con- 
flagration, which 
spreads misery and 
desolation through 
the country,' and 
threatens the- anni- 
hilation of the race." 

The Indiana territory, as first organized in 
1800, included what is now the states of Illinois 
and Michigan, as well as the state of Indiana. 
Michigan was cut off in June, 1805, but Illinois 
remained within the Indiana Territory till 1809. 
In addition to the government of the territory, 

Governor Harrison was intrusted with other 
important matters by the government at 
Washington. Among these was that of culti- 
vating the friendship of the Indian tribes, with 
whom he was empowered, on behalf of the 
United States, to conclude treaties. He was 
urged to use all pacific m.eans in his power to 
extinguish the Indian title to lands northwest 
of the Ohio, and so successful was he in this, 
that by a series of some seven treaties with the 
various tribes, before the close of 1805, he had 
secured the relinquishnient by the Indians to- 
the United States of 40,000 square miles of ter- 

In 1807 the first revised statutes of the terri- 
tory were published at Vincennes by Messrs.. 
Stout & Smoot, "Printers to the Territory." 
The book contained the laws "as revised by 
Messrs. John Rice Jones and John Johnson, and 
passed (after amendments) by the Legislature," 


fee. It is of interest to note that among the 
subjects of legislation ait this early date was 
"the Vincennes library" and the "Wabash Bap- 
tist Church." By the provisions of this code 
the death penalty was attached to the crimes of 
treason, murder, arson and horse stealing. 



.Burglary and robbery were punishable by whip- 
ping, fine or imprisonment. Larceny was pun- 
ishable by fine or whipping or by being bound 
to labor for a term, not exceeding seven years; 
hog stealing by tine and whipping; bigamy, by 
fine, whipping and dist'ranchisement. 

Stringent laws were also in force for the pun- 
ishment of children and servants who refused 
to obey parents or masters, as the case 
might be. 

By act of Congress, approved March 26th, 
1804. provision was made for the disposal of 
the public lands through land offices, of which 
three were established. That at Vincennes was 
.in charge of Mr. John Badollet, as register, and 

Nathaniel Ewiiig, receiver. Mr. Badollet who 
was a man of distinguished ability and virtue 
and subsequently prominent in various official 
capacities, was an ancestor of our esteemed 
townsman, Mr. Henry S. Badollet, late of the 
Elephant Shoe Store. 

(Governor Harrison said in his message to the 
Territorial Legislature, in 1806, that he had 
had assurances from all the Indian tribes with- 
in his jurisdiction that they would "preserve 
inviolate their relations of 'amity with the 
United States," and his strong sense of justice 
induced him to add: 

"They (the Indians) will never have recourse 

to arms I speak of those in our immediate 
neighborhood unless driven to it by a series 
of injustice and oppression. Of this they al- 
ready begin to complain, and I am sorry to say 
that their complaints are far from being 
groundless. It is true that the general govern- 
ment has passed laws for fulfilling, not only 
the stipulations contained in our treaty, but 
also those sublime duties which a just sense of 
our prosperity and their wretchedness seem to 
impose. The laws of the territory provide, 
also, the same punishment for offenses com- 
mitted against Indians as against white men. 
Experience, however, shows that there is a 
wide difference in the execution of those laws. 
The Indian always suffers and the white man 
never. This partiality has not escaped their 
penetration, and has afforded them an oppor- 
tunity of making the proudest comparisons be- 
tween their own observance of treaties and that 
of their boasted superiors. If, in your review 
of our penal code, gentlemen, any regulation 
should suggest itself, which would promise 
more impartiality in the execution of the laws 
in favor of those unhappy people, the adoption 
of it will be highly acceptable to the United 
States and honorable to yourselves. But should 
you suppose it dangerous to make any discrim- 
ination in their favor, I pray you to Igse no op- 
portunity of inculcating, among your constitu- 
ents, an abhorrence of that unchristian and de- 
testable doctrine which would make a distinc- 
tion of guilt between the murder of a white 
man and that of an Indian." 

Writing to the secretary of war, Governor 
Harrison recounts a complaint of an old In- 
dian chief to him. "You call us your children." 
said, he, "Why do you not make us happy, 
as our fathers, the French, did? They never 
took from us our lands; indeed they were in 
common between us. They planted where they 
pleased, and they cut wood where they 
pleased: and so did we. But now if a poor In- 
dian attempts to take a little bark from a tree 
to cover him from the rain, up comes a white 
man and threatens to shoot him, claiming the 
tree as his own." 



The encroachment of the whites upon the 
lands of the Indian, their invasion of his hunt- 



ing ground and frequent killings of Indians by 
the whites, many who looked upon the killing 

Believed to be a Portrait of Tecumseh 

of an Indian as rather a praiseworthy act than 
a crime, could have but one effect when long 
continued, that of rendering the Indians dis- 
contented axid restless. They saw the lands of 
their fathers slipping away from them into the 
grasp of a people whose example had been only 
one of cruel and contemptuous oppression, 
whatever might have been their precepts. 
Their alarm was no doubt heightened by the 
activity of Governor Harrison in inducing the 
Indians to cede their lands to the government, 
pursuant to his instructions from Washington. 
In the course of a very few years they had thus 
parted with an immense domain and were be- 
ing gradually more and more restricted. To 
this there could be but one culmination, from 
the Indian's point of view. The adoption of 
the civilized mode of life, and dependence 

mainly on the productions of the ground for 
his sustenance was foreign to his thought. He- 
only saw himself a wanderer on the face of 
the earth, seeking a hunting ground in the do- 
main of other tribes and compelled to go to- 
war with them for the privilege. The wiser 
men among them b(;gan to contemplate these 
matters with a growing alarm, which was fed. 
and fostered constantly by British emissaries, 
who looked forward to the aid of the Indians 
in the war that every one felt must soon come 
between England and this country. 

During the year 1806 the famous Shawanee 
chief, Tecumseh, and his brother, Law-le-was-i- 
kaw (the loud voice), resided at the Delaware- 
villages on the west fork of the White River, 
in the bounds of the present county of Dela- 
ware. Law-le-was-i-kaw began to lay claims to- 

Harrison's Conference with Tecumseh 

prophetic powers and began a crusade against: 
witchcraft, the use of intoxicating liquors, in- 



terinarriage of Indian women with the whites, 
the dress and habits of the whites and the sale 
of Indian lands. He soon gathered a con- 
spicuous following among the superstitious In- 
dians, through his claims of direct communi- 
cations from the Great Spirit. A number of 
Indians were at his instigation put to death 
for witchcraft. Governor Harrison, becoming 
alarmed at the machinations and growing in- 
fluence of the Prophet, early in 1806 sent a 
messenger to the Indians with a speech strong- 
ly condemning the prophet, who had a short 
time before, with his immediate followers, in- 
cluding Tecumseh, withdrawn to Greenville, 
Ohio. Having by his artful practices in the 
course of the next two years fallen under the 
suspicion of the people and officials of that 
vicinity, in the spring of 1808 he removed and 
settled on the banks of the Wabash near the 
mouth of the Tippecanoe River, having ob- 
tained permission from the Potawatomies and 

Photo by Todd 

that the treaties by which the United States 
had acquired their lands were unfair, and 
therefore void; that the tribes in severalty 
could not alienate their lands since they be- 
longed to them all in common, and that he and 
his brother, the prophet, would resist any 
further attempts on the part of the whites to 
extend their settlements over the Indian lands. 
There is no evidence, however, that he advo- 
cated w r ar. 

Early in 1808, Governor Harrison addressed 
a speech "to the chiefs and head men of the 
Shawnee tribe of Indians"' as follows: "My 
children, this business must be stopped. I will 
no longer suffer it. You have called a number 
of men from the most distant tribes to listen 
to a fool, who speaks not the word of the 
Great Spirit, but those of the devil, and of the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has 
much alarmed the white settlers near you. 
They desire that you will send away those peo- 


Kickapoos. This place was afterwards known 
as Prophet's Town. The growing fame of the 
prophet among the tribes of th'> northwestern 
part of the territory opened their ears to the 
solicitations of Tecumseh, who was actively 
engaged in an effort to form these tribes into a 
great confederacy for their mutual protection 
against the encroachments of the whites. In 
his speeches at their council fires be claimed 

pie. And if they wish to have the imposter 
with them, they can carry him. Let him go to 
the lakes; he can hear the British more dis- 
tinctly." The prophet's reply, sent by the same 
messenger, was a model of self restraint and 
apparent candor, while he specifically denied 
the allegations of the governor. Later the 
prophet sent another messenger to the governor 
protesting that his followers desired to live in 



peace with the white people. At the confer- 
ence with the governor this messenger said: 
"I have now listened to that man (the prophet) 
upward of three years, and have never heard 
him give any but good advice. He tells us 
that we must pray to the Great Spirit, who 
made the world and everything in it for our 
use. He tells us that no man could make the 
plants, the trees and the animals; but that 
they must be made by the Great Spirit to whom 
we ought to pray, and obey in all things. He 
tells us not to lie, to steal or to drink whisky; 
not to go to war, but to live in peace with all 
mankind. He tells us, also, to work and make 

year, however, put an end to his efforts in that 
direction, and it is not known that any citizens 
of Vincenues actually took any steps toward 
joining him. The unsettled state of the land 
claims in the Northwestern Territory, and 
the vast number of speculative and fraudulent 
claims, induced Congress, in 1804, to establish 
boards of commissioners to inquire into their 
validity. Before the close of the year 1810 these 
boards had severally examined and confirmed a 
large number of valid and just claims and re- 
jected a large number of ilfegal and fraudulent 
claims. In one instance a single perjurer, "fond 
of liquor," had made depositions in favor of a 

In the month of 
August the prophet 
himself visited Vin- 
cennes and remained 
ten days, holding 
conferences with the 
governor. These in- 
terviews seem to 
have modified, in 
aome degree, at 
least, the opinions 
the governor had 
previously held as 
to the honesty and 
good faith of the 
prophet But later 
inf ormation, ob- 
tained from various 

Photo bv Shores 


sources, confirmed his former impressions that 
in the prophet and Tecumseh he had to deal 
with very dangerous persons, who were under 
the influence of British agents. A second visit 
of the prophet did not remove his suspicions. 

The governor continued his policy of making 
treaties with the various nations by w r hich 
their lands were ceded to the United States and 
in this he met the constant opposition of Te- 
cumseh and the prophet. The former plainly 
told the governor in an interview at Vincenues 
that he would resist any attempt that should 
be made to survey these concessions. 

Some time during 1 the year 1806 or 1807, 
Aaron Burr is said to have visited the. town of 
Vincennes in the interest of his conspiracy to 
establish an empire in the Southwest and to 
have enrolled some of its inhabitants among 
his followers. His arrest early in the latter 


few claimants to the number of two hundred. 
This man made oath in court, in the presence 
of the commissioners, to the falsity of his pre- 
vious depositions. 

In the districts of Kaskaskia and Vincennes 
many of the inhabitants who had received do- 
nations of lattd from the government, sold their 
lands to speculators at the rate of about thirty 
cents per acre, and in many instances, so little 
were they capable of managing their affairs, 
they accepted in payment various kinds of un- 
profitable merchandise at exorbitant prices. 

As early as the year 1860 "the common" at 
Vincennes, containing about 5,400 acres, was 
enclosed by a fence for the confinement of cat- 
tle, the usage of the French settlers being to 
keep their cattle within this inclosure and to 
leave their cultivated fields unfenced. By act 
of Congress of March 3, 1791, the inhabitants of 



Vincennes were au- 
thorized to use this 
large common "until 
otherwise disposed 
of by law." By act 
of April 20, 1818, the 
trustees of Vin- 
cennes were author- 
ized to divide the 
"common" into lots 
and to sell such lots, 
applying the pro- 
ceeds, so far as 
necessary, to the 
drainage of a pond 
in the vicinity of the 
town, the residue to 
be paid to the trus- 
tees of Vincennes 

On account of the 
wide extent of "wil- 
d e r n e s s country" 
which separated 
the various settle- 
ments within the im- 
mense territory, the 

Pholo by Shores 

Photo by Shores 

B. & O. GRAVEL PIT. Site of a hill 35 feet high, now a lake 25 feet deep 

question of a divi- 
sion of the Indian 
territory began to be 
agitated as early as 
1806. The hardships 
and dangers, coupled 
with the attendance 
of parties and wit- 
nesses upon the 
courts, and the diffi- 
culty of executing 
the laws in the dis- 
tant sections were 
among the most po- 
tent reasons urged 
therefor. The divi- 
sion was effected by 
an act of Congress of 
February 3, 1809, 
which gave to the 
territory practically 
the present bound- 
aries of the state of 
Indiana. In 1808 the 
white population of 
Indiana Territory 
was estimated at 28,- 
000, of whom 11,000 




were westward of 
the Wabash. 

The act of 1809, by 
which the division 
was effected, pro- 
vided that the Gen- 
eral Assembly 
should apportion, the 
members of the 
House of Represent- 
atives to consist of 
not less than nine 
nor more than 
twelve," &c. Appar- 
ently the fact was 
overlooked by Con- 
gress that there was 
no Legislature In ex- 
istence and could be 
none until an elec- 
tion should be held, 
and. that an appor- 
tionment would 
seem to be a pre-re- 
quisite to the hold- 
ing of such an elec- 
tion. Six days be- 
fore he had notice of 

Photo ty Shores 

T'h'vo by Shors 


VIEW OF WABASH -South of City 

the law dividing the- 
territory, Governor 
Harrison had issued 
writs for an election 
of members of the 
Legislature. This 
Legislature met at 
Vincennes in the fol- 
lowing November, 
but not being coni- 
stituted and elected 
according to the new 
law, conceived that 
it was not authorized 
to proceed with leg- 
islation. The neces- 
sities of the situa- 
tion, however, in- 
duced the Legisla- 
ture to proceed with 
the apportionment 
and to memorialize 
Congress to legalize 
the same. This done, 
the legislature was, 
at its own request,, 
prorogued by Gov- 



Mrs. W. J. Hiskey's Boarding House, Fifth and Church 

ernor Harrison.. 
On May 22, 1809, 
an election for dele- 
gate to Congress was- 
held, the chief con- 
testants being Jona- 
than Jennings, a na- 
tive of Pennsylvania 
and an anti-slavery 
man, and Thomas 
Randolph, a pro- 
slavery man, from 
Virginia. The for- 
mer received 428 and 
the latter 402 votes. 
In Knox County- 
eighty-one v o t e & 
were cast for John- 
Johnson, the total 
vote of the territory 
being 911. 

According to the 
census of 1810, the 
total white popula- 
tion of the territory 
was 24,520. Other 
statistics taken at 
that time showed 

Cottage Residences of W. S. Racey and T. F. Palfry 


that there were within its boundaries 33 grist 
mills, 14 saw mills, 3 horse mills, 18 tanneries, 
28 distilleries, 3 powder mills, 1,256 looms, and 
1,350 spinning wheels. The value of all manu- 
factures was as follows: Cotton, woolen, hemp- 
en and flaxen cloths and mixtures, $159,052; 
cotton and wool, spun in mills, $150(?); nails 
(20,000 pounds) $4,000; leather, $9,300; distilled 
spirits (35,000 gal- 
lons), $16,230; gun- 
powder (3,600 IDS.). 
$1,800; wine from 
grapes (96 bbls.), $6,- 
000; maple sugar (50,- 
000 Ibs.), value not 

The year 1810 was 
one of great anxiety 
to the governor and 
inhabitants of Indi- 
ana Territory on ac- 
count of the activity 
of Tecumseh and the 
prophet, in their ef- 
forts to unite the In- 
dians against the 
policy of the whites. 
During the summer 
a number of horses 
were stolen from 
settlers in the north- 
ern part of Knox 
county on White 

River and other depredations committed. It 
was the constant effort of Governor Harrison to 
defeat the hostile designs of the prophet and 
his brother and to that end he sent many mes- 
sengers to them, among the men thus employed 
being a number of the most prominent in the 
territory, including Colonel Francis Vigo, Tou- 
sant Dubois, Joseph Barroni, Pierre and Wni. 
Prince. These were sent to the Delawares and 
Mia mis with assurances of the friendship and 
protection of the United States, and warnings 
of the danger of encouraging the prophet. 

In May a meeting was held by chiefs of the 
Potawatomies, Chippewas and Ottawas, at a 
place called the Cow Pasture, on the banks of 
the St. Joseph River near Lake Michigan. At 
the suggestion of Governor Harrison', the Dela- 
wares sent deputies to this meeting and their 
presence and remonstrances prevented the 
others from placing themselves at the feet of 
the prophet. At this time it was believed there 

were with the prophet about 600 warriors. 
The attitude of the prophet's followers grew 
more and more arrogant as their numbers in- 
creased. In the spring of this year they de- 
clined to receive their "annuities of salt" from 
the boatmen who attempted to deliver it, and 
treated them with contempt and great rude- 

OLD RESIDENCE MR. JOHN WISE Built by Judge Parke, 1804 

Governor Harrison continued to send mes- 
sages of warning to the prophet, but to no ef- 
fect. Finally, in July, he sent a letter to the 
prophet endeavoring to convince him of his fol- 
ly and offering to send him and three chiefs of 
his own selection to Washington to see the 
President, if he would prefer to make his com- 
plaint there. Mr. Barron. the bearer of this 
letter, was received ini a cold and haughty, even 
threatening, manner, and accused of being a 
spy. Mr. Barron received no definite answer, 
but was informed that Tecumseh would go to 
Vincennes in a few days and hold a conference 
with the governor. 

Accordingly, on the 12th of August, the noted 
chief appeared at the head of seventy-five 
armed warriors and from that date till the 22d 
was almost constantly before the governor. 
Tecumseh had made a number of speeches, but 
none was preserved until that of the 20th, when 
Governor Harrison directed his interpreter to 



take it down in writing. In this speech the 
chief complains of the sale of lands to the 
whites by the petty chiefs to whom he denies 
authority thereto. He claims that he himself 
is supreme and that unless the lands are re- 
stored a counsel will be held soon and these 
recreant chiefs will all be condemned to death, 
and charges that the governor will be accessory 
to their murder. Ins this arrogant strain he 

fhoto by Totvnsley 

continues at length. 

At the conclusion of this speech the governor 
arose to reply and when speaking of the exact 
justice and paternal care with which the 
United States had always dealt with the vari- 
ous 'tribes he was suddenly interrupted by Te- 
cumseh, who jumped to his feet, jesticulating 

wildly, and denounced as false the allegations 
of the governor.* 

The braves with him jumped to their feet 
and assumed a defiant attitude. The governor, 
not being acquainted with the language, did' 
not know what had been said, but the secre- 
tary of the territory, General Gibson, under- 
standing, and anticipating possible trouble, di- 
rected a guard of twelve men, who were at a 
little distance, to 
stand to their arms. 
It looked very 
stormy for a mo- 
ment. When the gov- 
ernor heard the in- 
terpretation of the 
language he in- 
formed Tecumseh 
that he would no 
longer treat with 
him and ordered 
him to depart to his 
camp. He was in- 
formed that the gov- 
ernor would commu- 
nicate with the 
tribes by letter on 
the subject of the 
lands recently pur- 
chased and that if 
Tecumseh had any- 
thing further to com- 
municate he should 
send the Huron or 

N - Fourth some other chief. 

This interview was held under some large trees 
which stood near the governor's residence, now 
corner Park and Scott Streets. 

During the night Tecumseh realized that he 
had made a mistake and when visited by the 
interpreter in the morning he begged another 
interview with the governor and protested that 

*It was related by Mr. Felix Bouchie, an old gentleman of wonderful memory, who died in Vincennes 
in 1897, after having spent his entire life of eighty years here, that on this occasion Tecumseh asked 
for a bench. Gen. Harrison asked through the interpreter for what he wanted it. Tecumseh replied 
that he desired to sit by the General. No bench being obtainable elsewhere, Gen. Harrison, disposed to 
humor the great chief, sent to St. Xavier Church and secured one of the puncheon benches in use 
there. When the General and chieftain took their seats on the bench, the latter sat very close to Gen. 
Harrison, in fact forcing the General to move. Tecumseh promptly followed him up and again 
crowded him. Again the General moved, only again to be Crowded. Finally, reaching the end of the 
bench, Gen. Harrison said to the interpreter: "Tell him he is about to crowd me off." This appeared 
to be the protest for which Tecumseh was looking, and which gave him the opportunity to enforce his 
points. "Ugh! Ugh!" said he, "Ask the big man how he would like me to crowd him clear off. Ask 
him how he would like me to crowd him out of the country, as he is crowding me and my people. Tell 
him we were once to the sea on the east, but we have been crowded back and off. Tell him that all the 
earth ,the hills and the valleys, the forest and the streams and the fullness thereof were ours one time, 
but now the paleface has crowded us back till only the space to the setting sun is ours." Gen. Harrison 
protested that the whites had dealt fairly and honestly with the Indians, and here it was, according to 
Mr. Bouchie, that Tecumseh lost his temper and gave the lie to the General. 



lie had meant no harm by his conduct of the 
day before, and that he wished to reach an 
amicable settlement. He said, also, that he 
liad probably been deceived by white people, 
who told him that only half the whites were 
with the governor and that the remainder were 
friendly to the claims of the Indians, etc., etc. 

Governor Harrison consented to meet him 
again, and at this meeting, on the 21st, his 
manner had entirely changed. He was digni- 
fied and respectful in manner and repeated to 
General Harrison what he had before said to 
the interpreter, Mr. Barren. When the gov- 
ernor asked him whether the Indians would in- 
terfere with surveyors who might attempt to 
run the lines of recent purchases, he made it 
pretty plain that they would be in dangerous 

The next day Governor Harrison, with his in- 
terpreter, visited the camp of Tecumseh. In 
the course of the interview Tecumseh repeated 

Knox County Orphan's Home, Fairgrounds Avenue 

his former claims and when told bjr the gov- 
ernor that his pretensions would not be 
acknowledged by the president, he threw down 
the gauntlet in the following language: 

"Well, as the Great Chief is to determine the 
matter, I hope the Great Spirit will put sense 
enough into his head to induce him to direct 
you to give us this land. It is true he is so far 

off he will not be injured by the war. He may 
sit still in his own town and drink his wine, 
while you and I will have to fight it out." 

Soon after this famous conference between 
Governor Harrison and Tecumseh a small de- 
tachment of troops was ordered to move from 
Newport, Kentucky, to Vincennes. These 
troops, with three companies of militia and a 
company of Knox County dragoons, were held 
in readiness to march into the disputed terri- 
tory and build a fort on the bank of the Wa- 
bash near the northern boundary of the land, 
which was north of the present site of Terre 
Haute. This was laud that had been acquired 
by the treaty of Fort Wayne in 1809. The fort 
was not built, however, until the next year, 
though a surveyor of the name of McDonald 
undertook to make the survey in October, 1810. 
While these momentous events were trans- 
piring at the Capital, an election for members 
of the Legislature had been held in the terri- 
tory on April 2, 1810, 
pursuant to a proc- 
lamation of the gov- 
ernor. In further 
compliance with the 
proclani a t i o n the 
body met at Vin- 
cenues on the 12th of 
November in the 
same year. Of this 
body the Knox 
County members 
were Walter Wilson 
and William Jones 
of the Council and 
General Washington 
Johnston, Peter 
Jones and John Cald- 
well of the House. 

In his message to 
the legislature at the 
opening of the ses- 
sion, Governor Har- 
rison called attention 
to the threatening 

attitude of the Indians and the dangerous 
views some of them entertained with reference 
to the lands. At the same time he dwelt at 
length on the necessity of rapid extinction of 
the Indian title to lands- not only for the benefit 
of the whites, but likewise of the Indians them- 
selves, as tending to lead them into civilized 
modes of life, on the growing scarcity of game. 



Ou the subject of education the governor urged 
the propriety of making a military education 
compulsory in both the common schools and the 
higher institutions of learning. Said he: "Let 
the masters of the Inferior schools be obliged 
to qualify themselves and instruct their pupils 
in the military evolutions, while the university, 
in addition to the exercises, may have attached 
to it a professorship 
of tactics, in which 
all the sciences con- 
nected with the art 
of war may be 
taught" He dwelt 
at considerable 
length on the 
obvious advantages 
and the small cost of 
the innovation. 

The Legislature 
continued in session 
thirty-eight days and 
passed no less than 
sixty-three acts. 
Among these was 
one authorizing the 
president and direct- 
ors of the Vincennes 
Library to raise the 
sum of $1,000 by lot- 
tery. At this session 
also a petition to 
Congress was pre- 

murdered by whites, added fuel to the smoul- 
dering wrath of both the savages and the set- 
tlers. The prophet caused the seizure of some 
"annuity salt" that was being sent to some 
northern tribes of Indians, sending word to the 
governor "riot to be angry at his seizing the 
salt, as he had got none last year and had more 
than two thousand men to feed." 

Residence Charles Bierhaus, 424 N. Sixth 

pared asking permission to locate a certain 
quantity of lauds "lying on the main fork of 
White River" for a permanent seat of govern- 
ment; and by an act of the General Assembly, 
a commission was appointed to select a site for 
the new capital. 

Governor Harrison continued his efforts to 
break up the confederacy of the northern tribes, 
but the activity of the British agents, who be- 
lieved that a war was approaching between 
England and America and were determined to 
secure the friendship of the Indians, rendered 
his efforts in a measure abortive. While the 
governor was instructed to preserve the pacific 
relations with the Indians, if possible, the secre- 
tary of war intimated that "the surest means 
of securing good behavior from the prophet and 
Tecumseh would be to make them prisoners." 

During the spring and summer of 1811 a num- 
ber of murders were committed by roving 
bands of Indians, and some isolated Indians 

Governor Harrison sent Captain Wilson with 
a speech addressed to the prophet and Tecum- 
seh in which he recounted information he had 
received from various sources as to the sinister 
designs of the conspirators, demanding satis- 
faction for the seizure of the salt, suggesting 
that the surest means of establishing the purity 
of their motives would be to visit the president 
and lay their grievances before him, renewing 
his offer to provide them means for the jour- 
ney, and informing Tecumseh that his pro- 
posed visit to Vincennes at the head of a large 
body of men would be taken as an unfriendly 
act. Tecumseh replied in a short written letter 
saying he would visit Vincennes within eighteen 
days and that then all the matters would be 

On the 27th of July Tecumseh came to Vin- 
cennes at the head of a body of about 300 In- 
dians. Suspecting his designs, Governor Har- 
rison took pains to have at hand a military 



force of 700 or 800 men, and if Tecumseh had 
any ulterior intentions they were not developed. 
He remained several days. He still professed 
a desire to be at peace with the whites, but con- 
tinued to maintain the same attitude with ref- 
erence to the sale of the Indian lands; said he 
was going* to visit the Southern Indians, the 
Creeks, Chickasaws and Choctaws, for the pur- 
pose of uniting them in his proposed confed- 
eracy. He said he would on his return visit 
Washington and that everything would be satis- 
factorily adjusted. After the conference he de- 
parted southward with about twenty followers. 
On July 31, 1811, a public meeting was held 
at Vincennes for the purpose of declaring by 
resolutions the danger td which the white in^ 
habitants were exposed and also to petition the 
President to disperse the prophet's band of hos- 
tile Indians. Already, however, had the Presi- 
dent, on the 17th, instructed the secretary of 
war to authorize Governor Harrison to call out 

Photo by Toii>nsley 

House in which Territorial Legislature Met 

the territorial militia and if circumstances re- 
quired, attack the prophet and his followers. 
He was also authorized to call to his aid the 
fourth U. S. infantry, then stationed at the 
falls of the Ohio. 

The governor promptly gave orders to Colonel 
Boyd to move with his regiment to Vincennes, 
where it was joined by the militia and the 

garrison of Fort Knox. In accordance with the 
earnestly expressed desire of the government to 
preserve the peace with the Northwestern Indi- 
ans, the governor dispatched, by special messen- 
gers, written speeches to the various tribes with- 
in his territory, requiring them to "fulfill the con- 
ditions of their treaties with the United States, 
to avoid all acts of hostility to the whites and 
to make a positive disavowal of union or con- 
nection with the Shawanee prophet." 

On the 25th of September, a little before the 
governor was ready to move on his expedition 
against the prophet, a deputation arrived from 
the prophet with protestations of peace, and de- 
claring the willingness of the Indians to com- 
ply with the governor's demands. 

Governor Harrison's little army, about 1,000 
strong, moved northward on the 26th of 
September. On the 3d of October, without in- 
cident, it arrived at a point about two miles 
north of where Terre Haute now stands. It 
then went into camp 
and inline di a t e 1 y 
made preparations to 
build a fort, which, 
when completed, on 
the 28th of October, 
was named, by the 
unanimous vote of 
the officers. "Fort 
Harrison." While en- 
gaged here Governor 
Harrison received 
visits from friendly 
Indians, who told 
him of the growing 
hostility of the 
prophet and his 
motley horde of fol- 
lowers. The Dela- 
wares reported that 
he had sent a "war 
speech" to some of 
the chiefs of their 
tribe, who were on 
their way to meet 

the governor at his request. In this speech he 
declared his tomahawk was up against the 
whites, etc., etc. Some of the Delaware chiefs 
visited the prophet and endeavored to dissuade 
him from his purpose. 

Leaving a small garrison under Lieutenant- 
Colonel James Miller, at Fort Harrison, the 
governor proceeded on his march toward the 



prophet's town, on the 29th of October. On the 
31st they crossed the Wabash near the site of 
the present town of Montezuma, in .farke 
County. At this time the governor's force 
amounted to 910 men, of whom two hundred 
and fifty were regulars, under command of 
Colonel Boyd; sixty volunteers, from Kentucky, 
ami six hundred citizens of the territory, largely 
from Knox County. Among the volunteers 
were a number who had gained distinction in 
Kentucky and held high commands, who here 
served as privates. Major- General Samuel 
Wells, of Kentucky, became a plain major in 
the governors little urmy and in the battle did 
not fail to sustain a well-earned fame as an 
Indian fighter. 

On the 2d of November a block house was 
built about two miles below the mouth of the 
Big Vermillion River, and a sergeant and eight 
men detailed to protect the boats, which had 
thus far transported the provisions. 

Residence Mrs. J. H. Rabb, 524 Broadway 

Resuming the march on the morning of the 
3d, and leaving the Wabash, keeping the 
prairie lands in the general direction of the 
river, the army cnme in view of the prophet's 
town on the afternoon of the 6th of November. 
Various things had occurred during the day to 
convince Governor Harrison of the hostility of 
the Indians and he proceeded with great cau- 

tion. As they approached the prophet's town 
messengers came out to meet them and desired 
to speak to the governor. He recognized in one 
a chief high in the confidence of the prophet, 
and accorded him, an interview, '.these men 
said the chiefs were greatly surprised at his ap- 
proach in battle array. The governor replied 
that he did not intend to attack them until 
satisfied that they would not comply with the 
demands he had made. They claimed that a 
message had been two days before sent him by 
the friendly Potawatamie chief, Win-a-mac, etc. 
The governor said he would go and camp on 
the Wabash and in the morning would have an 
interview with the prophet and his chief. It 
was agreed on both sides that no hostilities 
should in the meantime be committed. 

Not finding a suitable camping ground, the 
gov trnor continued his march till he approached 
very niear the village, when he was again met 
by the prophet's messengers, after having been 
interrupted by a vio- 
lent demonstration 
on the part of a 
body of Indians. The 
governor explained 
that he had not 
found a suitable 
camping ground on 
the Wabash, as he 
had expected, and 
asked the Indian if 
he could direct him 
to one. He was di- 
rected to "a creek to 
the northwest." Hav- 
ing had the place ex- 
amined by some of 
his officers and re- 
ceiving a favorable 
report, the army was 
marched to the 
point and went into 

Governor Harrison 
was not altogether 

pleased with the location, finding it dry and 
high enough but almost surrounded by marshes, 
whose willow growth would form an excellent 
screen for the savage foe. However, he de- 
cided to make the most of a bad bargain, and, 
taking every possible precaution against sur- 
prise, went into camp. The men were disposed 
to the best advantage for repelling a night at- 



tack, should one be made, and were instructed 
to sleep with their clothing and accountrements 
on, with firearms loaded and bayonets fixed. 

Notwithstanding the great caution taken to 
avoid -surprise, and the strong guards that were 
posted, it is not believed that the commanding 
officers expected that an attack would be made 
that night. It came, however, after the Indian 
fa shion, about two 
hours before sunrise 
on the morning of 
the 7th of November. 
Although the gov- 
ernor says he had 
risen, at a quarter 
past four o'clock, 
and in two minutes 
more would have 
given the signal for 
calling out the men, 
so sudden was the 
attack that many In- 
dians were in the 
camp before they 
were dis covered. 
The attack was 
made from all sides 
by a force of Indians 
variously estimated 
at from 350 to 1,000. 
and nothing but the 
most intrepid valor 
on the part of both 

minority. Many more officers were among the 
wounded. The loss of the Indians was believed 
to be at least as great as that of the whites, 
as thirty-eight dead were left on the field of 
battle. During the battle the prophet encour- 
aged his followers, who were composed of 
small numbers from various tribes, as the 
Shawanees, Wyandots, KIckapoos Ottawas. 

Cottage Residence V Schoenfeld 617 Busseron 

officers and men, could have saved the day. 
In his report of the action the governor says: 
"Under these discouraginig circumstances the 
troops (nineteen-twentieths of whom had never 
been under fire before) behaved in a manner 
that can never be too much applauded. They 
took their positions without noise and with less 
confusion than could have been expected of 
veterans placed in a similar position." The bat- 
tle raged hotly until after daylight, which en- 
abled the governor's command effectively to 
charge and dislodge the Indians, who were 
driven to precipitate flight. 

The victory was purchased, however, at no 
small cost, the loss In killed amounting to thir- 
ty-seven, while the wounded aggregated 151, of 
whom twenty-five died of their wounnds. 
Among the killed and mortally wounded were 
three colonels, three captains, two lieutenants 
' and Thomas Randolph, Esq., who had recently 
been defeated for Congress by a very small 

Chippewas, Potawatamies, Winnebagoes, Sacs 
and a few Miamis. He stood on a small eleva- 
tion near the battle ground chanting a war 
song in an exceptionally loud voice. He told 
his followers they would gain an easy victory, 
that the bullets of the Americans would be ren- 
dered harmle>s. When told that some of the 
Indians had been killed he still encouraged 
them to continue the fight, saying they would 
soon be victorious. After the battle his fol- 
lowers, having lost faith in him, almost all 
dispersed and rejoined their various tribes. 

The deserted prophet's town, which contained 
a large amount of corn, was destroyed on the 
morning of the eighth, and the next day the 
army took up its return march, arriving at Fort 
Harrison on the 14th of November, whence the 
wounded were sent forward by boats to Vin- 
cennes. The army continued its march, reach- 
ing Vinvennes on the 18th. This battle of Tip- 
pecanoe was fought on the banks of Burnet's 



Creek, about seven miles north-east of tiie pres- 
ent city of Lafayette, iu Tippecauoe County. 
It became famous iu a large degree through 
its adoption as a "slogan'' during the campaign 
in which Mr. Harrison was subsequently elect- 
ed President of the United States. 

The news of the battle and its results having 
reached the capital, the Legislature and the 
people made preparations to greet the victorious 
army and its commander with appropriate hon- 
ors. It was "resolved" by the Legislature that 
that body would wait upon the g9yernor iu a 
body and "in their own names and those of 
their constituents, welcome him home," and 
General Washington Johnston was appointed a 
committee to make the same known to the 
governor at the head of the army, "should un- 
forseen circumstances not prevent." An appro- 
priate and highly complimentary address was 
adopted and delivered to the governor on his 


But these demonstrations of esteem and ap- 
proval did not meet with universal approbation 
among the citizens of Yincennes or the mem- 
bers of the Legislature, where the governor was 
not without opponents, and indeed inveterate 
enemies. The address, which was prepared 
In the council, was adopted by the close margin 
of onlv four to three votes, seven members be- 

ing present. There were not a few of the resi- 
dents \vko dissapproved of the Indian policy of 
the governor and were opposed to the expedi- 
tion when undertaken. These soon developed a 
disposition to rob the governor of his just meed 
of praise and to award the honors for the vic- 
tory to Colonel Boyd of the regular army, who, 
it was claimed by the enemies of Harrison, had 
saved the day, and that, but for him and his 
regiment, the militia would have been de- 
stroyed. On the 25th of November the House 
adopted joint resolutions, which, on account of 
the "strong, special and somewhat exclusive 
praise" which they bestowed on Colonel Boyd 
and his regiment,, were "disagreed to" by the 
Council. Later the House adopted a series of 
resolutions in which Colonel Boyd and the 
United States troops received special thanks, as 
did also the militia under Colonel Luke Decker 
and Colonel Joseph Bartholomew, and the sol- 
diers composing the volunteer corps from Ken- 


This called fortu 
from the governor a 
strong protest as 
not giving to the 
mounted riflemen of 
the territory and to 
the squadron of 
dragons the notice to 
which they were 
justly entitled. The 
governor recounted 
the distinguished 
services of these 
men, recalling tLe 
heavy losses they 
had suffered among 
their officers and 
men. Answering the 
governor, the House 
disclaimed any in- 
tentional neglect of 
the commands in 
question and inti- 
mated they were sup- 
posed to be included in the term "militia," as 
used in the original resolution. 

These proceedings are recalled here as show- 
ing the jealousies which existed, even at that 
early day, on the subject of military glory and 
honor. Bitter partisan politics had much 
to do with the public service even in that 




During the month of December, 1811, Gov- 
ernor Harrison received overtures of peace 
from various bands of Indians who had been 
associated with the 
prophet, but declined 
.to meet them in 
council - till tne 
prophet and all his 
followers who did 
not belong to the 
Wabash were re- 
moved from the 

Tecumseh, on his 
return north, ap- 
peared among the 
Miami Indians soon 
after the defeat of 
h i s brother, the 
prophet, at Tippe- 
canoe. He is said to 
have reproved the 
prophet in strong 
terms for permitting 
the Indians to at- 
tack Governor Harri- 
son's command. 

In December, 1811, 

a memorial was adopted by the Legislature, 
asking Congress to authorize the people of In- 
diana Territory to form a state constitution. 

The declaration of war made in June, 1812, 
against Great Britain by the United States was 
no cause of surprise, either to the white in- 
habitants of Indiana Territory or to the Indians. 
The latter had been accustomed to the idea 
through the British traders and emissaries for 
years past. In January, Little Turtle, a dis- 
tinguished chief of the Miamis, whose village 
was near Fort Wayne, in a message to Gov- 
ernor Harrison, alluded to the signs of an ap- 
proaching war and expressed the attachment 
of the Miami and Eel River Indians to the 
United States. The Delawares, also, were 
friendly. It soon became apparent, however, 
that the Kickapoos, Potawatamies and Wintne- 
bagoes were bent on mischief, and marauding 
parties from these tribes began to murder and 
pillage the frontiers. During the month of 

April several families within the state were 
murdered. On the 22d of April, 1812, Mr. 
Haryraan, who resided at the mouth of the 
Embarrass River, but a few miles below Vin- 
cenues, with his wife and five children, was- 

Governor Harrison issued. orders designed to 
place the militia on the best possible war foot- 

Residence Dr. L. M. Beckes, 609 Main 

ing and commanding the officers of the various 
organizations throughout the state to be in 
readiness and promptly to pursue and punish 
any parties of Indians who should commit 
depredations. Block houses and picketed 
forts were erected throughout the state, and 
especially on the borders of Knox County set- 

In May a grand council of the various Indian 
tribes was held at an Indian village on tne 
Mississinewa River. The representation was 
large and embraced almost all the tribes within 
the present states of Indiana and Illinois. The 
orators all expressed the strongest friendship 
for the United States and the most earnest 
desire for peace. Tecumseh was there and 
made a speech in which he stated that "the 
unhappy affair which had taken place between 
the white people and a few of our young men 
has been settled between us and Governor Har- 
rison." He said there would be no more cause 



.given b3 r his people for an attack by the whites, 
and chided the Potawatamies for not having 
taken better care to see that their treaty obli- 
gations were preserved inviolate. In closing he 
said: ''Should the bad acts of our brothers, the 
Potawatamies, draw on us the ill will of our 
white brothers, and they should come again 
and make an unprovoked attack on us. at our 
village, we will die like men; but we will never 
strike the first blow." 

There appeared but one sentiment at the 
council, that of friendliness to the United 
States, and a large number of the Indians soon 
after went to Fort Wayne and so reported to 
the Indian agent, Mr. Stickney, who demanded 
of the Winnebagoes, Kickapoos and Shawanees, 
as proof of their honesty, that they give up for 
punishment those of their tribes who had been 
guilty of murdering white settlers. To this 
they apparently agreed. 

Pritchett's Old War Horse, "Robbin" 

Tecumseh was not satisfied with the result 
of the Mississinewa council, and soon after the 
declaration of war against England, on June 18, 
1812, he went to Maiden and joined himself to 
the British force. 

Soon after Governor Harrison received otti- 
cial notice of the declaration of war he visite:i 
Kentucky and secured the cooperation of Gov- 

ernor Scott in the protection of the frontier, a 
large number of Kentucky volunteers ibefng en- 
listed in that behalf. 

It was not, however, until the latter part of 
August, after the temporary disasters to the 
United States forces at Macinac, Detroit and 
Chicago, that the Indians began to take a bold 
attitude. In the early part of September they 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in 
the vicinity of Fort Wayne, and on the night of 
of September 4, a considerable force made a 
savage attack on Fort Harrison, then gar- 
risoned by a small detachment under command 
of Captain Zachary Taylor, afterwards Presi- 
dent of the United States. The Indians fired 
the fort but the fire was extinguished after a 
considerable breach had been made in the 
walls, and the garrison succeeded in holding its 
own till day, when the Indians retired. 
When information of the attack on Fort Har- 
rison reached Vin- 
cennes, Colonel Wm. 
Russell of the Sev- 
enth U. S. infantry, 
at the head of a 
force of 1,200 men, 
marched to the relief 
of the fort. On reach- 
ing Fort Harrison, It- 
was found that the 
Indians had de- 
camped, and, leaving 
Colonel Wilcox with 
his regiment of Ken- 
tucky volunteers at 
the fort, the remain- 
der of the relief ex- 
pedition returned to 
VIncennes. A few 
days later, Lieuten- 
ant Richardson, with 
a detachment of 
eleven men, was 
escorting provisions 
from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison when 
Indians and seven men 

he was attacked by 
killed and one wounded. 

In August, 1812, Governor Harrison was 
breveted Major-General of Militia of Kentucky 
by Governor Scott, and invested with the su- 
preme command of all the Kentucky forces 
operating for the defense of the Xorthwestern 
Territories. Two thousand Kentuckians and 



'Photo by Townsley 

700 Ohioans who bad rendezvoused at Piqua, 
Ohio, marched under command of Governor 
Harrison to the relief of Fort Wayne, which 
was invested by hostile Indians in force. On 
the approach of Governor Harrison the Indians 
retired. On the 19th of September General 
Harrison surrendered the command of troops 
at Fort Wayne to 'Brigadier-General Winches- 
ter, but five days 
later received dis 
patches from Wash- 
i n g t o n, assigning 
him to the command 
of the Northwestern 
army, with the rank 
of brigadier-general. 
This army, estimted 
at 10,000 men, was 
composed of the 
various detachments 
of regulars and rang- 
ers within the terri- 
tory, the volunteers 
and militia of Ohio 
and Kentucky, and 
three thousand men 
from Virginia and 
Pennsylvania. Gen- 
eral Harrison was in- 
structed to provide 
for the protection of 
the frontier and men 

the service and General Hopkins immediately 
set about organizing a new force of infantry 
for the purpose of destroying the Indian vil- 
lages in the vicinity of the prop-bet's town, 
which had been rebuilt. This force, consisting 
of three regiments of Kentucky militia, a com- 
pany of regulars under Captain Z. Taylor, a~ 
company of rangers under Captain Becker, an<L 

Miss Lillian 

to retake Detroit, 
and, with a view to 
the conquest of upper Canada," to "penetrate 
that country" as far as the force under his -com- 
mand would, in Lus judgment, justify. 

At this time there was stationed at Vincennes . 
a force of mounted volunteers from Kentucky 
under General Samuel Hopkins, A no had dis- 
tinguished himself in the Revolutionary war. 
General Hopkins was expected to take care of 
the Indians on the Wabash and Illinois Rivers. 
Early in October he moved up the Wabash, 
crossing near Fort Harrison into the Illinois 
country, intending to seek some Indian villages 
in the direction of Peoria. Soon after cross- 
ing the river, signs of mutiny and discontent 
became apparent in his ranks, and finally, after 
a six days' march, had grown to such an ex- 
tent that the general lost control and his army 
refused to follow him further, but turned about 
and returned, he in the rear. 

On its return this army was mustered out of 

Miller's Residence, 6J8 Broadway 
a company of scouts,- left Vincennes '"" *jie 5th 
of November, returning late in the mt >n ^ with- 
out haying accomplished Anything DI vo .".'. ) tne 
destruction of some deserted Indian villages, 
and. having lost heavily in an ambuscade of a 
detached party, eighteen men killed ai <1 a num- 
ber wounded. 

On the eighteenth of December, Gen. Hopkins 
resigned his command and annouuc Hi his in- 
tention to *retir"e from military life. 

While General Harrison was with the armies- 
actively engaged in the service of the United 
States government, the government of the terri- 
tory of Indiana devolved on the secretary, Gen- 
eral John Gibson. General Gibson issued a 
proclamation in December, 1812, requiring the 
Legislature to meet at Vincennes on the first 
day of February. 1813, which it did. It re- 
mained in session until the 12th of March. 
Among the bills passed were the following: To> 



improve the uavigation of \Yhite River, orgau- 
i/.iiiL' the counties of Warrick and Gibsou, to 
open and improve roads and highways, to regu- 
late the granting of divorces and for the inspec- 
tion of flour, beef and pork. The law removing 
the seat of government from Vincennes to Cory- 
don, in Harrison County, was also passed at 
this session, and provided that "from and after 
the first day of May, 1813," the capital of the 
territory should be Corydon. This decision was 
reached on the eleventh of March and on the 
following day, in conformity with a joint reso- 
lution, the General Assembly was prorogued by 
acting Governor Gibson to meet at Corydon on 
the first Monday in December, 1813. 

During the year 1813 there was great activity 
within the borders of Indiana Territory in the 
matter of providing block houses for the pro- 
tection of the outlying districts. While the In- 
dians did not venture to attack any of these, 

Phofo by Shores 

Residence Edw. Watson, 622 N. Seventh 

zen was sh;jt, stabbed and scalped in the neigh- 
borhood of the city. 

In February, 1813, the President appointed to 
the governorship of the territory, Colonel 
Thomas Posey, a United States senator from 
Louisiana. The new governor arrived at Vin- 
cennes and entered upon the discharge of his 
duties in the following May. 

Pursuant to the terms of prorogation of 
the preceding March, the General Assembly 
met at Corydon on Monday, Dec. 6, 1813, and 
received the first message of Governor Posey. 
The many successes which had attended the 
American arms in the northwest under the gen- 
eral direction of General Harrison, culminating 
in the famous battle of the Thames on the 5th 
of October, 1813, where Tecumseh was killed in 
the British ranks, wrought a great work in the 
way of pacifying the Indian tribes, who began 
in large numbers to sue for peace, and the set- 
tlements of the In- 
diana Territory be- 
came comparatively 
quiet and secure. By 
the early part of 
1814 considerable 
numbers of immi- 
grants from the East 
.began to come into 
a the territory. 

On the tenth of 
September, 1814, by 
act of the Legisla- 
ture, the Bank of 
Vincennes was char- 
tered, with a capital- 
ization of $5,000.000, 
the charter extend- 
ing to Oct. 1, 1835. 
This charter was 
recognized and con- 
firmed by the state 
constitution of 181t>, 
and the first State 
Legislature, by act 
of Jan. 1. 1S17. 

they were, in small bands, quite active, and did 
much mischief in the way of single murders, 
and in the killing and driving off of stock. 
Among the depredations committed in the vicin- 
ity of Vincennes -..-ere the killing of two men 
seven miles west of the town in March, and 
about The same time the theft of twenty horses 
from citizens of the vicinity. In July a citi- 

adopted the Rank of Vincennes as the "State 
n.-mk of Indiana." This act enlarged the cor- 
porate powers of the bank and authorized an 
increase of $1.000,000 in its capital, divided into 
shares of $100. of which 3.7.10 were reserved 
for the state, to be subs< . rilu-d for from time to 
time by the governor. This bank was also 
authorised t adopt the Farmers' and Mechan- 



Photo by Tcmnsley 

ics' Bank, of Madison, chartered somewhat 
earlier than the Yiucennes institution, as one 
of its branches. For some time the affairs of 
this bank appear to have been managed with 
prudence, but before the year 1821, the man- 
agement had become so shamefully corrupt and 
its violations of its charter provisions so notori- 
ous, that the Legislature in that year authorized 
proceedings against 
the bank by writ of 
quo warranto, with 
the result that it 
was deprived of its 
charter and banking 
privileges. It was 
charged with con- 
tracting debts to an 
amount double that 
of the deposits, the 
excessive issue of 
paper with fraudu- 
lent intent, the pay- 
ment of large divi- 
dends to sharehold- 
ers while refusing to 
redeem its notes in 
specie, and the em- 
bezzlement of large 
sums deposited for 
safe keeping. A 
large amount of 
notes circulated -by 
this institution and 

sion of the territory into the union as a state. 
Calling attention to the provision of the or- 
dinance of 1787, under which the territory was 
organized, by which it was provided that the 
territory should be entitled to statehood when 
it contained a white population of 60.000, it was 
shown by certificates from the county clerks 
of the various counties that the population at 

Its branches at 

Residence J. L. Bayard 

Brookville, Corydon and Vevay, became worth- 
less. The notes of the Farmers' & Mechanics' 
Bank, of Madison were, however, ultimately 

The building containing the recorder's offir-e 
at Vincennes was destroyed by fire in January, 
1814, consuming all the books, papers and rec- 
ords belonging to the office. In September fol- 
lowing, commissioners were appointed to re- 
store them, so far as possible, by taking evi- 



The Territorial Legislature convened at Cory- 
don on the frst Monday in December. 181 >. and 
on the 14th of that month . adopted a memo- 
rial to Congress, designed to secure the adinis- 

, President First National Bank. 505 N. Sixth 

that time was 63.897. The population of Knox 
County was certified as 8,068, and was larger 
than that of any other county. 

Congress passed an act which became a law 
April 19, 1816, -.authorizing the people of Indi- 
ana to adopt a constitution and providing for 
its admission as a state. 

Pursuant to this act a constitutional conven- 
tion was chosen in May following. The mem- 
bers from Knox County were John Johnson, 
John Badollet, William Polke, Benjamin Parke 
and John Benefiel. The session was begun at 
Corydon. June 10. and completed its labors on 
the 29th of the same ironth. 

An flection for state embers, under the con- 
stitution, was held in August. 1816. and Jona- 
than Jennings, who had presided over the de- 
liberations of the constitutional convention, 
was chosen governor, receiving 3.211 votes, to 
3.934 cast for Governor Posey. William Polke 



-was elected state senator from Kiiox County, 
and Isaac Blackford, Walter Wilson and Henry 
I. Mills were the members of the Lower House 
from Knox. Mr. Blackford was elected speaker 
of the House on the organization of that body. 
On the seventh of November the state officers 
took the oath of office and a new state was 
born into Uncle Sam's family. 

The years of quiet succeeding the war of 1812 
were prosperous ones for the new state and 
immierration flowed into its borders at an im- 
mense rate, so:that by the year 1820, less than 
four years from the date of its admission, its 
population had more than doubled and the cen- 
sus of that year showed a population of more 
than 147,000 souls. 

BLACKHAWK WAR. The rapid settle- 
ment of the state, and the treaties with 
the various tribes of Indians, rendered the 
citizens of Indiana comparatively secure 

< Pho!o by Totonsley 

Residence John Bierhaus, Seventh and Busseron 

from their depredations, but in the year 
1832 the famous Sac chief, Blackhawk, as- 
sumed an arrogant and threatening attitude 
and disturbed the peace of Illinois and greatly 
alarmed the outlying settlements on the bor- 
ders of Indiana. Governor Noble called out 
the militia to protect the northern settlements. 
A company of United States rangers was or- 

ganized in Kuox County by Captain B. V. 
Beckes, known as "Company B, of mounted 
rangers, army of the United States," com- 
manded by Major Henry Dodge. The officers 
of the company were: Captain, Ben. V. Beckes; 
first lieutenant, Samuel Smith; second lieuten- 
ant, George Leach. The men were enlisted for 
a year and spent the winter of 1832-3, at Can- 
tonment Johnson, on River Deshee. In his re- 
port of the service of his company, Captain 
Beckes says: "I left Cantonment Johnson by 
way of Carlisle, Merom, Terre Haute, Clinton, 
Danville, Iroquois, Beaver Creek, Rock Creek, 
Hickory Creek, DuPage, Fox River, 'Pop Pau' 
Grove, Dixon's Ferry, and encamped four 
miles west of Dixon's Ferry, on my way to 
Fort Armstrong, with my company in good 
order and fit or service." Later he reports 
having returned to Cantonment Johnson in De- 
cember "and commenced building barracks, 
. . which have been 

completed some time 
and the company 
regularly drilled 
since. As no blood 
was spilled on Indi- 
ana ground during 
this war, Captain 
Beckes and his Knox 
County boys had no 
opportunity to prove 
their valor on the 
battleground. There 
were, however, no 
less than six deaths 
in Captain Beckes' 
company before it 
was mustered out of 
the service. On the 
roster of the com- 
pany appear many 
names familiar 
among the inhabit- 
ants of the Vin- 
cennes of to-day. 

From the date of 

the Black Hawk campaign to that of the War 
of the Rebellion, there was nothing in the his- 
tory of the country to stir the patriotism of the 
Knox County people or make martial history, 
p.nve the Mexican War of 1840, and the small 
dvMi'aml on the State of Indiana for soldiers for 
tlvit war gave Knox County no opportunity to 
put into the field any complete organization, 



Mrs. Carrie Stallard made the presentation on 
behalf of the ladies of the city in the following 
language, addressing herself to Captain Har- 

"Sir, with mingled feelings of pain and pleas- 
ure we look upon your noble company; pain, 
when we look upon the distracted condition of 
our once happy country; pleasure, when we re- 

t hough there were a number of enlistments 
from the county for that war. 

WAR OF THE REBELLION. On the break- 
ing out of the War of the Rebellion sentiment 
in and about Vincennes was greatly divided. 
Though Mr. Lincoln had received several hun- 
dred votes in the county, there was a large ele- 
ment out of sympathy with him and his views, 
and the current of 
feeling ran high in 
the early days of the 
war. Nevertheless 
patriotism rapidly 
gained the upper 
hand and military 
organizations began 
to be formed early 
in the spring of 
1861. The first com- 
pany formed in Vin- 
cinnes was a com- 
p a n y of "H o m e 
Guards," with J. II. 
Massey as captain, 
P. B. La Plante, J. 
T. Coleman and J. C. 
Denny, lieutenants 
This company, or- 
ganized while senti- 
ment was in the 
formative period 
adopted the follow- 
ing resolution: "Re- 
solved That the ob- Residence John Hattigan; Fourth and Church Streets 

jcct of this organization is peace at home, not 
destruction abroad not an aggressive war, but 
a defensive peace not for subjugation or coer- 
cion, but to arrest turmoil and to maintain the 
law." This resolution created not a little com- 
ment and caustic criticism. We are glad to 
note that a great number of the members of 
this organization later enlisted in other organ- 
izations and did honorable service at the front. 
A number of companies were organized in 
various parts of the county but the first to offer 
their services to the government were the "Old 
Post Guards" and the "Knox County Invinci- 
bles." The "Invincibles" was the first com- 
pany to depart, which they did on the 10th of 
May, 1801. Before leaving for Camp Vigo, at 
Terre Haute, they were given a banquet by 
the ladies of Vincennes and presented with a 
beautiful and costly silk flag. The presenta- 
tion was at the residence of Captain Denny, and 

member that we have such a gallant band will- 
ing to leave home and friends and go forth at 
their country's call. History will grite of the 
great Rebellion of the Nineteenth Century, and 
of those who laid down their lives when their 
country was in danger. May your names be 
enrolled among the Union's brave sons. In be- 
half of the ladies of Vincennes I present you 
with the American flag. Should the Star 
Spangled banner wave o'er the battlefield, as 
your eyes rest upon it think of home and coun- 
try. Our best wishes and prayers will attend 1 
you, while our sympathies and feelings will be 
with your loved ones at home. We need not 
charge you to be true to the Stars and Stripes. 
We believe the bravest and best blood would 
be poured out in defense of the flag under 
which our fathers, with George Washington as 
their leader, fought and won such glorious 
victories. Our Heavenly Fatlu-r was with 



them; He will be with you. Death to the 
traitor that would try to trail that flag through 
the dust of shame. All honest hearts in this 
will share and follow it to death or fame." 

Response was made by Captain Harrow in 
suitable words. 

These two companies became B and G, of the 
famous Fourteenth Indiana infantry. Though 
enlisted under the call of the state for six regi- 
ments of twelve-months men, they were, on 
the 7th of June, mustered into the service of 
the United States, being the first regiment so 
mustered from the state. It went to Indian- 
apolis, June 24th, and on the 5th of July left 
for West Virginia, and was soon engaged in 
active operations. The regiment was com- 
manded by Colonel Nathan Kimball. No vol- 
unteer regiment, probably, saw more actfcve 
service or made a more honorable record than 
did the Fourteenth. 

Phoro by 7<ftnsley 

Residence Harry V. Somes, Jr., Assis't Cashier First National Bank, 50J N. Third 

who went into the battle, thirty-one were killed 
and 151 wounded, more than fifty per cent. 
It led the charge at Fredericksburg on the 13th 
of December, losing' four killed, seventeen 
wounded and eight missing. On May 3, 1863, at 
Chancellorsville it lost seven killed, fifty-one 
wounded and 2 missing. In the afternoon of 
the third day of the Battle .of Gettysburg this 
regiment sustained the brunt of Longstreet's 
desperate charge, sustaining a loss of 123 offi- 
cers and men killed and wounded. 

Company G, Twenty-first Indiana volunteers, 
Captain Edward McLaflin, was made up from 
Vincennes and vicinity. It was mustered into 
the service July 24, 1861, reaching Baltimore 
Aug. 3. It remained here till Feb. 19, 1862. 
This regiment was a few months later engaged 
at New Orleans when that city was captured 
by General Butler. In the battle of Baton 
Rouge, Aug. 5, the regiment lost 126 officers 
and men in killed 
and wounded. In 
February, 1863, this 
regiment became a 
heavy artillery regi- 
ment, and was called 
the First Heavy 
Artillery. During 
the siege of Port 
Hudson it lost twen- 
ty-eight men. This 
regiment, most of 
whose members 
"veteraued" at the 
expiration of their 
first terms of enlist- 
ment, saw much fur- 
ther hard service. 

Company E, of the 
Fifty-first regiment, 
was officered almost 
entirely from Vin- 
cennes, though en- 
listed largely from 
the counftry dis- 
tricts. This regi- 

It lost three killed and eleven wounded at 
Cheat Mountain, Sept. 12, 1861; five killed and 
eleven wounded at Green Briar, Oct. 3; five 
killed and fifty-eight wounded at Winchester 
Heights. March 23. 1862. On the 17th of 
September it was outraged in the battle of An- 
tit'tam and for four hours fought within sixty 
yards of the enemy. In this fight, of 320 men 

ment was mustered into the service Dec. 14, 
1861, under Colonel A. D. Streight. Its first 
active service was at Corinth, where it assisted 
at the siege. At the battle of Stone River, 
Dec. 31, 1863, and two days following, thi 
n-iriment lost a total of forty-nine, killed, 
wounded and missing. In an expedition againist 
Rome. Georgia, Colonel Streight and his com- 



mand, a brigade, was captured by the rebels. 
After enduring the horrors of the rebel prisons 
for a time, they were exchanged. Its last im- 
portant engagement was in the battle of Nash- 
ville, December 15, 1864. 

Company I, Eightieth Indiana, was mainly 
from Vinceuues. This regiment went into 
camp at Camp Gibson, Princeton, in August 
and September, 1862. Leaving Princeton on 
the 8th of September, this regiment, on the 
eighth of the follow inlg month, took a con- 
spicuous part in the battle of Perryville, where 
it lost, in killed, wounded and captured, 150 
men. The record of this regiment was a bril- 
liant one, it having been engaged in very many 
battles, skirmishes and active campaigns. In 
killed, wounded and prisoners its losses aggre- 
gated 327 men. It is said to have traveled an 
aggregate of 7,245 miles. 
The record of Knox County in the matter of 

Residence Senator R. E. Purcell, Sixth and Busseron 

response to the calls for troops was highly 
creditable. In the dark days of 1862. when it 
became necessary to make drafts throughout 
the county, Knox was no exception to the rule. 
Mr. M. P. Ghee was appointed draft commis- 
sioner for Knox Counlty. The calls of 1862 and 
1863 were filled without the necessity of draft. 
Under first three calls of 1864 the quota of 

Knox County was 374. This was the Presi- 
dential election year and a sentiment was pre- 
valent, to some extent, that "the war was a 
failure," so that it became necessary to enforce 
the draft to supply the demand, scarcely one- 
third of the required number having volun- 
teered, notwithstanding the most strenuous ef- 
forts. Under the December call for 300,000 
men, after the people had spoken their minds at 
the polls and it was seen that the hands of 
Mr. Lincoln were to be held up. every quota in 
the county was filled save that of Decker, 
which was deficient one. Every other township 
in the county showed a surplus of volunteers 
of from one, in each of several of them, to 
twelve in Vincennes. 

In July, 1861, Camp Knox was established as 
a camp of instruction and drill for recruits, at 
first under the command of General John A. 
Mann, and later under that of Colonel George 
W. Gorman. At 
times there were in 
this camp as many 
as 1.500 or more sol- 
diers. It was a great 
attraction and was 
visited by thousands 
of people. Every 
neighborhood had its 
Soldiers' Aid Soci- 
ety, and the ladies 
of Vincennes and 
Knox County did 
much to alleviate 
the sufferings of the 
soldiers at the front. 
After the battle of 
Fort Doim<elson the 
Bishop of Viuceuues 
diocese tendered the 
use of the Seminary 
building for the care 
of sick and wound- 
ed soldiers brought 
home from the front 
and the aid of the 

sisters in caring for them. On the 26th of 
April, the City Council of Vincennes voted $3,- 
000 for the care of the families of soldiers. 
All told, there was given* in bounties and re- 
lief by the county, various townships and City 
of Vincennes. more than $152.000 to soldiers 
and their families. 




In the Spanish-American war Yincennes bore 
an honorable part, having furnished two com- 
panies,. A. and L., of the J59th Indiana Volun- 

Company A, Capt. T B. Coulter, of the 
First Regiment, I. N. G. was an organization 
that had been in existence for a number of 
years and was one of the best drilled compan- 
ies in the military organization of the State. 
This company reported at Indianapolis on) the 
2Gth of April, 1898, in response to orders from 
Brigadier-General McKee, commanding State 
forces. On the evening of the 25th citizens 
tendered to the company a banquet at the 
Grand Hotel, where patriotic speeches were 
made and the boys givmi God-speed. A flag 
provided by the ladies of the city was later 
presented the company at Indianapolis by a 
committee appointed for the purpose. 

The roster of Company A is as follows: 

Captain Thomas B. Coulter, Vincennes. 

First Lieutenant Charles D. McCoy, Vin- 
cennes. Died October 9, 1898. 

Second Lieuteniant Adolph H. Kruse, Vin- 

(Mr. Kruse became first lieutenant on death 
of Lieutenant McCoy and was succeeded as sec- 
ond lieutenant by Sergeant Raymond A. Smith.) 

First Sergeant Raymond A. Smith, Vin- 

Quartermaster Sergeant Louis Harnru, Viu- 

Sergeants Edward S. Sparrow, Emery C. 
Thome, James R. Irwin, Arthur Saiter, Vin- 

Corporals ^Fred Castor, Fred Fossineyer, 
James, A. Hughes. Judson Alton, William Jen- 
kins, Vincennes; Elijah C. Williamson, Sand- 

Musicians Frederick W. Hall, Thomas B, 
Wilson, Vincennes. 

Artificer Charles Saiter, Vincennes. 

Wagoner August Dreiman, Vincennes. 

Privates Claud Adams, Ralph S. Alexander, 
John W. Allen, Oliver I. Alton, Paul A. Aubry, 
Vincennes: Clarence Baker, Linton; Eugene V. 
Bartholomai, Jno. F. Beamon, Frederick A. Ber- 
ry, Vincennes; Frederick R. Bomlfield, Danville; 
Frank Browning, Vincennes; August Bubenzer, 
Freelandsville; Albert Charles, Lee O. Church, 
Matthew Clifton, Lawrence R. Cloin, Vio- 
cennes; Edward Cooper, Terre Haute; William 

A. Courier, Thomas W. Devine, Daniel S. Ever- 
ett, Larkin Everett, Samuel Everett, William 
Everett, Byron B. Fitch, John Flory, James H. 
Fortner, Nelson Fry, Vincennes; George H. 
Gifford, Indianapolis; Harry W. Gregory, Chas. 
Z. Haas, Vincennes; William S. Hackett, Sand- 
born, GoldeB Hardesty, Vincennes; Clyde Haw- 
kins, WheatUnd; Oscar Hawkins, Elmo A. In- 
derrieden, Joseph J. Joice, Archie T. Jordan, 
Franklin R. Kiefner, Charles Kirtwood, Freder- 

. iek C. Lacky, Grant Lamb, Lewis F. Martin, 
William H. Milam, David F. Miller, John Muir, 
Vincennes; Jonas Nolting, Freelandsville; Ar- 
chie Owens, Jerome Pennington, Vincenntes; Os- 
car Powell, Sandborn; Lee L. Rice, Lafayette N. 
Rider, Andy Ruth, William Scott, John 
F. Sloan, Glenn R. Smith, Vineennes; 
Charles Steinberg, Bloomington; Thomas H. 
Taylor, Everett O. Townsley, Vincennes; Erwln 
E. Tryoni, Terre Haute; George R. Turner, 
William H. Wathem, Theodore Witshark, Vin- 
cenues: Harley Williams, Cowan; Harry 

B. Wells, Vinicennes' Edgar A very, Sandborn; 
Henry Brommelhaus, Charles H. Bouchie, Vin- 
cennes; John F. Crane, Terre Haute; David 
Daugherty, George Dill, Edward L. Dodd, Hen- 
ry Devine, Vincennes; Elmer Edwards, Sand- 
born: Clement L. Greene, Michael Hamm, 
Charles E. Harris. Martin S. Hartel, John Heid- 
enrich, Henry C. Kassens, William T. Martin, 
Otto Meyer. Isaac G. McCleave. William W. 
McCorniick, Oscar Peek, Joseph T. Randolph, 
Harry E. Ratcliff, Charles E. Smith, Frank Tay- 
lor, Thomas Wayman, John J. Weisenberger, 
W ,-ilter Wood. Vincennes, 

Company L. Capt. Robt. A. Simpson, was com- 
posed of cadets and former cadets of the Uni- 
versity. When the cal 1 for volunteers came, 
patriotism ran high with the cadets and they 
promptly tendered their services. They elected 
officers, redoubled their efforts to perfect them- 
selves im the manual of arms by constant and 
earnest drill. On the 21th of April Captain 
Simpson received orders to proceed to Camp 
Mount, at Indianapolis, on the 28th, which he 
did.. On the afternoon of the 27th a beau- 
tiful silk flag was presented the company by 
the patriotic young ladies of the University. 
In the evening of the 29th the Board of Trus- 
tees and faculty of the University tendered 
to the company a banquet at which patriotic 
speeches wero made and good advice given 
the young soldiers. The cadet company on ar- 
rival at Indianapolis was made Company L, 



of the First Regiment, I. N. G. This company 
being composed of students who had for years 
had the advantage of military training at the 
UnSversiay was not at a disadvantage with 
any in the regiment. 
The roster of Company L is as follows: 
Captain Robert A. Simpson, Vlncennes. 
First Lieutenant Lee B. Purcell, Vincennes. 
Second Lieutenant John B. Bayard, Vin- 

First Sergeant Winfield Robinson, Vin- 

Quartermaster Sergeant William R. Kenne- 
dy, Vincennes. 

Sergeants Harry T. Watts, Maurice F. Bay- 
ard, William T. Purcell, Charles A. Thius, Vin- 

Corporals Lewis A. Holman, Willis; Barney 
F. Greenhow, Marion Yelton, Ray G. Agnew, 
Smiley C. Johnson, Andrew Roseman, Vin- 

Musicians Maurice D. Demaree, Blooming- 
ton; Walter Shirts, Noblesville. 
Artificer John E. Hartigam, Vincennes. 
Wagoner Herman F. Piel, Vincennes. 
Privates Albert E. Albright, William Alton, 
Vincennes; Frank Aston, L'nceville, 111.; James 
E. Bailey, Louis R. Bailey, Vincennes; Seth J. 
Ballou, Bicknell; Judy K. Barnes, Greenville, 
111.; Clarence Bicknell, Edward E. Blackwell, 
Bicknell; Clark Bledsoe, Shoals; Louis N. Bou- 
cfhie,' John J. Breem, Vincennes; Isaac D. Bry- 
ant, Bdwardsport; John C. Burke, Vincennes; 
Benjamin Carter, Crawford county, 111.; How- 
ard Carter, Daviess Co., Ind.; Don H. Cassell, 
Indianapolis; Charles C. Castor, Vincennies; 
William L. Crum, Friendsville, 111.; Walter L. 
Daugherty, Vinceunes; Thomas Dunn, Wheat- 
land; William C. Emison, Thomas F. Fields, 
Vincennies; George B. Fleming, Karl T. Fore- 
man, Bruceville; Charles L. Gardner, Robert 
Gwin, Vincennes; Andrew D. Houck, Bruce- 
ville; Claude M. House, Bicknell; Clarence Huff 
man, Walter C. Huffman, L'nceville, 111.; Wil- 
liam E. Hurst, Vincemies; Charles A. Johnson, 
Washington; Edward P. Johnson!, Vincennes; 
Charles O. Kelso, Rushville; Frank Keneipp, 
Vincennes; Ozro B. Lloyd, Monroe City; 'Mar- 
tin E. Marome, Florence McCarty, James Mc- 
Crisaken, Vincennes; Burford McOuat, Indian- 
apolis; Lewis Organ, L'nceville, 111.; Harry H. 
O'Whene, Vincennes; Owen M. O'Rourke, 
L'nceville, 111.; Roland L. Perry, Vincennes; 
Oharles Pickerel, L'nceville, 111.; Emery M. 

Reedy, Knox county; Ervin -L. Reel, Vin- 
cennes; Charles E. Robersou, Bicknell; Leon 
H. Roberts, Cleveland, O.; Ernest Ruddy, Vin- 
cennes; Edgar Z. Ryan, L'nceville, 111.; James 
O. Sickels, Edwardsport; Paul W. Simpson, 
Bruceville; Ammon E. Smith, Gards Point, 111.; 
Joseph Smith, Allendale, 111.; Oath H. Smith, 
Bickuell; Edward Thuis, Vincennes, Harry B. 
Truedley, Cincinnaati, O.; Harry Turner, Mt. 
Carmel, 111.; William H. Vaugnn, Edward O. 
. Vieke, Vincennes; Charles Weger, Jasper; An- 
ton J. Wirth, Mt. Carinel, 111. 

Recruits Ambrose Braden, Mitchell; Chas. 
A. Brocksmith, Viucennes; Sumner Cox, Emi- 
son; Dean Crooke, Mitchell; William Dayson, 
Maurice Dorey, Vincennes; William Dunn, 
Wheatland; John W. Fox, Emison; Elmer 
Fox. Bruceville; Emil Frey, Vincennes; Moses 
M. Fulk, Farmer; Malott Fletcner, Indianapo- 
lis: John H. Hatcher, Louis P. Hamm, Vin- 
cennes; George W. Johnson, Koleen; Aden 
Mansfield, Robinson; Charles A. Miller, Harry 
McCarty, William F. McDowell, Vincennes; 
Nelson Norton, Sullivan; George Olmstead, 
Brownstown; Edward F. Pierson, Edward 
Roseman, Richard C. Robintson, Herman 
Schmidt, Vincennes; Ethelbert C. Stewart, 
L'nceville, 111.; Charles Soden, Bicknell; Otto 
Shelkofsky, Oscar Sparks, Harry W. Soete, 
Vincennes; James F. Snyder, Pinkstaff, 111.; 
Edward Wetzel, Vincennes; Joseph B. Wit- 
tenmyer, Emison. 

The First Regiment was mustered into the 
service of the United States May 12, 1898, as 
the 159 Indiana Volunteers. 

The regiment left Camp Mount May 22, and 
arrived at Camp R. A. Alger, Dunn Loring, 
Virginia, May 24. Here it remained till August 
3, when! it broke camp and marched to Burke's 
Station, nine miles. On the 5th it continued 
the march to Yates' Ford and camped on Bull 
Run battle ground; thence on the Tth it march- 
ed to New Bristow, Va., and on the 9th com- 
pleted a march of forty miles to Thoroughfare 
Gap, Va. 

From Thoroughfare Gap the regiment was 
moved by rail to Camp Meade, near Middle- 
town, Pa., where it arrived August 29. Under 
orders for the muster out of the regiment, it 
left Camp Meade September 11, and arrived 
at Camp Mount, Indianapolis, September 13. 
Five days later the entire regiment was fur- 
loughed for thirty days. Later, on telegraphic 
orders from the war department, the furlough 



was extended to include November 10. The 
regiment was mustered out November 23. 

The 159th was commanded by Ool. John T. 
Baruet, of Piqua, Ohio; Col. George McCoy, of 







Vincennes, now colonel of the First Regiment 
I. N. G., was lieutenant- colonel of the 159th. 
It was brigaded with the Third New York and 
the 22d Kansas, these regiments constituting 

the First brigade of the second division, Sec- 
ond Army Corps. The brigade was command- 
ed by Brigadier-General Mark D. Sheaf, the 
division! by Brigadier-General George W. Da- 
. vis, afterwards 
governor general 
of Porto Rico and 
now provost mar- 
tial general at 
Manila. The corps 
commander was 
Major General 
William M. Gra- 
ham. The 159th 
was recognized in 
the corps as one 
of the best discip- 
lined in the corn- 

On their arrival 
at home the boys 
were received 
with demonstra- 
tions of great re- 
gard by the citi- 
zens, who met 
them at the train 
rain en masse. 
They marched in 
a body to the 
court square 
where an address 
of welcome was 
delivered by the 
Hon. J. W. Emi- 
son and- respond- 
ed to by Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Mc- 
Coy and Cap- 
tains Coulter and 
Simpson. They 
were sumptuous- 
ly banqueted at 
the Union Depot 
Hotel in the even- 

The spirit of 
comradeship de- 
_ veloped in the 
b service shows It- 
self yet among the officers and men and It is 
safe to say that should auother appeal to their 
patriotism be made the response would be no 
less prompt and effective than in this case. 












The first acts for the government of the vil- 
lage or borough of Vinceumes were passed by 
the Legislature in 1805, and approved in 1807, 
but it appears the village or borough was not 
incorporated till the act of 1815. By this act 
the following persons were named trustees: 
Robert Buntin, Joshua Bond, William Bullitt, 
Henry Hurst, Chas. Smith, Jacob Kuykendall, 
Hyacinth Laselle, Touissant Dubois and Peter 
Jon)es. The boundaries of the borough were 
those included at present by Hart on the north- 
east, the church lands on the south-west, the 
Wabash River on the north-west and Eleventh 
Street on the south-east. This remained the 
boundary of the village until the year 1817, 

Phoio by Tvwnsley 

Residence Auditor James D. Williams, Eighth and Broadway 

when "Harrison's Addition" was annexed by 
act of the Legislature. These enlarged limits 
remained unchanged till the place was incor- 
porated as a city in 1856, after a special elec- 
tion held in January, 1856. The last meeting 
of the village trustees was held February 7, 
The president of the Board of Trustees in 

1815, as far back as a record showing is pre- 
served, was Fred Graeter, who served two- 
years. He was succeeded by Robert Buntin, 
1817-18; A. Patterson, 1818-19; Robert Buntin, 
1819-20; John Moore, 1820-23; (Owen Reily, pro 
tern., 1823); John Collins, 1823-26; G. W. John- 
son, 1826-28; J. S. C. Harrison, 1828-37; Abner 
T. Ellis, 1837-56. The first mayor of the City 
of Vincennes was John Meyers, 1856-57. He 
was followed by James Dick, 1857 to 59; W. A. 
Jones, 1859-60; R. M. Kennedy, 1860-62; H. V. 
Somes, 1863-67; Geo. E. Green, 1867-69; W. B. 
Robinson, 1869-73; J. S. Pritchett, 1873-74; (An- 
ton Kapps, pro tern., 1873); W. H. Beeson, 
1874-77; W. B. Searight, 1877-83; J. H. Shouse, 
1883-85; John W T ilhelm, 1885-89-, Francis Mur- 
phy. 1889-91; O. G. Miller, 1891-94; George E. 
Green, 1894-1902. 

The following have served as village and city 
clerks: B. I. Harrison, 1815-17: G. R. Sullivan, 
1817-23: E. Stout, 
1823-33: Martin Rob- 
inson, 1833-37: Sam- 
uel Hill, 1837-56; 
A. M o n t g o m ery, 
1856-60; G. C. Ma- 
thesie, 1860-69; G. S. 
Turney, 1869-75; 
Emil Grill, 1875-79; 
C. Cripps, 1879-85; 
C. M. Allen, 1885-87; 
George E. Green, 
1887-94: Charles 
Langel. 1894-1802. 

-Fort S a.c k v i 1 1 e 
captured in 1779 by 
George Rogers 
Clark, was located, 
it is stated on good 
authority, not far 
from First and Main 
Streets, being to the 
north-west of the 
latter street and 

about twenty or thirty yards from the river. 
The little log church in which, at the instance 
of the good Father Gibault, the inhabitants of 
Vincennes first took the oath of allegiance to 
the State of Virginia, stood further over to- 
ward the site of the present venerable St. 
Francis Xavier Cathedral. Later, a fort, 
which has been variously identified as a sec- 



ond Fort Sackville and the first Fort Kiiox, 
stood at a point near First and Buntin Streets. 
This second fort was built in 1793. Owing to 
friction between the citizens and the soldiers 
of the garrison, Governor Harrison, ini 1807, or- 
dered the fort built above the village at a point 
now recognized as the site of Fort Knox. Fort 
Saekville is said to have taken its name from 
Jean Sacqueville, a />, / by <rodd 
French trader and 
soldier in the em- 
ploy of the Detroit 
French Fur Co. Fort 
Knox was named in 
honor of President 
Washington's secre- 
tary of war, John 

The store of the 
Spaniard, Laurent 
B a z a d o n, whose 
goods were im- 
pressed by General 
Clark in 1786, stood 
at the corner of Sec- 
ond and St. Peters, 
(mow Broadway.) 
The residences of 
Col. Vigo and John 
Rice Jones stood on 
opposite sides of St. 
Peter's (now Broad- 
way), beyond Sec- 
ond Street. In Col. 

Vigo's house Governor Harrison made his 
headquarters when he first came to the Capital 
of Indiana Territory. A part of this house re- 
mained as late as 1856. In the same neighbor- 
hood resided Judge Vanderburg. 

In a frame house at the south corner of Third 
arid Broadway, the first Territorial Legislature 
held its sessions. Governor Harrison's resi- 
dence was at the head of St. Louis Street. This 
was the first building of burnt brick west of 
Pittsburg. In this vicinage the celebrated con- 
ferences with Tecumseh and other historic 
events of importance transpired. The gov- 
ernor's plantation had been named '"Grouse- 
land" by its owner and was held in high esti- 
mation by him. Romantic stories are told of 
a tunnel leading to the river to be used for 
escape from the Indians in case of necessity 
and of a powder magazine located beneath the 
family room by which the general designed to 

destroy himself and fr.mily rather than permit 
them to fall into the hands of a savage foe. 
There does not seem to be a reasonable founda- 
tion for these statements. 

The first building used as a court hoxise was 
at the north corner of Second and Broadway. 
It was later used as a hospital by soldiers. The 
court house was the brick at the west 

Prospect Hill Coal Shaft 

corner of Fourth and Buntin, now a private 
residence. The present court house square 
\vas bought of Jacob Kuykendall in 1830. 

The "Bank of Vincenines," incorporated by 
legislative act in 1814 and which subsequently 
became the "State Bank of Indiana, with four 
branches in various parts of the state," and 
was wrecked by fraud and mismanagement of 
the grossest kind, within seven years from its 
formation, was located in a two-story brick at 
the east corner of First and Broadway. 

HISTORIC NOTES. The first theater was 
built by John Rice Jones, and the first play, 
given in 1807, was entitled, "Drowning Meij 
Catch at Straws." A singular coincidence is 
that oni the day the play appeared a man was 
drowned in the Wabash. 

A duel was fought just across the river in 
1813 between Dr. Scull and Parmenus Beckes, 
in which the latter was killed. 



Notwithstanding the ordinance of 1787, by 
which the territory was constituted, forbade 
slavery within its boundaries, many of the in- 
habitants held slaves to a late date, and the 
institution did not finally disappear till 1840. 
It is said Governor Harrison had quite a 
retinue of slaves. In .1808 the tax lists showed 
123 slaves, enumerated as "servants," and in 
1830 there were thirty-two slaves listed. 

The vehicle in common use among the creole 
population as late as 1840 was the "caleehe," 
a cart with two woodeni wheels, with rawhide 
tires, if any, and with a deep, square box for a 

But once in its history has Vincennes suf- 
fered severely from an epidemic disease. This 
was in 1820 when a malarial fever of malignant 
type caused great loss of life. It was at- 
tributed to stagnant water in the vicinity. 
Numerous stagnant ponds existed and the river 

had become stagnant and foul by reason of a 
peculiar water grass which grew in its bed. 
It was many years before the little village out- 
grew the effects of this terrible scourge. 

Three great fires have occurred in the history 
of Vincennes. The first of these was on the 
16th of October. 1841, and destroyed every- 
thing on the north-east side of Main Street ex- 

cept two buildings. The second great fire oc- 
curred Dec. 0, 1854, and destroyed all the build- 
ings on the north-east side of Main Street be- 
tween Second and Third Streets. On Sunday, 
April 15, 1860, nine buildings on the south-east 
side of Second, between Main and Busseron, 
were destroyed. In 1808, in "General Court," 
Judges Vanderburg and Parke presiding, Abra- 
ham Hiley was sentenced to death for the mur- 
der of John Coffiiian. On the 29th of October 
he stood upon the drop with the noose adjusted 
about his neck. In) a moment more the drop 
would have fallen, when he was respited by the 
governor. The respite having expired a few 
days later, he was again placed on the scaffold 
and this time pardoned by the governor before 
the drop fell. Only two judicial executions 
have occurred at Vincennes within its history. 
These were Thomas McKinney, Oct. 15, 1822, 
for the murder of Tames Boyd, and William 
Cox, a negro, April 
9, 1824, for rape. It 
thus fell to the lot 
of a sinigle circuit 
judge, Jacob Call, to 
sentence the only 
criminals ever hung 
at Vincennes. The 
judge, not long 
afterwards, c o rn- 
mitted suicide on 
the eve of his in- 
tended marriage. 

Among the dis- 
tinguished men more 
or less identified 
with the early his- 
tory of Vinjcennes. 
we may mention be- 
sides Governor, 
afterwards P r e s i- 
dent Ilarrison, John 
Badollet, first regis- 
ter of the land office, 
a position he ob- 
tained through the 

personal friendship of Albert Gallatin, a mem- 
ber of the President's cabinet. He came to 
Vincennes in this capacity on the organization 
of the territory in 1800, and continued to hold 
the position 1 till failing health compelled his 
resignation in 1836. He died the next year. 

Colonel Francis Vigo, whose aid to General 
Clark contributed so much to the success of 



any of the streets of the city. As first con- 
structed the road ran from the depot to First 
Street, with the present loop at the depot and 
a loop around the two blocks bounded by 
First, Third, Main and Busseron. It was a 
single track, with switches, and the motive 
power was mules. The first cars were run in 
1883. About 1886, the loop at the down-town 

Photo fcy Shores 

his expedition, resided in Vincennes for many 
years prior to his death. It is a blot on our 
early congressional history that Colontel Vigo, 
though in dire need In his declining years, was 
never able to secure reimbursement for his out- 
lay of over $9,000 in Clark's behalf. 

General Zachary Taylor, tenth President of 
the United States, when a captain commanded 
at Fort Knox for a 

Judge Benjamin 
Parke was one of 
the big men of his 
day, and the resi- 
dence he built In 
1804 still stands on 
Upper First near 
Hart Street. He was 
territorial delegate 
in Congress and sub- 
sequently became 
judge of the U. S. 
District Court. 

The first lodge of 
the Masonic frater- 
nity organized here 
was Vincennes 
Lodge, No. 1, being 
also, of course, the 
first In the bounds 
of the state. It was 
chartered by the 
Grand Lodge of Ken- 
tucky, Sept. 1, 1808. Residence Mrs. Arabella McKenney, Third and Vigo 

Wabash Lodge, No. 20, I. O. O. F., the first 
lodge of Odd Fellows, was organized in 1840. 

Charter for street railway was granted Oct. 
24, 1881, to Chas. and Frederick Graeter and 
their associates, successors and assigns, the 
corporate name being the Vincennes Citizens' 
Street Railway Co. The company was formed 
with a capital stock of $15,050. The original 
incorporators were Frederick Graeter, Charles 
Graeter, John W. Graeter, George W. Graeter, 
O. P. Baker and Christ Hoffman. In 1885 
Frederick Graeter bought the stock of Ohas. 
Graeter, Baker and Hoffman, and two years 
later the entire stock was transferred to George 
W. Graeter, who had been manager of the lines 
from the first. 

The franchise of this corporation was very 
broad and for a term of fifty years. It per- 
mitted the company to enter upon and occupy 

end was taken up, the lines running up Main 
to Second and out Second, to Scott. In 1891 
Mr. Graeter sold out to a company formed for 
the purpose of building an electric line. The 
new company was composed of Messrs. Hudnut, 
Gerner, Walker and Barr, of Terre Haute, and 
Allen Tiudolph, of Vincennes.. Electric power 
was installed ami within the next two or three 
years the road was extended to the fair 
grounds and to its present terminus on Second 
Street, and double tracked. 

The Wagon Bridge over the Wabash was 
built in 1869. The original company, formed 
in December, 1868, was composed of leading 
citizens, prominent among them being L. L. 
Watson, Colonel C. M. Allen, R. J. McKenny, 
William Burtch, and Charles A. Weisert. The 
authorized capital of the company was $40,000. 
The plan was to build a structure entirely of 
wood. After the contract was let, however, 



it was decided to build an iron draw. This iu 
creased the cost to $79,000, and additional stock 
to the amount of $39,000 was issued. A part 
of the bridge, at the Vincennes end, was de- 

Photo by Shores 

\ Residence Governor Harrison, built in J804. Owned and Occupied by Mr. E. 
S. Sheperd, of Vincennes Paper Co., Park and Scott S reets. 

stroyed in a storm in 1869, but immediately re- 
built. In 1876 the two wooden spans were re- 
built of iron at a cost of $10,000. The entire 
stock was acquired by the city in 1890, and the 
bridge, which had previoiisly been operated as 
a toll bridge, made free. 

The subject of education early occupied the 
minds of manly of the intelligent people of the 
territory but serious obstacles presented them- 
selves to the development of a system, and of 
such nature that they could not be overcome 

in the prevailing condition of society. The' 
United States government, by the ordinance of 
1787, under which the territory was organized, 
had made liberal provisions in 1 that direction, 
by reserving the six- 
teenth section! of 
every township in 
the public lands to 
school purposes. 
However, the posi- 
tive opposition of 
some, the indiffer- 
ence of many and 
the poverty of all 
were mountainous- 
barriers to an early 
development of the- 
proposed system. In 
1807 the Territorial 
Legislature passed 
an act for the in- 
corporation of the 
Vincennes Universi- 
ty "for the instruc- 
tion of youth in the- 
Latin, Greek, 
French and English 
Languages, mathe- ' 
matics, natural phil- 
osophy, ancient and 
modern h i s t o r y t 
moral philosophy, 
logic, rhetoric and 
the law of nature 
and nations." 

In 1808 provision 
was made for the im- 
provement of the- 
school lands by au- 
thorizing the execu- 
tion of leases through the various common 
pleas courts. Under an act passed in 1810 the 
courts were authorized to appoint trustees of 
school lands ini the various counties. The first, 
second and third sections of the state consti- 
tution of 1816 required the Legislature to pro- 
vide for the improvement of school lands, to- 
pi-event their sale prior to 1820 and to adopt 
measures for the security and proper adminis- 
tration of all school funds. In the 9th article 
it was provided that "It shall be the duty of 
the General Assembly, as soon as circum- 
stances will permit, to provide by law for a 
general system of education, ascending, in a 



regular gradation, from township schools to a 
State University, wherein tuition shall be 
.gratis, and equally open to all." 

In this connection, probably the account of 
the origin and progress of that institution as 
given in its announcement for the year 1901, 
could not be improved upon. It is as follows: 

"The existence of the Viiicennes University 
ds due to the ordinance of 1787, for the govern- 
ment of the territory n'orth-west of the Ohio. 
That document contained the following signifi- 
cant paragraph: 'Religion, morality and 
knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools 
-anti the means of education shall forever be 
encouraged.' This expression of Congress set 
the tone for the future management of this 
territory, and the act parsed March 26, 1804, 
governing the disposal of public lands therein, 
provided that the 

following out the same policy, the Indiana Ter- 
ritorial Legislature, at its first session, passed 
'an act to incorporate an university in, the In^ 
diana Territory, to be called and known by the 
name and style of Vincennes University. This 
was approved by the governor, William Henry 
Harrison, November 29, 1806. The first board 
of trustees was named in the act as follows: 

William Henry Harrison, Ellas McNamee, 
John Gibson, Henry Vanderburg, Francis Vigo, 
Waller Taylor, Jacob Kuykendall, Nathaniel 
Ewing, John Badollet, Luke Decker, John Rice 
Jones, Samuel Gwathmej, George Wallace, Jr., 
John Johnson, William Bullitt. 

"These trustees were authorized to found an 
University 'within the borough of Vincennes 
and to appoint to preside over and govern it a 
president and not exceeding four professors for 
the instruction of youth in Latins, Greek, 

flection numbered 
sixteen 'shall be re- 
served in each 
township for the 
support of schools 
within the same.' 
The same act pro- 
vided that in each 
of the three land 
districts (Detroit, 
Kaskaskia and Vin- 
cenneo), an tire 
township was 'to 
be located by the 
secretary of the 
treasury for the 
use of a seminary 
of learning.' 

"In obedience to 
this act, Albert 
G-allatin, secretary 
of the treasury, 
chose township No. 
2 south, range 11 
west, as the semi- 
nary township in 

Photo by Shores 

the Vincennes district, that is, in the Territory 
of Indiana. This land is now Patoka Town- 
ship in Gibson County, the site of a part of the 
Oity of Princeton. 

"The Legislature of Ohio had previously (Jan- 
uary 9, 1802) laid the foundation of the first 
college in the North-west, the Ohio University 
at Athens. With this example before it, and 

Residence;. D. La Croix, 420 S. Third 

French and English languages, mathematics, 
natural philosophy, logic, rhetoric and the law 
of nature and of nations.' 

"The first meeting of the trustees was held 
December, 1800, which is counted as the begin- 
ning of the school. The work of instruction 
began in earnest in 1810, with Rev. Samuel 
Scott as the first president, the elementary 



branches being taught in addition to those 
prescribed in the charter." 

We are largely indebted to a paper prepared 
by Dr. H. M. Smith and read by President 
Hershman at the foundation day exercises of 
the University, in 1901, for the following facts 
in the history of this institution of learning. 

The first property acquired by the University 

'Photo by Tov)nsley 

with no better result, and the institution) led. a 
precarious existence till in 1820 the Indiana 
State Legislature passe*; an act appointing 
commissioners to take possession of said lands, 
rent them, and turn the proceeds into the state 
treasury. At the same time the attempt was 
made to blot the University out of existence 
by superseding it with the "Knox County Semi- 

nary," incorporated 
under state law. A 

_____ Board of Trustees 

of the new institu- 
tion was appointed 
and authorized to 
take over the 
books, funds and 
lands of the Uni- 
versity. The Board 
of Trustees of the 
University, though 
without a school, 
or school funds, ap- 
pear to have main- 
tained a legal exist- 

Residence I. Lyons, 404 North Fourth 

was a tract of laud embracing almost the en- 
tire four squares bounded by Perry, Sixth, 
Hart and Fourth Streets, secured by the build- 
ing committee of the Board of Trustees from 
Colonel Francis Vigo and Henry Vanderburg, 
two of the original Board of Trustees. A large 
two story brick building was erected in the 
center of this campus 2-.:t owing to the diffi- 
culties attending all building operations in 
those days, was not ready for occupation till 
the 10th of April, 1811. 

Rev. Samuel Scott, a Presbyterian minister, 
was selected to open an English school in the 
new building. Having practically exhausted 
its funds in building, the trustees, in 1816, peti- 
tioned Congress for leave to sell the 19,000 
acres remaining of the Gibson County reserva- 
tion. This was, however, denied it. The peti- , 
tion was renewed to subsequent congresses 

ence, ami in 
1838, reorganized, 
with Rev. Thomas 
Alexander, presi- 
dent, and George 
R. Gibson, secre- 
t a r y. Measures 
were taken to re- 
cover the records 
of the old board 
and to secure a set- 

tlement with the borough of Vincennes as to 
funds arising from the sale of commons lands, 
authorized by act of Con'gress. In 1839 the 
Knox County Seminary Board relinquished all 
claim to the grounds and building. Debts to a 
considerable amount having accrued against 
the property by this time, after due delibera- 
tion it was decided best to sell it and it was 
disposed of to St. Gabriel's College for the sum 
of $6,500. 

The board now took steps looking to the 
erection of a new building, but in the meantime 
rented a brick building which stood near the 
corner of Fifth and Market (now Main) Streets, 
and employed Rev. B. B. Killikelly, organizer 
and first rector of St. James Episcopal Church, 
to take charge, with one assistant. The lot 
at the corner of Fifth and Busseron, on which 
the University building stands, was bought of 



Dr. Hiram Decker for $500. In) 1842 Rev. 
Killikelly, being about to proceed on a 
tour to the eastern states and to Eng- 
land in behalf of his conigr egat ion, resigned the 
principalship of the .school and in the following 
year the State of Indiana, through its Legis- 
lature, made a second attack on the school, by 
authorizing the county board of Knox County 
to seize all the assets of the University. No 
attempt was made by the county authorities, 
however, to carry into execution the authority 
a grant of which was attempted. This lute 
attempt on the part of the Legislature to crush 
it, appears to have aroused the friends of the 
University and the Board of Trustees to action 
and they immediately sought legal counsel and 
obtained from Chancellor Kent, through briefs 
prepared by Hon. Samuel Judah, an opinion as 
follows: "I am of opinion that the Legislature 
of Indiana is 

bound by the most phoio by To^vnsley 

imperious obliga- 
tions of justice and 
honor, to fhdem- 
n'fy the University 
for this unconstitu- 
tional arrest and 
detention of their 
property." Thus 
fortified the board 
authorized its at- 
torneys, Hon. Sam- 
uel Judah and A. 
T Ellis, to begin 
ejectment proceed- 
ings against the 
grantees of the 
state to its lands 
in Gibson County. 
Such a storm of in- 
d i g n a t i o n was, 
however, raised by 
s Jiese proceedings, 
threatening to lead 
to physical vio- 
lence, that the con- 
testing attorneys reached an understanding by 
which the representatives of Knox and Gibson 
Counties were prevailed upon to secure the pas- 
sage of an act authorizing the University board 
to sue the state for the value of the lands. 

The bill was passed and suit brought in the 
Marion County Court, wh-n-e a judg- 
ment was secured for the sum of $30.<)00.5<5 for 

that part of the lauds already disposed of by 
the state. On appeal by the state, the State 
Supreme Court reversed this judgment. The 
trustees then carried the cause to the United 
States Supreme Court, where the State Su- 
preme Court was reversed and where it was 
calculated the amount due the University at 
that time, 1852, was $200,000. The state then 
attempted to defeat the claim by an alleged 
forfeiture ot charter on the part of yie Uni- 
versity. Failing in this, the Legislature of 
1855 appropriated $66,565 in payment for 
"lands already sold." After further litigation, 
a further sum of $41,5(35 was appropriated but 
from this sum the University was required to 
pay all t'he costs of the litigation; from the first 
appropriation the attorneys retained one-third, 
so that less than half the amount actually due, 
according to the decision of the U. S. Supreme 

Residence Judge O. H. Cobb, 324 Broadway 

Court, was received. Finally, in 1895, a fur- 
ther appropriation of .$ir>,<>(><) was made, and 
Mil effort nuiile to secure ;i formal release of the 
state from further obligation, but this the 
board declined to grant. Again, after a hard 
fight in IS!)!), conducted by Senator Purcell, in 
the Senate, and RepreM ntatives Willoughby 
and Claycomb in the House, an appropriation 



of $120,000 ' ate 4 per cent, bonds was 
made, passii^ ch houses by overwhelming 
majorities, bu t Governor Mount declined to 
sign the bill, and it failed to become a law. 
The matter was again pressed to the attention 
of the Legislature at its next session, but with- 
out success. 
While this litigation has been in progress, the 

Residence W. B. Purcell, 5J6 Busseron 

Board of Trustees -has not been idle. Having 
come into possession of a good brick building 
on their lot, erected by an arranegment with 
the county commissioners, the school was in 
1856 reinstated with Rev. R. M. Chapman as 
president, and since that time has had a con- 
tinuous existence and a constant growth in im- 
portance and influence. In the year 1856, the 
trustees bought the lot at the south corner of 
Fifth and Busseron and erected thereon a 
building for a female department. This separ- 
ate department was conducted for a consider- 
able time, but was eventually consolidated 
with the male department in the brick build- 
Ing. The lot was sold in 1880 to Mr. Christian 
Bberwine for $25.000. 

In 1878. finding the school had outgrown its 
quarters, the trustees decided to erect a new 
and larger building and the main part of the 
present handsome structure was built at a cost 
of $14,616. It soon became necessary to build 
an important addition which was done in 

1889, at a cost of $4,180, this addition compris- 
ing a hall and six rooms "on the south and 
west end." 

In 1891 the Vincennes University was accord- 
ed recognition as a military school, by the de- 
tail under authority of congress of an officer of 
the army as drill master. The first officer 
was Lieutenant R. C. Melt, of the 10th 

infantry. He was 
succeeded in 1893 
by Lieutenant U. 
G. Kemp, of the 2d 
cavalry and he In 
1897 by Lieutenant 
A. M. Davis, of the 
8th cavalry. So ef- 
ficient and well 
drilled was the 
cadet, company 
that on the declara- 
tion of war with 
Spain and the call 
for volunteers, this 
company was ac- 
cepted as a whole 
as one company of 
the 159th regiment, 
and was in the ser- 
ice for seven 
months. Dr. Smith 
adds: "This was the 
first volunteer com- 
pany to offer its services to the governor of the 
state, and the only full company of cadets sent 
by any state institution of learning In the 
union, to engage in the Spanish war." 

After the Spanish war the military branch 
was for a time under the efficient care of Mr. 
Lee B. Pnrcell. but since the latter was ap- 
pointed to a lieutenancy in the U. S. Marine 
Corps the branch of military tactics has not 
been receiving attention. 

In the field of athletic sports the University 
has in the last three years made an honor- 
able record. Its football team has been de- 
feated very rarely in the numerous contests 
with various institutions of learning through- 
out the state. 

The present members of the Board of Trus- 
tees, officers and instructors of the institution 
are as follows: 

president: W. B. Robinson, secretary: Joseph L. 
Bayard, treasurer: Hiram A. Foulks. Major W. 



P. Gould, W. F. Townsend, Ed- 
ward Smith, R. E. Purcell, Dr. 
W. M. Hindman, S. N. Cham- 
bers, Chas. Bierhaus, Jas. W. 
Emison, T. H. Adams, W. C. 
Johnson, Prof. James E. Man- 
chester, president and ex-offleo 
member of board. 

FACULTY: President and 
professor of mathematics, Dr. 
James E. Manchester, D. Sc. 

Professor of Greek and Latin, 
William C. Hengen, Lit. B. 

Professor of Science, O. M. 

Professor of English Litera- 
ture, T. J. Davis. 

Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages, Mrs. J. E. Manchester. 

Professor of Philosophy and 
Pedagogy, Rev. De Lou Burkf. 

Piano Department, Miss Mary 

Vocal Department, Mrs. Mar- 
garet Eluere. 

'Photo by Todd 

Residence Herman Boog, 28 S. Fourth 

Vincennes University, Fifth and Busseron 



Having given the history of Vincennes so far 
as known from the earliest colonial period, to 
the present, we will now turn our attention to 
the city of the present. Having seen how it 
was founded and how it grew we will now 
see into what it has grown and into what it 
promises to grow. 

The city of Vincennes as it now exists is one 
of the most progressive, energetic and growing 
cities of the State. With a population of 12,000 
thrifty, intelligent people, bent on its develop- 
ment and advancement, with numerous and 
varied manufacturing interests, with raw ma- 
terials for manufactures within easy reach,- 
many of them at its very door, with transpor- 
tation facilities and frei.ent rates unsurpassed, 
with a demand for residences which an un- 
precedented activity in building fails to sup- 
ply; with a board of trade active, intelligent 
and well supplied with funds for the location 
of factories, there is every reason to believe 
the future lies bright bei'ore her and that the 
growth of more than fifty per cent, shown for 
the previous decade by the census of 1900 will 
be far outstripped by that of the current de- 

In the midst of one of the finest agricultural 
sections in the world, in a delightful and salu- 
brious climate, with educational facilities sur- 
passed by few cities 61 its size, with church 
organzations and edifices of rare perfection, 
with excellent streets ana sidewalks, with so- 
cial advantages unsurpassed, with all the mod- 
ern conveniences that add to the comfort and 
pleasure of living, it takes its place in the first 
rank of desirable residence cities. 

With four vast systems of railroads directly 

connecting it with ev,ery great trade center and 
very low switching charges, in the matter of 
freight privileges no city is better provided. 
Work soon to be begun under government di- 
rection for the improvement of the Wabash 
will be of great advantage to Vincennes in the 
matter of water transportation. With a good, 
vein of coal of superior steam making proper- 
ties near the surface and within easy reach of 
an unlimited supply, which can be had at very- 
low rates, the fuel question is one that needs 
trouble the Vincennes manufacturer little. 

Labor is abundant, both skilled and common, 
and factories seldom find difficulty in obtain- 
ing all they desire. 

A university, six fine public school build- 
ings, five schools conducted by various 
churches and religious societies, covering all 
grades from primary to academic, furnish 
abundant opportunity for the training of the- 

Twelve church edifices of various grades up- 
to $35,000 cost, with large and flourishing con- 
gregations, furnish ample accommodation for 

We have not attempted in the following 
pages to mention every business and profes- 
sional man, nor indeed any great number, 
comparatively, but the various lines of manu- 
factures and business touched upon will give 
some faint idea of what we have. Before 
taking these up we wi!l have a word to say 
about the Vincennes Board of Trade, an or- 
orgnnization on whose efforts in a large meas- 
ure depends the future growth of the city, as* 
to it is in a like measure due the city's past 




The Vincennes Board of Trade was organ- 
ized in 1883, the first meeting of which record 
was made having been held in the parlors of 
the La Plante hotel June 
28, of that year. There 
seems to have been a 
previous meeting at 
which a committee on 
by-laws had been ap- 
pointed as they made 
report at this meeting 
and the matter was 
laid over for further 
further consideration 
until the next meeting. 
The board of directors 

Edw. Watson, President ^3 also requested to 

report at the next meeting on the matter of 
a "room." This was held in the evenling of 
July 3, at the same place as the former meet- 
ing. At this time the 
report of the commit- 
tee on by-laws was 
adopted, as was also a 
resolution of thanks to 
J. D. Cox for the use 
of the parlors of the 
La Plamte House for 
the meetings, and offi- 
c?rs were elected as 

President, N. F. Dai- 

V ice-President, Ed- 
ward Watson. 

Secretary, Dr. George I>1. Ockford. 
Assistant Secretary, Lewis A. Wise. 

Treasurer, Joseph L. 

The following board 
of directors was chos- 

J. H. Rabb G. Wein- 
stein, P. R. McCarthy, 
E. M. Thompson, E. H. 

At the next meeting 
July 17, nine business 
men were elected to 
Without following up 

Geo. W. Roush 

T. H. Adams 

the work from meeting to meeting further, 

which the limitations of our space forbids, 

suffice it to say that the growth of the board 

membership in its ear- 

ly days was quite satis- 

factory and that it 

numbered among its 

active members many 

of the prominent busi- 

ness and professional 

men of those days. 

Among the charter 

members who are still 

active members we 

lote: President Ed- 

ward Watson, Treasur- 

er Joseph L. Bayard, H. F. Willis. Secretar ' 

E. H. Smith, L. A. Wise, R. E. Russell and P. 
R. McEarthy. 

N. F. Dalton, who was at this meeting 
C'losen president of tin, 
board, proved an active 
and intelligent execu- 
tb e, and he was an- 
nually re-elected until 
and including 1890, but 
m the fall of 1890 he 
resigned the position 
ana was succeeded by 
Mr. Watson, the pres- 
ent incumbent. At its 
September meeting the 
b-jard passed a resolu- 
tion of thanks for his ; - A ' Risch 

long and faithful service and expressing regret 
that he could not longer serve them. At the 
meeting held September 19, 1890, Mr. Edward 
W.'tson was chosen 
president to succeed __^______^^__ - 

President Dalton, re- 
signed, and has held 
that position since, with 
the exception of two 
terms, Mr. Joseph L. 
Ebner haying served 
from March 24, 1899, to 
April 30, 1901. 

The present member- 
ship of the board is 
about 200. The cost of 
membership is $5.00 for 




certificate and monthly lues of 25c, payable 
semi-annually. Since its organization this board 
has done much for the city by securing the 
location of factories, no 
less than nine of the im- 
portant industries now 
contributing to the well- 
fj;re of the city owing 
thtir existence here to 
the efforts of the board 
in that behalf, while 
others have been assist- 
ed with stock and still 
others located which 
ht)ve since been discon- 

The first of these lo- w - A - CuII P 

cated was the Vincennes Paper Mill, which 
was located in September 1886, and was quickly 
followed by the Enterprise Stove Company the 
next year. A starch factory was secured in 
1888 and proved of great advantage to the city 
until its destruction by fi.e. The Fyfield & Lee 
Woolen Mills were locateu in the same year. At 
the meeting of January, 1S89, President Dalton, 
in his annual address, celled attention to four 
industries that had been secured through the 

Photo by Shores 

New Depot of Terre Haute Brewing Co., First, bet. Main and Busseron 

efforts of the Board of Trade: the Paper Mill, 
Enterprise Stove Works, GJ over's Stave Factory 
and the Woolen Mills, whose combined gross 
output amounted to $2/2,000 and which em- 
ployed 270 people to w.'tom the annual pay- 
ments amounted to 
$77,000, 38J per cent, of 
the gross production. 
Tioese enterprises, so 
Mr. Dalton said, had 
e. st the people of Vin- 
cennes a total of $13,- 
500. In 1889 the Bell & 
\rmistead Manufactur- 
.rg Company (sewer 
pipe works) was estab- 
'isned here at a cost of 
$5000 to the Board of 
Trade. Another $10,000 Eugene Hack 

was subscribed to this oompan/y later when its 
plant was destroyed by fi. e. In this year also 
the Hartman Manufacturing Company was 
organized and placed in operation and the 
Baker Manufacturing Company (egg case fac- 
tory), now owned and operated by the Vln- 
cennes Paper Company, was secured through 
the efforts of the board, so that 1889 was a 
red letter year in the 
matter of the loca- 
tion of factories at 

In 1893 the Hart- 
well Handle Works 
was located through 
the efforts of the 

In 1895 the Marlon 
Hardwood Lumber 

In 1896, the Inter- 
State Distillery. 

In 1897 the Shep- 
erd Paper Mill burn- 
ing of the Vin- 
cennes Paper Com- 
pany was organ- 
ized through the ef- 
forts of the board 
and the mills rebuilt 
on enlarged plans. 
In 1899 the Vin- 
cennes Bridge Com- 
pany was located. In 


1900 Roush's Basket factory was organized, 
and in the same year an arrangement was 
concluded with the Central Foundry Company 
whereby its plant was ro be doubled and to 
employ mot less than 250 men. This has been 

In 1901 the Vincennes Window Glass Com- 
pany was secured to the city and is now em- 
ploying at good wages a')out 200 men with the 
prospect of a constant development and in- 
crease of pay roll. In .1901 also the Indiana 
Hantdle Company, employing now in the neigh- 
borhood of fifty men at good wages, was 

Population 14,000. Had gas, electric light and 
power, electric street railway, filtered water 
company, stand pipe and direct pressure; maxi- 
mum power, 90 horse pcvver; minimum power, 
40 horse power. 

Fire alarm system, with a fine modern 
equipped paid fire department. 
Lines of traffic -rail and water. 
Wabash river navigabl^ eight to ten months 
of the year. 

Baltimore snd Ohio Railroad. 
Pennsylvania Lines. 

Cleveland, Cincin- 
nati and St. Louis 
Big Four. 

Evansville and. 
Terre Haute. 

Three National 
Banks, whose capi- 
tal and surplus prof- 
its amount to $416,- 
937.17, and their de- 
posits $2,512,^10.56. 

Rate of gas, 95- 
cents per thousand. 

Rate of water 
maximum, 25 cents 
per 1,000 gallons. 
Rate of water min- 
imum, 8 cents per 
1,000 gallons. 

Average rate of 
taxation for past 
five years, $2.12. 

Price of Bitumin- 
ous Coal per ton: 
Slack, 50c per ton; 
nut and slack, 85c 
per ton; mine run, 
$1.25 per ton; lump, 
$1.65 per ton. 

The present offi- 
cers are: President, 
Second Street, South from Busseron Edward Watson, 

proprietor of Union Depot Hotel and largely 
interested in various manufacturing concerns; 
Vice-President, Antoni S';non, of Hack & Si- 
mon, brewers; Treasurer. Joseph L. Bayard, 
president First National liank; Secretary, H. T. 
Willis, cashier Union Depot Hotel; Assistant 
Secretary, H. J. Foulks, 'nsurance. 

The Board of Directors is composed of lead- 
ing business and professional men, as follows: 

placed in operation here ihrough the efforts of 
tiie board. 

The board has at its command many good 
manufacturing sites convenient to water and 
railroads and is prepared to extend material 
assistance to worthy institutions of all kinds. 

The board in its literature holds out the 
following as some of th? inducements for the 
investment of capital het'o: 



Eugene Hack, of Hack & Simon, brewers; 
Joseph L. Ebner, ice, coal and coid storage; 
Chas, Bierhaus, of E. Bierhaus & Sons, whole- 
sale grocers; Isaac Lyons of S. & I. Lyons, dry 
goods; W. A. Cullop, attorney. 

The various committ _:! of the board are 
as follows 

'Photo by Townsley 

A. M. Ford, manager of the Grand Hotel. 
Adams, proprietor Daily Commercial and post- 
master; An'ton Simon, brewer; Gerard Reiter, 
vice-president German National Bank; Francis 
Murphy, wines and liquors, and D. L. Bonner, 
merchant and traveling salesman. 

Floral Parade 

LEGAL COMMITTEE C. B. Kessenger, C. 
G. McCord, E. H. DeWolf, James W. Emison, 
all attorneys. 

general merchandise; Henry Eberwine, 
Thomas Campbell, architect; John A. Cox, lum- 
ber; George W. Roush, lumber and baskets; 

July 4th, 1900 

At the meeting held November 26, 1901, the 
treasurer's report showed receipts for the pre- 
vious year, including a small balance, to have 
been $12,561.46. The expenses, including $8,000 
to the glass works and $3,000 to the Enter- 
prise Stove Works, amounted to $11,136.44, 
leaving a balance in the treasury of $1,425.02. 



First National Bank 

The First National B.nk, of Vincennes, was 
organized July 15, 1871 with J. H. Rabb as 
president and J. L. Bayard cashier. The first 
board of directors was as follows: Louis L. 
Watson. John H. Rabb, Abraham Glmbel, 
Henry Knirihn, W. M. Tyler, Newton F. Ma- 
lott and Jos. L. Bayard. Of this board only two 
members are living, Messrs. Watson 
and Bayard. Messrs. Rabb and Bay- 
ard served uninterruptedly as presi- 
dent and cashier, respectively, for al- 
most twenty-seven years, until the 
death of Mr. Rabb in February, 1898, 
when Mr. Bayard fiecame president, 
and Mr. P. M O'Don'nell, who had 
been, in 1893, made assistant cashier, 
succeeded Mr. Bayard as cashier. 
These with Mr. H. V. Somes, who was 
elected assistant cashier in January, 
1901, are the present officers. The 
present board of directors of the First 
National is as follows: L. L. Watson, 
J. L. Bayard, E H. Smith, Chas Bier- 
haus, J. L. Ebuei, Edward Watson 
and J. E. Horn. The condition of the 
First National, as rendered in its re- 
port December 10. 1901, is as follows: 

Capital stock $100,000.00 

Surplus 20,000.00 

Undivided profits 50,429.29 

Deposits 1,009,861.413 

The First National Bank became a 
depository for government funds in 
October, 1898. 

Joseph L. Bayard was born in Vin- 
cennes, January 21, 1840, and received 
his education in the schools of Vin- 
tennes and at Bardstown College, at 
Bardstown, Ky. His first employment in the 
way of business was as a clerk in the Vin- 
cennes branch of the Bank of the State of In- 
diana. In this position he remained five years 
till 18G3, when he engaged in a general mer- 
chandise business in Vincennes, in which he 
continued till 1869, when he joined in the or- 
gani-saton of the German Banking Company, a 
private bank, of which he became cashier. 
This bank was, in 1871. merged in the First 
National, and Mr. Bayard became cashier of 
the enlarged institution. This position he con- 
tinued to fill for more than twenty-six years 

until the death of Mr. Rabb, in 1898, when he 
was elected president of the bank and has 
been annually re-elected since. Mr. Bayard 
has never sought public office or public trust 
but has had many trusts imposed upon him 
which a broad-minded pub'ic spirit would not 
permit him to decline. He was ome of the or- 
ganizers of the Citizen's Gas Company and has 
been treasurer of the company since its organl- 

First National Bark 

/atiou. He lias also been president of the com- 
pany since 1S98. He was a charter member 
of the board of trade and has been treasurer 
of that body siace its organization. He has 
been a trustee of Vincennes University for 
fourteen years and treasurer of the institution 
for ten years. He is also the senior member 
of the firm of J. L. Bayard & Co., one of the 
oldest and largest insurance agencies in this 
end of the State. Mr. Bayard was married in 
1881 to Miss Helen Burke, of Marietta, Ohio. 
They have four sons and one daughter living 
and one son doad. 



Patrick M. O'Donnell. cashier of the First 
National Bamk, is a native of Lawrence coun- 
ty, Illinois, where he was horn on a farm, Sep- 
tember 4. 1865. He received his education in 
the public schools of tLat county. His father 
.removed to V'incennes in the year 1879 and 
the next year our subject became a messenger 

In the Vmcennes National Bank. He contin- 
ued in the employ of this bank till. 1884, when 
he became book-keeper for the First National, 
a position which he continued to fill until 
1893, when he was made assistant cashier. On 
the death of Mr. Rabb ir 1898, and the election 

of Mr. Bayard to the presidency, Mr. O'Don- 
nell became cashier, a position which he has- 
since held. He is a member of the firm of J. 
L. Bayar;! & Co., insurance. 

Mr. O'Donnell was married in April, 1893, 
to Miss Marie C. Convery, of Vincennes. They 
have three daughters and one soni. 


Harry V. Some* 
was born in Vin- 
cennes September 24^ 
1866, anti received 
his education in the- 
Cathedral school and 
the Vincennes pub- 
lic schools. After 
leaving school, when 
yet quite young, he- 
was variously em- 
ployed in grocery 
stores and elsewhere 
for some years, his 
last employment be- 
fore entering the 
bank being with 
William Davidson, 
books and station- 
ery. In 1884, in the 
month of August, he 
became collector for 
the First National 
P.ank. Since that 
time he has been 
from time to time 
advaniced until in 
January, 1901, he be- 
came assistant cash- 
ier, his present posi- 

Mr. Somes was 
married in 1894, to- 
MJSS Bertha O'Dan- 
lel, of Owensboro, 
Ky. They have one 
son and one daugh- 


Joseph L. Bayard, Jr., receiving teller of the 
First National Bank, was born in Vincennes 
July 21, 1872. He attended the Cathedral 
school here and later entered Fordham College, 



of Fordhana, New York taking the scientific 
course. From this school he was graduated 
in June, .1892, taking the degree of B. Sc. His 
first employment after leaving school was in 
the First National Bank, which he entered as 
book-keeper in May, 18!)4. He became receiv- 
ing teller, January 1, 1900. Mr. Bayard was 
married October 28, 1896, to Miss Helen Reily. 
They have one son. 

Photo by Shores 

Second National Bank, Second and Main 

Second National Bank 

The Second National Bank of Vincennes was 
organized inf 1893 with a capital of $100,000 
and began business in July of that year, hav- 
ing bought at receiver's sale the building at 
the north corner of Second and Main streets, 
formerly occupied by tne Vincennes National 
Bank. The first officers of the bank were as 
follows: Ailed Tindolph, president; G. W. 
McDonald, cashier; W. J. Freeman, assistant 
cashier. The preesnt officers are G. W. 
Donaldson, president; W J. Freeman, cashier; 

J. T. Boyd, assistant cashier. The Second Na- 
tional Bank has from the f!ay of its organiza- 
tion enjoyed the confidence of the public in a 
high degree, the men who have conducted its 
affairs being recognized as possessed of the 
most sterling qualities. Its board of directors 
includes many of our most solid and conserva- 
tive business men and notwithstanding the 
financial depression, covering a period of sev- 
eral of the eight and a half years since 
its organization, it has accumulated a 
surplus of $16,000 and shows a hand- 
some and steady gain in deposits from 
year to year. 

The directors of the Second National 
are as follows: George Fendrich, James 
I. Kelso, 'B. Kuhn, R. M. Robinson, J. T. 
McJimsey, G. W. Donaldson, L. R. 
Boyd, R. M. Glass anld E. Bierhaus, Sr. 

George W. Donaldson, president of 
the Second National Bank, was born on 
a farm in Knox county, near Wheat- 
land, February 11, 1856. He attended 
the district school iu the neighborhood 
of his birth and later Vimcennes High 
School in which he took the teacher's 
course. He became a teacher in the 
schools of ' the country and continued 
so engaged for twelve years. During 
the time that he was engaged as a 
teacher he successfully conducted a. 
farm near Bicknell. In 1884 he em- 
barked in mercantile business at Bick- 
niell, where he carried a general stock. 
and in which business he remained 
four years, until, in 1888, he was 
elected treasurer of Knox Count:/. 
Before entering upon the discharge of 
his official duties he disposed of th > 
store. He served two terms as treas- 
urer, having been re-elected in 1890. During 
his service as treasurer Mr. Donaldson had 
the satisfaction of seeing the entire indebted- 
ness of Knox county wiped out. At the begin- 
ning of his term it amounted to $86,000. Soon 
after his retirement from office the Seconl 
National was organized and Mr. Donaldson b ~- 
cMiiH 1 its first cashier and has been connected 
with its active operation ever since. He w:is 
elected president in January, 1899. 

Mr. Donaldson owns and conducts a stock 
farm of about five hundred acres near Bi -k- 



nell, devoted principally to neat cattle. He 
is also one of the proprietors of the Citizen's 
Bank, of Bicknell, Ind., and a member of the 
Robinson-Donaldson Buggy Company, of this 

Mr. Donaldson was married in 1878 to Miss 
Sarah A. Gilmore, of \ igo township, Knox 
county. They have three daughters an'd one 

William J. Free- Pho , by ShoreS 
man, cashier of the 
Second N a ti o n a 1 
Biank, was born in 
Washington, Ind., 
January 3o, 1860. 
His parents removed 
to Edwardsp ort. 
where his father, Mr. 
Job Freeman, opera- 
ted a coal mine, 
whenf W. J. was quite 
small, and here he 
attended the public 
schools till 1885, 
when his father re- 
moved to Vincennes 
and he entered Vin- 
cennes University. 
After one year here 
he entered Rose 
Polytechnic School 
at Terre Haute, 
where he remained 
till November, 1887, 
when, his father be- 
coming auditor of Knox county, W. J. became 
his deputy, serving in tl^at capacity four years 
undor his father and one year under C. II. 
DeBolt. his successor. In 1803 he became as- 
sistant cashier 'of the Second National Hank, 
which position he held t'll 1800, when lie was 
advanced to the position of cashier, on the 
election of Mr. G. W. Donaldson to the presi- 
dency. Mr. Freeman was married December 
23, 1800, to Miss May. daughter of Thomas 
Bartlett, of Edwardsport. 


John T. Boyd was born in Vincennes Jan- 
uary 21, 1873. He was educated in tbo schools 
of the city. His business experience began 
with a subordinate position in the Second Na- 
tional Bank, which he accepted ini 1804. and 
he has since that date continued with the bank, 

becoming assistant cashier in 1809. Mr. Boyd 
was married October 25 1895, to Miss Kathe- 
rine Eastham, daughter of City Treasurer 
Thomas Eastham. 


John F. Hall, exchange > lerK of the Second 
National Bank, was born in Vincennes, Febru- 
ary 24, 1878, and is a son of Henry J. Hall. 
He was educated in the schools of the city, 
attending the University fee* a time. In Octo- 


Street, Looking North from Fifth 

IKT, 1807, he became a messenger for the Sec- 
ond National Bank and was later advanced to 
liis present position. John is a bright, steady, 
industrious young man, and apparently has a 
prosperous future before him. 

The German National Bank 

The German National Bank was organized 
in the spring of 1888, ueginming business on 
the 4th of April, of that year, at 116 Main 
street, where it remained until 1805, when it 
removed to its present quarters, the south cor- 
ner of Second and Main, having bought the 
building during the previous year. The first 
officers of the bank were Selenian Gimbel, 
president: Gerard Reiter. vice-president; Dr. 
George R. Alsop. cashier. The first board of 
directors was composed of the following gen- 



tleinen, S. Gimbel, G. Reiter, Wm. Baker, E. 
Hack, C. Hoffman, A. .Gimbel, A. Heinekamp, 
Job Freeman and Dr. John W. Milam. The 
present officers are: President, William Baker; 
vice-president, Gerard Reiter; cashier, George 
R. Alsop; assistant cashier, H. J. Boeckman. 

Directors Wm. Baker, G. Reiter, Eugene 
Hack, Chris Hoffman, Aug. Heintekamp, Henry 
J. Hellert, Edwin L. Ryder, F. M. Mail and 
George R. Alsop. 

At the date of the last statement ^> Mo 
rendered the comptroller, December ^^^ 
10, 1901. the condition of the bank was 
as follows: 

Capital stock $ 100,000 

Surplus and und'ed profits. 50,000 
Deposits 1,100,000 

The German National is a regular 
depository for government funds. 

Win. Baker, president of the German 
National Bank, wss born in Lippe 
Detmold. Prussia. September 29, 1835, 
and was educated in the schools of 
that country. He came to this country 
with his parents, arriving in Decem- 
ber, 1852. His first employment was 
as a teamster in the construction of 
the E. & T. H. railroad. He was sub- 
sequently for several years employed 
on a farm and then for one year drove 
a dray in Vincennes. Later, in 1860, 
entered the employ of George Kerck- 
hoff & Co., hides and leather. Here he 
remained till 1863, when he estab- 
lished a hide and leather business of 
his own on Second street, between 
Broadway and Buntin. In 1868 he 
bought the business of Kerckhoff & 
Co., at the north corner of Third and 
Main, and continued the business 
there for about twenty years, when 
he retired from active business for a 
time.' He became one of the directors of the 
German National Battk on its organization, in 
1888. In 3894, Mr. Baker was elected presi- 
dent of the bank and has been annually re- 
elected since that date. 


Gerard Reiter, vice-president of the German 
National Hank, is of German parentage but 
was born and reared in Vincennes. The date 
of his birth was Septeiubev 1. 1849. He was 

educated in the German Catholic and public 
schools of the city. His first business experi- 
ence was as clerk in the county auditor's of- 
fice, which position he filled when but fifteen 
years of age. He was deputy auditor for elev- 
en years and in 1874 was elected auditor and 
re-elected in 1878, serving two full terms and 
completing a total service in the auditor's 
office of nineteen years. In 1884 Mr. Reiter 
was elected a member of the State Legisla- 

by Shores 

German National Bank, Second and Main 
ture as joint representative for the counties of 
Knox. Sullivan and Greene. In 1888, on the 
organization of the German National Bank, he 
became vice-president of the institution and 
has held that position to the present time. Mr. 
Reiter served six years MS an efficient member 
of the Vincennes school board, from 1883 to 
1S8<! and from 1889 to 1892. In 1897 he was 
elected supreme treasurer of the Catholic 
Knights of America, an office which he held 
for four years, during which time funds of the 



society amounting to over three millions of 
dollars passed through his hands. Of this great 
trust Mr. Reiter acquitted himself, not only 
with satisfaction to the order, but with distin- 
guished honor to himself. 

Mr. Reiter was united in marriage, October 
24, 1871, to Miss Ellen Green, a native of Bel- 
fast, Ireland. 


Dr. George R. Alsop, cashier German Nation- 
al Bank, was born in Sperroyville, Rappahan- 

Photo by Shores 

Graeter Block, South Corner Third and Main 

noc county, Virginia, December 19, 1851, and 
was educated in the schools of Rappahannock 
and Spottsylvania counties, Va. He came to 
Sullivan county, Indiana, in 18f>9, teaching 
school till 1873. In 1873 and 1874 attended In- 
diana Medical College and next year -entered 
the medical department of the University of 
Louisville, Ky., from whicn he was graduated 
in March, 1875. He soon after located at Free- 
landville, Knox county, Indiana, for the prac- 

tice of his profession, forming a partnership 
with Dr. M. M. McDowell, and remaining there 
eight years. In November, 1882, the doctor 
was elected Circuit Clerk and in the following 
autumn moved to Vincennes to enter upon 1 the 
discarge of the duties of that position. He 
served four years as clerk and. soon after the 
close of his term joined in the organization of 
the German National Bank, of which he be- 
came cashier in April, 1888. In that position, 
'he has continued to the present time. 

Prior to his service as Circuit 
Clerk, Dr. Alsop was for four years 
trustee of Widner township, from. 
1878 to 1882. Having an abiding 
faith in the value of Knox county 
farm lands the doctor has invested 
largely, and owns a number of val- 
uable farms. 

Dr. Alsop was married April 20,. 
1875, to Miss Nancy J. McClellan, 
of Sullivan, Ind. They have an. 
interesting family of four sons and. 
three daughters. 

Henry J. Boeckmani, assistant 
cashier of the German National- 
Bank, was born in Vincennes, Feb- 
ruary 18,1857. He received his edu- 
cation at St. John's German Catho- 
lic schools and his first employ- 
ment was in the bank of R. J. Mc- 
Kenney & Co., of the city, inl which 
he became booii-keeper in 1873. 
Here he remained six and a half 
years and was then for nearly five 
years bookkeeper in the First Na- 
tional Bank, of Vincennes. Follow- 
ing this he was for a time with C. 
H. DeBolt, as book-keeper for his 
implement business. On the or- 
ganiization of the German National 
Bank, in 1888, Mr. Boekman be- 
came book-keeper and assistant 
cashier and has held that position continuously 
to the present time. He is also a member of 
the firm of Boeckman & Co., insurance agents^ 




The John LI) ne r 
Ice Co. (lately incor- 
porated), was estab- 
lished iu 18U, iu tiie 
corner of Chestniu 
and Locust Streets. 
It was iiot, however, 
until 1889 that ma- 
chines were in- 
stalled, beginning 
with a 20-ton plant. 
The capacity of the 
Vinceuues plant now 
is eighty tons a day. 
It employs from 
twenty-five to forty 
hands. Besides a 
large home trade the 
product is shipped 
largely south and 
west, as far south as 
Cairo, Nashville and 
St. Louis, and east 
to Cincinnati, xne 
John Ebner Ice Co. 
also owns plants at 
Washington, Ind., 
and at Seymour and 
and Martinsville, the 
combined capacity 
of the foul) plants' be- 
ing 200 tons. Large 
cold storage plants 
are operated at Vin- 
cennes and Seymour 
and a smaller one at 
Washington. The 
company buys ap- 
ples largely for stor- 
age, besides doing a 
storage custom busi- 

Mr. Joseph Ebner, 
manager of the Vin- 
cennes plant, is a 
progressive public 
spirited man. a lead- 
er in every move- 
ment for the en- 
largement and de- 

velopment of the city. He was president of fhe board of trade for the year 1899 and 




The Eagle Brewery. 

The Eagle Brewery, Hack & Simon proprie- 
tors, was established in 1875, when the firm 
was organized and bought a small brewery 
that had been operated by John Ebner. A large 
amount of money was at once spent in enlarg- 

ways been prominently identified with public 
affairs and is largely interested in many of the 
prominent manufacturing institutions of the 
city. He is a director of the German National 
Bank and of the Vincennes Board of Trade. 
He is also a member of the Board of Education 
of the city. 

THE EAGLE BREWERY Hack & Simon, Proprietors 

ing it. A number of new buildings were erect- 
ed, th plant thoroughly modernized and made 
the equal of any in this section. The build- 
ings cover several acres of ground and are 
built on the most approved plans and the most 
substantial manner. From a small beginning, 
under intelligent and progressive management, 
the business of the Eagle Brewery has grown 
to large proportions. The number of men em- 
ployed is about twenty-five and the product of 
the brewery is sold over a radius of one hun- 
dred miles or more in every direction. The 
chief brands of bottle beer are "Elite," "Ex- 
port" and "Erlanger." 

Eucenp Hack was born in Wurtemburg. Ger- 
many. Nov. 18, 1840, and came to this country 
in 1807, and to Yincennes in 1868. He entered 
the employ of Edward Weisert in a grocery 
store where he remained for six years, having 
bought the brewery some time before leaving 
the employ of Mr. Weisert. Mr. Hack has al- 

Mr. Hack was married in May, 1873, to Miss 
Dora Hackman, of Vincennes. They have two 
sons and four daughters. 

Anton Simon was born in Alsace, France, 
(now Germany), Nov. 2, 1848, and came to 
America, direct to Vincennes, in 1862. After 
his arrival here he was for a six months in the 
employ of Theodore Huslage. He subsequently 
was in the employ of William Busse, grocer, 
for five years and a number of years with John 
Ebner in his brewery. He then embarked in a 
confectionery business which he continued for 
si bout three years, till 1874, when the partner- 
ship with Mr. Hack was formed. Like his 
partner. Mr. Simon is an enterprising and pub- 
lic spirited man. He is Vice President of tfie 
Board of Trade. Mr. Simon was married in 
I860, to Miss Caroline, daughter of John Ebner, 
of Vincennes. He was a second time married, 
in 1876, to Miss Anna Weisenberger, of Vin- 
cennes. They 'have two sons and two daughters 



The Vincennes Window Glass Company. 

The Vincenues Win- 
dow Glass Company 
was organized at Al- 
bany, Ind., April, 1901, 
by a number of men, 
most of whom are ex- 
perienced in the glass 

The factory, which is 
built upon the most ap- 
proved plans, including 
every known improve- 
ment and appliance, in- 
cluding producer gas, is 
up to date in every particular. 

The tank, which is of the latest design, and 
of twenty-four blowers capacity, was erected 
in the summer of 1901. 

The manufacture of window glass, the sole 
product of this factory, was b.^gun Nov. 1, 1901, 
and it makes a quality of glass that is nowhere 

This fact, coupled with the large business 
acquaintance of the management, has already 

Andrew Tuite, Pres. & Mgr. 

and Memphis, Tenn. In the West to Portland, 
Oregon, and Walawala, Washington. St. Louis 
and Chicago also furnish a good market for 
the best quality and sizes. Many other large 
cities also, are taking a large amount of its 

The present capacity of the factory is from 
four to five car loads per week; and with the 
present demand for window glass, the prospects 
are that it will be necessary in the near future 
to enlarge the plant. 

It now employs about 100 men, largely skilled 
labor, and its pay roll averages about .$12,000 
per mouth. 

The manager of the company, Mr. Andrew 
Tuite. has been engaged in the window glass 
business more than thirty years. Mr. Tuite has 
been uniformly successful in the business, in 
fact, he knows no such word as "fail" and is 
still active and energetic. He is thoroughly 
capable of filling the position he occupies with 
the company, as manager. 

The officers of the company are Win. Tuite, 
president; A. K. Ilartman, secretary and treas- 
urer; Andrew Tuite, manager. 

The directors are: A. P. Hartman, Andrew 

resulted in sales over a broad range of terri- Tuite. Wm. Tuite, Joseph Baures, Sr., John 

tory, extending in the North to Duluth. Minn., 
and in the South to Jackson, Miss., Macon. d'a., 

Middlehurst, John Tuite, John Wenzel, Fred 
Perkins, and Thomas Dixon. 





The Vincennes Paper Company. 

The Yinceuues paper Co. was established in 
188(3, by Jacob Sheperd and Mrs. S. T. Cottrill, 
of Urbana, Ohio. After being in successful 
operation for several years 1he plant was de- 
stroyed by flie in 180o and in the following year 
the company was incorporated and a new and 
enlarged plant erected. Of the new organiza- 
tion A. M. Sheperd became president and E. S. 
Sheperd, secretary and treasurer, and they 
have continued to hold the same offices to the 
present time. 

The product of the mills is straw board, of 
which it makes a superior quality, and its ca- 
pacity is fifteen tons daily. Its product is sold 
in all parts of the country, reaching westward 
to California and to all parts of the east and 
south and northward into Canada. The com- 
pany employs about forty hands and consumes 
iaimense quantities of straw from the farms 
and waste paper from the city, providing a 
ready cash market for substances that would 
otherwise be almost valueless. 

The Vincennes Egg Case Company. 

The Vincennes Eg? Case Company, organized 
in 1891 for the manufacture of straw board 
fillers for egg cases, is an industry of consider- 
able importance to the city, giving employ- 
ment to an average of something like fifty peo- 
ple. mostly girls. The company was incorpor- 
ated in 1900. The officers are A. M. Sheperd, 
president, and E. S. Sheperd, secretary and 
treasurer. The capacity of its factory is about 
3.500 sets of fillers daily, nsing board made by 
the Yincennes Paper Mills. It has built up a 
trndo that reaches to the limits of the United 
States and Canada, and finds no difficulty in 
disposing of its entire outpnt as rapidly as it 
can be produced. 

The Vincennes Bridge Company. 

The Yincennes Bridge Co.. manufacturers of 
bridges of every character, and structural work 
in iron and steel, was organized in January, 
1899, with the following officers, who have con- 
tinued to the present time without change: 
John T. Oliphant. president: J. L. Riddle, secre- 
tary; F. L. Oliphant. treasurer. These are the 
only stockholders in the concern. Before de- 
ciding on Yincennes as a location for the busi- 

ness, President Oliphant spent six months trav- 
eling in ten or twelve states, examining many 
sites and considering many propositions, some 
of which, in the way of bonuses, were much 
superior to the inducements offered by Vin- 
cennes, but finally decided that the advantages 
possessed by Vincennes were so great as to out- 
weigh all other inducements offered, and accord- 
ingly fixed upon this location. The character 
of the work done by this company is such as 
to give en/tire satisfaction and the business has 
developed rapidly. For the past year the com- 
pany has been unable to keep up with its or- 
ders and has been compelled to increase the 
capacity of its plant to which end a large addi- 
tion ?s now nearing completion. New machin- 
ery will be installed and the force of workmen 

John T. and F. L. Oliphant, brothers, were 
born at Buena Vista, Indiana. J. T. Oliphant 
first went into the hardware business and sub- 
sequently in real estate. After two years in the 
latter business became one of the organizers 
of the New Castle Bridge Co., in 1894. Of this 
company he was vice president, and secretary 
until 1898, when he resigned and organized the 
Vincennes Co. F. L. Oliphant was a teacher 
for fourteen years, the last seven as principal, 
three at Diller, Neb., and four at Teller, Colo- 
rado. He was graduated from the Central 
Normal School at Danville, Ind., in 1892. 

Mr. Little was, prior to embarking in this 
business, a merchant at Cincinnati, Indiana. 


George W. Roush, Baskets. 

George W. H. Roush 
was born in Hillsboro, 
Ohio, may 26, 1851. 
He received a good 
education in the schools 
of that city, having 
been duly graduated 
from the high school. 
He read law with 
Charles Collins, a lead- 
ing attorney of Hills- 
boro, for two years, fol- 
lowing which he was for 
five years local editor of the Hillsboro Weekly 
Gazette. He was then for seven years deputy 
sheriff of Highland County, Ohio, until the year 
1899, when he came to Vincennes and estab- 
lished a large business as manufacturer and 



dealer in lumber. His business flourished, and 
in 181)0 he added a basket factory which exper- 
ienced a constant and rapid growth until its 
destruction by tire on the night of June 1'9, 
1901, at which time it was employing 126 peo- 
ple and making two car loads of baskets per 
day. He is making arrangements to renew his 
basket factory and will begin work thereon 
early in the spring of 1902. 

Mr. Roush is the regular Democratic candi- 
date for Mayor of Vincennes, election May 6, 

Mr. Roush was married, March 4, 1876 to 
Miss Cindarella Chapman, of Hillsboro, Ohio. 
They have two daughters, Mrs. E. F. Tindolph 
of the city and Miss Georgia. 


James A. Plummer, Chairs and 

James A. Plummer , 
was born at McCou- 
nellsville. Morgan Coun- 
ty, Ohio, October 5, 
1826. His mother dy- 
ing when he was an 
infant he was placed 
with relatives at Mid- 
dletown, Ohio, where 
he was educated. He 
served an apprentice- 
ship to the trade of 
chairmaker in Cin- 
cinnati, where he was an active member of the 
volunteer fire department for ten years. Mr. 
Plummer came to Vincennes in May, 1854, and 
was for five years employed as a cabinet 
maker, following which he was for five years 
employed in the woodwork department of the 
O. & M. shops. He then embarked in the manu- 
facture of chairs and house finishing lumber, 
which he has continued to the present time 
Ho makes oak dining room and double cane 
chairs and everything in the way of finishings 
for houses. His chairs wherever known are 
popular because of their high quality and dura- 
bility. He employs from seven to twelve men 
at good wages. 

Mr. Plummer was married, in 1851, to Miss 
Esther M. Jackson, of Cincinnati. They have 
one daughter. Mrs. J. W. Shaw, of Chicago. 

Central Foundry. 

The Central Foundry Co. is one of Vinceuues' 
most important industries. Its location here 
was in a large measure due to a chance meeting 
in Louisville, Ky., of William Warner, of the 
lirm of Matthew Addy & Co., of Cincinnati, 
with Alfred Bell and William J. Armistead. 
They were contemplating the organization of 
a company for the manufacture of sewer pipe 
and looking for a location. Mr. Warner, who 
was impressed with the superior advantages of- 
fered by Vincennes for such an institution, sug- 
gested the propriety of their locating here. 
They took the matter under advisement and 
after investigation the matter was taken up 
with the Board of Trade here, in the office of 
DeWolf, Chambers and DeWolf, February 25, 
1889. The result was the prompt organization 
of the company, the necessary stock being 
subscribed, largely by local capitalists. At this 
meeting the first board of directors was chosen, 
as follows: Edward Watson, Eugene Hack, 
('has. Rierhaus, Alfred Bell and William J. 

Ait a second meeting, held in the office of 
Hack & Simon, officers were elected, as fol- 
lows: Edward Watson, president; W. J. Armi- 
stead, secretary and treasurer; Alfred B"ell, 
general manager. During the summer of 1889 
the plant was erected and put into operation. 
Rut misfortune soon overtook the new enter- 
prise in the shape of a fire, by which it was 
totally destroyed in December, 1889. No time 
was lost in rebuilding. The enterprise of Vin- 
vennes capitalists was equal to the emergency. 
The directors increased the capital stock of the 
company and the additional stock was quickly 
taken. The plant was immediately rebuilt. But 
the struggling young company was not yet to 
have smooth sailing, for not long thereafter it 
suffered a loss of $10.000 through the failure 
of a large eastern corporation and was a sec- 
ond time the victim of the destroying element, 
in 1894. 

In July, 1898, the Vincennes plant became 
the property of the Central Foundry Co., a cor- 
poration embracing a large number of such in- 
stitutions throughout the country. 

The company has recently built large addi- 
tions to its plant, which will enable it greatly 
to increase its force of employes and its out- 
put. When the contemplated additions are 
made to its working force it will employ about 



300 men and have a weekly pay roll aggregat- 
ing more than $2,500. 

The present manager is Paul G. Rahe; John 
B. Pruilage is superintendent. The office force 
consists of A. H. Rogers and C. F. Possou, book- 
keepers; H. C. Bultman, time keeper; John 
Herding, shipping .clerk; Miss Lydia Busse, 

union and to England. They also make neck 
yokes, singletrees, doubletrees, etc., for wagons 
and carriages. They also handle rough wagon 
stock from the mills. The number of men em- 
ployed in the Vincennes plant and in the aux- 
iliary work in the timber is 05 to 75 and the 
business of the factory runs about $100,000 per 

Vhoto by Icrtvnsley 

PLANT OF CENTRAL FOUNDRY CO. Sewer Pipe Works, Second, Near Portland Ave. 

The Hartwell Handle Works. 

The Hartwell Handle Works, conducted by 
Hartwell Bros., an incorporated company, is lo- 
cated at First and Seminary Streets. The of- 
ficers of the company are F. G. Hartwell, Chi- 
cago, president; M. C. Hartwell, Clifton, Tenn., 
vice president; W. A. Hartwell, of Vincennes, 
secretary; C. L. Hartwell, of Vincennes, treas- 
urer and manager. The business of which this 
is the outgrowth was established at Delphos, 
Ohio, in 1865, by John T. and E. T. Hartwell 
brothers, progenitors of the present members of 
the company. The business was removed to 
Vincennes in 1893. The products of the factory 
are hickory handles of every description, In- 
cluding hand shaved ax handles, machine made 
ax, pick, sledge hammer and other handles, 
many of special pattern for a particular trade, 
as California, England, etc. They ship by car 
load lots to California and throughout the 

Indiana Handle Company. 

The Indiana Handle Co. is an incorporated 
concern for the manufcture of handles. Its of- 
ficers are James A. Taylor, president, Geo. W. 
Caldwell, vice president; O. J. Mobley, secre- 
tary; T. R. Welch, treasurer. The organization 
was effected in May, 1901 and soon thereafter 
operations were begun. The company having 
leased the idle hub and spoke factory, reno- 
vated it and replaced its machinery with new 
and improved handle machines. They make 
shovel, fork, rake and hoe handles, using ash 
timber only. They employ thirty-five hands 
in the mill, which force is increased to fifty by 
tlie men employed in the woods and on the 
roads. They ship their product to all 
parts of the United States and to England. 
The present output of the factory is about 1,200 
to 1,4()() dozen handles per week. 



The Hartman Manufacturing Company. 

The Hartman Manufacturing Company is the 
outgrowth of a business established in 1889 by 

The annual business is in the neighborhood of 
$100,000, bidding fair to show a large increase 
for the current year. 

CJ. R. Hartman, for the manufacture of agricul- 
tural implements. The growth of the business 
was such that an incorporated company with 
enlarged capital was formed in 1891, of which 
J. H. Rabb, now deceased, was president, Fred 
Harsch. secretary and treasurer, and C. R. 
Hartman, superintendent. The present officers 
of the company are Edward Watson, president: 
Louis A. Meyer, secretary and treasurer; Wil- 
liam M. Willmore, manager; W. Louis Schmidt, 

The company manufactures riding and walk- 
Ing two-horse cultivators for corn, cotton, and 
tobacco and a full line of rolling coulters for 
breaking plows. It makes a superior quality 
of goods which find litle difficulty in meeting all 
competition wherever introduced and they are 
making steady progress over a rapidly expand- 
ing territory. The goods are sold strictly on 
their merit and the management never fear 
any fair test in any field. 

At present the number of men .employed in 
the factory averages about forty. They have 
three traveling men and a trade which em- 
braces the states of Indiana. Illinois. Ohio and 
Kentucky, which are pretty thoroughly covered. 

Vincennes Galvanized Iron Works. 

Peter Rockford McCarthy, proprietor of the 
Vincennes Galvanized Iron works, was the sec- 
ond of a family of seven children born to Mich- 
ael McCarthy in Parish Fackle, County Clare, 
Ireland, the date of his 
birth being March 10, 
1849. After the death of 
Mr. McCarthy'? mother, 
his father, with his 
seven children, Peter B. 
then being twelve years 
of age, came to Ameri- 
ca, residing one year 
thereafter at Hoboken, N. J. He then removed 
to Washington. Ind., and thence to Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, where, the father later lost his 
life in a railroad accident. Mr. McCarthy, hav- 
ing received a good common school education in 
Ireland, became a locomotive engineer and was 
in that capcity employed for eight years on the 
O. & M. railway. After that he had charge of 
a fire engine in the Vincennes fire department 
aud while thus employed was elected city treas- 
urer in 1879. To this office he was re-elected 



in 1881, serving two full terms, thereby being 
disqualified under the law for re-election. Be- 
fore the expiration of his second term of office 
he had established his present business to 
which he now gives his undivided attention, 
and which has reached large dimensions, ex- 
ceeding $50,000 per annum, and including con- 
tracts reaching into a number of states, his 
specialties being galvanized iron cornice, roof- 
ing, etc. In politics Mr. McCarthy is an uncom- 
promising Democrat and has long been an in- 
fluential member in the councils of the party. 
He served four years as chairman of the Demo- 
cratic County Committee and has attended 
every state convention of his party since he 
became a voter. He was doorkeeper of the Na- 
tional Democratic convention which, in 1892, 
nominated Grover Cleveland for the presidency. 
Mr. McCarthy has been for nearly twenty years 
a trustee of St. Francis Xavier Cathedral. He 
is president of Vincennes branch, No. 256, C. K. 
of A., and is also supreme mustering officer of 
the TJ. R. C. K. of A., and has been president of 
the state organization of C. K. of A. He is a 
member of Vincennes Lodge, No. 291, B. P. O. 
E. of which he was recently chosen/ E. R. by 
unanimous vote. He was a charter member of 
the Vincennes Board of Trade. 

Mr. McCarthy was married April 4, 1871. to 
Miss Mary O. Dubois, of Vincennes, a niece of 
Jesse K. Dubois, who was for eight years state 
auditor of Illinois, and a cousin' of Senator Fred 
Dubois, of Idaho. They have seven children 
living and two dead. 



Henry Watson. 

Henry Watson was born and reared in Vin- 
cennes. He was educated in the schools of 
the city. His first employment after leaving 
the schools was with Thomas Lamport in the 
lumber business. He was afterwards for four 
years a salesman in the general store of G. 
Weinstein & Co. He then engaged in tin and 
galvanized iron work with his father, Mr. John 
Watson, who conducted the business at No. 123 
North Second Street, the present location of his 
business. In 1890 he became proprietor of the 
Imsiness by purchase from his father and ha 5 ? 
since conducted it at the old stand. Mr. \\ ; 
son is a careful and conscientious workman and 
spares no pains to render satisfaction to his 
custom. That he does so is evidenced by a 
growth in business in which he may well take 

Irish parentage. 

an honest pride. Mr. Watson was married in. 
1800 to Miss Emma Acker. They have three- 


James T. Orr. 

James T. Orr manufacturer and dealer la 
saddlery, harness, etc., is u native of Ireland, 
where he was born in 1835, and is of Scotch- 
His parents, James T. and 
Catherine Orr, came to 
America in 1837, and 
settled at North Ver- 
non, Indiana, whence in 
1843, they came to Vm- 
cenues. In 1852, at the- 
age of 17 years, he be- 
came an apprentice to- 
the saddler's trade in 
Louisville Kentucky. At 
the end of three years 
he returned to Vin- 
cennes and embarked in 

business for himself and has continued in the 
business here since that date, building up a 
large and profitable trade. In politics Mr. Orr 
has always been a Democrat aod in religion a 
Catholic. He was at one time president of the- 
Vincennes Draw Bridge Company, which con- 
structed the wagon bridge over the Wabash at 
this place and operated it for a number of years 
as a toll bridge, and has been prominent in 
other public enterprises of magnitude. In 1885 
Mr .Orr was elected county commissioner and 
served acceptably for six years. Also served 
seven years as councilman from the third (now) 
first ward. He is one of the oldest business 
men in the city in point of time actually in the 
harness, and has always been recognized as a 
man of the strictest integrity and honesty. 

Mr. Orr was married in 1872 to Miss Mary, 
daiighter of Thomas P. Beckes. They have 
four sons and one daughter. 


F. A. Thuis Estate. 

The business of the F. A. Thuis estate, deal- 
ers in harness and saddlery, was established 
by Francis A. Thuis, now deceased, in 1882, on 
First, between Main and Busseron Streets, and 
was removed to 111 Main in 1887. Mr. Thuis 
had built, up a fine business and was in pros- 
perous circumstances when death overtook him 
in 1898. Mr. Louis Thuis, the eldest son, who- 


was attending medical college at the time of his 
father's death, immediately left school to take 
charge of the business for the benefit of the 
estate and has sinte conducted it most suc- 
cessfully. Francis A. Thuis, the founder of this 
business, was born in Diedam, Holland, in 
Mareh, 1837, and came to this country with a 
brother when seventeen years of age, in 185i. 
Landing at New York, he went thence to Cleve- 
land, Ohio, where he remained some three or 
four years and then came to Vincennes. On the 
breaking out of the War of the Rebellion he 
promptly enlisted in the Twenty-fourth Indiana 
Infantry as a musician and subsequently as a 
private in the Ninety-first Indiana, gallantly 
serving his adopted country till the close of the 

Mr. Thuis was married to Miss Mary J. Page, 
of Yineeniies in 1866, and to the union were 
born five sons, Louis E., Francis Eugene, 
Charles A.. Joseph G., now deceased, and Silas 
Leo, and two daughters, Johana E. and M. 

Garrett R. Recker. 

Garret R. Recker, 
successor to Convery 
& Recker, conducts 
a general foundry 
and machine shop at 
Eighth and Hick- 
man Streets, has one 
of the most complete 
plants in the state, 
conveniently arrang- 
ed and supplied with 
modern machines of 
every kind demand- 
ed by his trade. His 
shops employ from 
14 to 20 men and do 
everything in the 
line comprehended 
in a general foun- 
der and m a c h i n- 
ists' business. Mr. 
Recker is not only a 
thorough master-ma- 
chinist but a very 
careful superintend- 

thus that a tine business was built up by the 
firm of Convery & Recker, to which Mr. Recker 
succeeded on the death of Mr. Convery in Janu- 
ary, 1902. 

Garret R. Recker was born in Vincennes 
March 2, 1865, and was educated in the city 
schools. At the age of 15, in 1880, he entered 
the machine shop of Clark & Buck to learn 
the trade of machinist and continued in their 
employ until the year 1893, thirteen years. In 
that year he and August Convery, also an em- 
ploye of Clark & Buck for many years, formed 
a partnership and established a small shop 
near the corner of Eighth and Hickman. The 
business grew from year to year until they 
were finally, in 1900, compelled to erect the 
large brick building now occupied, and a cut 
of which appears herewith. 

Mr. Recker was married February 7, 1888, to 
Miss Mary E. Ritman, of Newton, 111. They 
have four sons and two daughters. 

John B. Page. 

J. B. Page was born in Vincennes, June 13, 
1847. He became an apprentice to the harness 
and saddlery trade with the firm of Page & Orr 


ent and permits no work to go out of his shop about 1862, completing his apprenticeship in 
that is not fully up to the requirements. It was 18(56. He then entered the employ of Page & 



Orr as a journeyman and Continued with them 
until the dissolution of the firm in 1873, after 
Avhieh he was employed by his father until 
1882, when he became proprietor of the busi- 

ness by purchase. Mr. Page's large experience 
in the business makes him a thoroughly com- 
petent man in every department. He has his 
full share of the trade and we do not hesitate 
to say that all who trade with him get full 
value for their money. Mr. J. N. Page, son of 
our subject, is with him and has been for five 
years and is a thorough master of the trade. 
He operates a Landis harness sewing machine 

which Mr. Page has recently added to his equip- 
ment and which does work equal and even su- 
perior to hand work. This work, as all of Mr. 
1 'age's work, is fully guaranteed. He invites 
all who are interested to call and inspect this 
new harness machine and will gladly show 
them how it works. Mr. Page appreciates the 
patronage of his friends, is at all times genial 
and pleasant and glad to receive callers 
whether purchasers or not. When absent his 
son will be found abundantly able to represent 
him whether in the salesroom or otherwise. 

Mr. Page was married. April 23, 1873, to Miss 
Mary L. Brouilette, of Vincennes, and has two 
i-hildren. Mrs. W. A. Courter and J. N. Page, 
both of the city. Two children died in infancy. 

Broadway Mills. 

The Broadway Mills, owned and operated by 
Christian Hoffman 1 , have r ( capacity of 350 bar- 
rels first grade flour per day, which is sold 
throughout the country. They employ steadily 
from eight to ten men. 

Atlas Mills. 

J. & S. Emison. proprietors. Established 
1880. Large dealers in grain. In 1901 this 
firm handled between 400.000 and 500.000 bush- 
els of wheat. 

Vincennes Elevator. 

The Vincennes Elevator Co., south-east cor- 
ner First and Broadway, was organized in 
1898. Does a general grain and elevator busi- 
ness, owning the steamer Vincennes and 
barges. Samuel A. Jordan. A. G. Jordan. A. 
M. Jordan. 

Enterprise Stove Company. 

The Enterprise Stove Company was organized 
in 1888. It is an incorporated company of ample 
capital. . The officers are: Presi- 
dent. Edward Watson, vice pres- 
ident. Eugene Hack: secretary 
and treasurer, George Thomp- 
son. Their product is stoves, 
heating and cooking, gas stoves, 
ranges and steel ranges. The 
factory is located at the corner 
of Eleventh and Nicholas 
streets and employs about sev- 
enty-five men. including five 
traveling salesmen. The com- 
pany enjoys a large trade, cover- 
ing Indiana. Illinois. Western 
Ohio and Eastern Kansas. 



INTERSTATE DISTILLERY Chestnut Between Lyndale and Reel 

that of the Continental Filter Company, of New 
York, called the subsiding and gravity system. 
The capacity is over 2,000,000 gallons daily, 


The Vincennes Wafer Supply Company was 
formed in 1886, the name at that time being 
Bullock & Mer- 
cer, No. 11 Wall 
street, New York. 
About 1890 the 
property passed 
into hands of 
Walter Wood, 400 
Chestniut street, 
Phil a d e 1 p h i a . 
There is, how- 
ever a consider- 
able amount of 
the stock held in 
the city. These 
works are on the 
standpipe system, 
also having direct 
pressure. T'he 
stand-pipe is one 
of the highest in 
the United States, 
being 200 feet 
high. It is 22 
feet in diameter 
and has a capaci- 
ty of 575,000 gal- 
lons. There are 
in use three com- 
pound condensing 
pumps, two high 
pressure duty, pumps each of 2,000,000 gallons 
capacity, and one low pressure service pump of 
3,000,000 gallons capacity. The filter system is 

there being six subsiding tanks of 35,000 gal- 
lons each. The consumption of the city has run 
500,000 to 1,700,000 gallons daily. 



Sam Lyons, Pres.; Chas. Bierhaus, Vice Pres.; John Hartigan, Treasurer. Man- 
ufacturers of Jewelry and Novelties. Employ 125 people. 

H. Brokhage & Sons. 

The firm of H. Brokhage & Sons, dealers in 
dry goods, clothing, gents' furnishings, car- 
pets, c, is composed of Herman Brokhage and 
his two sons, John T. and Louis A. 

Herman Brokhage, the founder of the busi- 
ness, senior member of the firm, was born in 
Essen. Grand Duchy of Oldenberg, Germany, 
August 2, 1845. Emigrated to this country, 
coming direct to Vincennes, in 1866, when 
twenty-one years of age. His first employ- 
ment here was with Theodore Huslag, an 
uncle, who had long been established in busi- 
ness here, in one of the buildings now occu- 
pied by the firm of H. Brokhage & Sons. He 
later entered the employ of J .B. La Plante & 
Brother, with whom he remained thirteen 
years. After this he again became a sales- 
man for Mr. Huslag, with whom he remained 
until the death of the latter in 1889, when) he 
bought the stock and has continued the busi- 
ness to the present time having admitted his 
sons into partnership with him in 3900. 

Brokhage & Sons is one of the enterprising 
and progressive firms of Southern Indiana. 
Without bluster or braggadocio this firm has 
gone steadily forward, enlarging and developing 

a business that has reached mammoth propor- 
tions. Its stock now occupies two large build- 

ings three stories high. They have a com- 
modious passenger elevator and other modern 
appliances that betray the enterprising spirit 



that animates them, and it is pleasing to note 
that the growth of their trade keeps pace with 
the enlarged investments and improvements. 

Herman Brokhage was married in 1875 to 
Miss Clara D elf man, of Vincennes. They 
have two sons, those named as members of 
the firm. 

Gimble, Haughton & Bond. 

The firm of Gimble, Haughton & Bond is 
composed of Chas. L. Haughton, Frank M. 
Bond and Jacob Gimbel. The firm was or- 
gandzed in December, 1899, buying the dry 
goods department of I. Joseph & Sons, occupy- 
ing numbers 202-4 Main Street. 

Charles L. Haughton was born at Niagara, 
New York, and came West in 1867, spending 
some three or four years in various parts of 
Minnesota, Iowa and the South-west. In the 
winter of 1872 and 1873, he came to Oaktown, 
Knox County, and was for a year or so em- 
ployed by a brother who was in business there. 
Embarked in business for himself at Oaktown 
in 1874, forming a partnership with Elias De 
Lashmutt, under the firm name of Haughton 
& De Lashmutt, doing a business in> general 
merchandise. In 1876 Mr. Haughton bought 
his partner's interest and continued to conduct 
the business till December, 1899, when he sold 
it and came to Vindennes, forming the partner- 
ship first above named. 

Mr. Haughton took in marriage Miss 
Emma C. Pugh, daughter of Dr. J. W. Pugh, of 
Oaktown. They have four children. Two 
daughters, Daisy H. and Mary S., now students 
at De Pauw University, and two younger chil- 
dren at home. 

Frank M. Bond, was born and reared in Oak- 
town, Ind., and was for a number of years in 
the employ of Mr. Haughton at that place. He 
was subsequently for ten years connected with 
the First National Bank of this city, as teller, 
resigning that position January 1, 1900, to en- 
gage actively in the present business. 

Jacob Gimbel was born and reared in the 
City of Vincennes and after leaving college 
conducted a business for his mother prior to 
the formation of the firm of which he is at 
present a member. 

The enterprise, eruergy and progressive busi- 
ness methods which luve characterized the 
"Busy Corner" since th^ advent of this firm, 
have resulted in a business of which they may 
well be proud. 

J. C. Cohen. 

Julius C. Cohen was 
born in the City Neu- 
emburg, Prussia, Aug. 
3, 1848, and came to 
A.inerica in 1864 and to 
Vincennes in 1877. His 
first employment here 
was as salesman for I. 
E. Libshutz and subse- 
quently for other firms 
in the city. In 1885 
Mr. Cohen rmbarked in 
business for himself at 
No. 106 Main Street. 
His business was at- 
tended with marked 
success frono the start 
and in> 1891 Mr. Cohen 
bought and occupied 
the beautiful and commodious three-story 
building at No. 312 Main, now occupied by 
him, a cut of which appears elsewhere, one of 
fhe best in the city. By close attention to the 
wants of his patrons and judicious manage- 
ment, he has built up and holds an enviable 
custom in clothing and gents' furnishings. Mr. 
Cohen was married Dec. 18, 1871, to Miss El- 
len Keenan, of Louisville. 


Theodore F. Franke, 
merchant tailor, was 
born at Covmgton, Ky., 
and received his educa- 
tion in the schools of 
Cincinnati. In 1887 he 
went to New York 
City, where he learned 
the c u 1 1 e r's trade, 
which he afterwards 
followed for a time in 
Cincinnati. Coming to 
V'ncennes February 1, 
1891, he entered the employ of B. Kuhn & Co., 
and remained with them until in July, 1901, he 
bought the merchant tailoring business they 
had theretofore conducted. He continued to 
conduct it at the old location until at the first 
of December, 1801, he bought the business 
which had been established by John A. Kapps, 
at 303% Main Street, where he is now driving 
a thriving trade. Mr. Franke is a young man 
of steady and industrous habits and gives close 



attention to the wants of his customers. As a 
cutter and fitter he has no superior and finds 
no difficulty in retaining the patronage of a 
customer once gained. No one e\er said he 
did not get good value for his money when he 
dealt with T. F. Franke. 

S. Risch. 

Sebastian Risch was 
born in Bernolsheim, 
Canton Brumath, Al- 
sace, Sept 7, 1834. Im- 
migrated to this coun- 
trj in 1854, landing at 
New Orleans in March 
of that year. Shortly 
after landing he came 
to Evansville, where 
he remained about nine 
months, returning to 
New Orleans in Decem- 
ber of the same year. Here he re- 
mained four mouths, coming to Vincennes 
in the spring of 1855. He worked for a short 
time on a farm and then engaged in making 
shingles for some months, following this work 
with a further engagement on a farm for some 
fifteen months in the years 1855-6. In January, 
1857, he took a position with L. D. Smith, gro- 
cer. After fifteen months, in 1858, he entered 
the geenral store of Roseman & Stewart, with 
whom and their successc; 1 , J. H. Rabb, he re- 
mained until 1867, when he removed to a farm 
near Vincennes. Failing health, due to a bod- 
ily injury, compelled him to give up this work 
after fifteen months and he returned to Vin- 
cennes in 1868. He was then for four years 
toll-keeper at the wagon bridge over the Wa- 
bash. In August, 1873, he opened a boarding 
house at Eleventh and Main. This business 
was successful and a few years later, in 1877, 
Mr. Risch embarked in n general merchandise 
business at No. 112 Main Street. In Novem- 
ber of the same year he bought the store of 
Joseph Laugel at the corner of Tenth and 
Main, which he has since conducted most suc- 
cessfully. Mr. Rlsch's genial and pleasant 
manner has made him a host of friends, while 
a ready accommodation of his customers and 
substantial Inducements to trade have built up 
and retained a very large custom. Mr. Risch 

was married May 13, 1862, to Miss Mary Heller, 
of Vincennes, with whose companionship lie 
has been blessed to the present t'.me. They 
have eight children, three sons, John A., An- 
thony M. and Joseph, being in business for 
themselves in the city. Two others, Henry and 
Lawrence, are in the store with Mr. Risch at 
this time. 

John A. Risch. 

John A. Risch was 
born and reared in Vin- 
cennes. He is a son of 
the veteran merchant, 
Mr. S. Risch, of Tenth 
and Main Streets. He 
received his education 
in the schools of the 
city and entered the 
store of his father as a 
salesman, remaining in 
tnat position for fifteen 
years. In 1892 Mr. 

Risch embarked in business for himself at Sec- 
ond and Tecumseh Streets, where he is still to 
be found. He carries a general stock of mer- 
chandise, including groceries, dry goods, shoes 
and country produce, and has a large and 
growing trade. Mr. Risch's close attention to 
business and his methodical business habits, 
coupled with a genial and pleasant manner 
have enabled him to build up a most profitable 
trade. Notwithstanding the fact that in 1895 
he suffered a heavy loss from fire, which de- 
stroyed his warehouses and a part of his store 
building, he now owns the handsome and com- 
modious building in which he is located with a 
valuable lot adjoining, and carries one of the 
most complete general stocks in the city. Mr. 
Risdh's high standing with his fellow mer- 
chants is evidenced by the fact that he was 
honored with the presidency of the Association 
of Retail Merchants on its organization in the 
summer and fall of 1901. He was made tem- 
porary chairman at the first meeting and on 
completion of the organization became its first 
president for one year. 

John A. Louis. 

John A. Louis was born in the province of 
Hanover, Germany, on the 25th day of October, 
1837. He came to this country with his 
mother at the age of sixteen year!?. He re- 
mained in New York three years and spent two 



years in Cincinnati, coming to Virucennes in 
1859. Mr. Louis embarked in grocery business 
here October G, 1859, and enjoys the distinc- 
tion of being the only grocer of that date who 
has been continuously in business ins the city to 
the present time. His first location was at 
Eleventh and Main. In 1862 he removed to 
the south corner of Fourth and Main, wihere he 
continued twenty-one years, removing to his 
present location, 1217 N. Second Street, in 1883. 
He carries a geenral stock of groceries and dry 
goods, and does a steady thriving business. 
Mr. Louis is a public-spirited citizen and ready 
to lend a hand to whatever tends to help the 
city forward. He is vice president of the Vint- 
cennes Mutual Fire Insurance Co. 

Mr. Louis was married in 1860 to Miss Cath- 
erine Sachs. They have six children living and 
live dead. 

Bierhaus Brothers. 

The wholesale grocery house of Bierhaus 
Brothers was established in 1890 by William 
C. and Edward Bierhaus, sons of Edward Bier- 
haus, senior, of E. Bierhaus & Sons. It com- 
menced business in the building at the south 
cornier of Second and Bioadway, now occupied 
by the Koh-I-Noor Laundry. In the fall of 
1891 the business was removed to Nos. 207-9 
North Second street. In the course of the next 
two years its growth wa.ti such that it became 
necessary to add to their capacity and No. 211 
was occupied and a year later 213-15 were in- 
cluded. Continuing to prosper, they decided 
to erect the mammoth building now occupied 
at the corner of Second and Perry streets, a' 
handsome brick structuie eighty by two hun- 
dred feet with five stories and basement, pro- 
vided with railroad switch, elevators and every 
modern convenience for handling their immense 
traffic with ease and dispatch. Ground was 
broken for this building in the fall of 1900, 
and it was completed aoout a year later. 

Mr. John W. Crook was admitted to member- 
ship in the firm November 1, 1890, and Edward 
Bierhaus withdrew in M^y, 1897, to enter the 
retail trade in the city. 

The trade of Bierhaus Brothers extends to 
the southward a .distance of 150 miles and 
over a large radius in every direction from 
Vincennes. They employ six traveling men 
and have an office force of fifteen. 

W. C. Bierhaus, the senior member, was bora 
and educated in Vincennes and was for a num- 
ber of ytars employed i;i the wholesale house 
of E. Bierhaus & Sons. He was married in 
January, 1888, to Miss ix>ttie Watkins, of Mt 
Carmel. They have two children living and 
have lost one by death. 

John W. Crook was bora at Dover Hill, Ind., 
May 9, 1865. He attended the public schools, 
but the loss of both parents compelled him 
to leave school at the a.c of fifteen years and 
make his own livelihood. His first employ- 
ment in the way of business was at Russell- 
ville, 111., where he was engaged with T. J. 
Ford and J. A. Leonard & Co. He came to 
Vincennes July 17, 1882, and became book- 
keeper for J. E. Sullivan, remaining with him 
until the following February, when he became 
bill clerk for E. Bierhaus & Sons. In July, 
1883, he became a trav? ing salesman for this 
firm and continued in that position until No- 
vember 1, 1890, when h<; bought an interest in 
the firm of Bierhaus Brothers, and has since 
traveled for his own house, making a total 
of nineteen consecutive jears in that capacity. 
He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He is also a nrember of the Masonic, 
K. of P., T. P. A. and Li. C. T. fraternities. 

Mr. Crook was married May 9, 1888, to Miss 
Effie Broyles, of Russeilville They have one 
daughter, Hazel Gretchea, and one son, Harry 
Francis, twelve and ten years of age respec- 

E. Bierhaus & Sons. 

The firm of E. Bierhaus & Sons, grocers and 
packers, is one of the old and solid concerns of 

Edward Bierhaus, Sr., the founder, was born 
at Elberfield, Rhein, Prussia, Aug. 4, 1832. 
Came to this country, direct to Vincennes, with 
his parents, in 1849, at the age of 17 years. 
His first employment was at the old American 
Hotel on the site of the La Plante House, cor- 
ner First and Main Streets. In 1853 he em- 
barked in a general merchandise business at 
Freelandville, with a capital of $200. In 1865 
returned to Vincennes and engaged in pork- 
packing, conducting in connection therewith a 
retail grocery store. In 1878 he bought the 
wholesale grocery of Gimbel Brothers and ad- 
mitted a son to partnership unlder the firm 
name and style of E. Bierhaus & Son, the 
junior partner being Chas. Bierhaus. Later 





Fred Bierhaus was admitted and subsequently 
John Bierhaus became interested. The firm 
is now composed of Charles and John Bier- 

The present handsome and commodious 
building at the east 
corner of Fourth 
and Main Streets 
was erected in 1886. 
A cut of the build- 
ing will be found 

Charles Bierhaus, 
senior member of 
the firm of E. Bler- 
(haus & Sons, was 
born in Freeland- 
ville, Ind., Feb. 13, 
1855, and was edu- 
cated in the schools 
of Vincennes. After 
leaving school, at 
the age of sixteen 
years, he entered his 
father's store and 
has been intimately 
connected with the 
business ever since. 
He was for three 
years traveling 
salesman, beginning 
when seventeen 
years of age. Be- 
sides this business, 
Mr. Bierhaus has 
large interests in 

tered the store of his father and has been 
actively connected with the business since. He 
was for eight years bookkeeper and was on 
the road as salesman one year. Mr. Bierhaus 
was married Nov. 22, 1888, to Miss Anna Gib- 

various other Impor- 
tant concerns of the 
city, being a director of the First National 
Bank, president of the Vincennes Electric Light 
and Power Co., and the Vincennes Mutual Fire 
Insurance Co., director of the Wabash Mutual 
Insurance Co., The Vincennes Novelty Works, 
the Vincennes Board of Trade and other prom- 
inent local institutions. 

Mr. Bierhaus wan married Sept. 27, 1878, to 
Miss Helen Busse, of the city. They have 
two daughters. 

John Bierhaus, junior member of the firm of 
E. Bierhaus & Sons, was born in Freelands- 
ville, Ind , Dec. 3J, 1865, and received his edu- 
cation in the schools of Vincennes from the 
High School of which he was graduated in 
1882. Immediately after leaving sc tool he ent- 

E. BIERHAUS & SONS Wholesale Grocers and Packers Fourth and Main 

son, of Vincennes. 
three daughters. 

They have two sons and 

Bratton-Racey Grocery Co. 

The Bratton-Racey Grocery Company was 
established September 19, 1901. The members 
are J. Frank Bratton, William S. Racey and 
Thomas F. Palfrey. The company purchased 
the stock of James Hedden, deceased, and 
continued the business at his old stand In the 
Bishop block, at the west earner of Fifth and 
Main streets. Messrs. Bratton and Racey were 
both largely experienced in the business, the 



former having been for fourteen years and the 
latter for seven years with Watts Bond, a large 
general merchant at Oak town. Mr. Racey was 
subsequently for five years in partnership with 

James Hedden, under the firm name of Racey 
& Hedden, in a grocery business at this same 
location. Immediately 1-ofoie the formation of 
this company, Mr. Brat*on was for eighteen 
months in the grocery butiness at No. 423 Main 
street, as a member of ihe firm of Bratton & 
Bouvy, and the stock carried by this firm was 
combined with the Hedden stock. The Brat- 
ton-Racey Company carries an immense stock 
embracing everything that belongs to this line 
of business and have a trade excelled by few 
retail grocery stores in the State. 

J, Fran 1 !* Bratton, of tne Bratton-Racey Gro- 
cery Company, was born in Xenia, Ohio, No- 
vember 3. 1867. He catne to Oaktown, Ind., in 
1886, and immediately entered the general store 
of Watts Bond as a salesman, remaining there 
for fourteen years until M<.rch, 1900, when he 
embarked in business in Vincennes as a mem- 
ber of the firm of BraUon & Bouvy. In 1888 
Mr. Bratton was united in marriage with Miss 
Leelah H. Wortman, of O&'rtown. They have 
three children. 

(For biographies of Mersrs. Racey and Pal- 
frey see Racey-Palfrey Shoe Company.) 

W. F. Recker. 

William F. Recker 
was born in Vincennes 
S-jptember 16, 1862. He 
was educated in the 
schools of the city. His 
first employment after 
leaving school was as 
salesman in the store of 
Ernest Baker, at Sev- 
enth and Main streets, 
in whose employ he re- 
mained for more than 
tui years. He then, 
October 1, 1889, embarked in business for him- 
self at the south corner Fourth and Main 
streets, where he has continued to the present 
time. Uniformly courteous and obliging to his 
custom, he has built up a strong and profitable 
trade. Mr. Recker was married in 1891 to Miss 
Emma Hickman, of the city. They have one 
son and one daughter. 

Jacob W. Casseil. 

Jacob W. Casseil was 
born on a farm near 
Alexandria, Madison 
county, Ind., December 
2o, 1840. Attended the 
public schools and later 
tlie Northwestern Uni- 
versity, of Indianapolis. 
Subsequently took the 
full course of the Iron 
City Commercial Col- 
lege of Pittsburg, Pa. 
Ir the fall of 1865, Mr. 
Cassell's father bought a firm three miles be- 
low Vincennes, now known as the Henderson 
farm. This farm our subject conducted 
till the fall of 1874, when he came to the City 
and established a grocery business at No. 213 
Main. In 1879. Mr. Cassell's business had 
grown to large dimensions and he bought and 
removed to his present location, No. 123-5 Main 
street where he has since been continuously. 
Mr. Cassell's business devloned rapidly and he 
has for many years done a wholesale and retail 
business in produce, groceries, etc. Prior to 
Cleveland's second administration he did a 
business as high as $7o,000 per annum. Mr. 
Casseil had always been a Democrat in politics 
until the second administration of President 
Cleveland. Even then party ties were so strong 



that in 1890 he voted for Bryan. In 1900, how- 
ever, he burned his bridges behind him and 
supported McKinley. For ten years Mr. Cassell 
sewed as appraiser ot lands for the school 
fund. He owns thirteen hundred acres of land 
in Lawrence county, Illinois, adjacent to the 
town of Billet, which place he platted and dedi- 

Mr. Cassell was in 1874 married to Miss Alice 
J. Turner, of Clay county, Kansas. They have 
five children. , 

Christian W. Schultz. 

Christian W. Schultz 
was born in Prussia, 
May 18, 1850, coming to 
this country with his 
parents when eight 
vears of age. They 
came direct to Free- 
laiudville, where he at- 
tended the parochial 
.-chools one year. In 
1803 when thirteen 
years of age, he entered 
the employ of Peter 
Pomil, a merchant of Vincennes, with whom 
he remained eighteen years, until 1881, when 
he embarked in business for himself on Sec- 
ond and Shelby street. Here he continued for 
two years, when in 1883, his business having 
prospered he bought the lot at north corner of 
Second and Shelby and erected a substantial 
brick store and dwelling in which he has since 
conducted a thriving Dusmess. Mr. Schultz 
was im 1871, married to Miss Sophia Laue, of 
Vincennes. They have two children living. 

J. Herman Twietmeyer. 

J. Herman Twietmey- 
was born in St. Louis 
December 20, 1873, and 
removed with his par- 
ents to this city in 1883. 
He was educated in the 
schools of Vincennes 
and immediately after 
leaving school, entered 
the store of his father, 
Mr. Frederick Twiet- 
meyer, with whom he 
remained for a period 

of t\velve years, till August 18, 1901, when he 
established his present grocery business at the 
east corner of Seventh and Seminary streets. 

His long experience witi his father, who is one 
of the i.iost thorough business men of the city, 
has equipped our subject w:'th a knowledge of 
the business in wbich lie is engaged and with 
the demands of his trade which insures him 
a successful career, an earnest of which already 
appears in the handsome beginning he has 

Mr. Twietmeyer was married in 1897 to Miss 
Emma Weigelt, of the city. 

M. Halter. 

Michael Halter was 
born in Vincennes Feb- 
ruary 28, 1862. He was 
educated in the schools 
of the city. His first 
employment was in the 
wholesale grocery store 
of L. B. Smith, where 
he was engaged when 22 
years of age and where, 
being of a steady and 
industrious turn, he re- 
mained fourteen years. 

He then in 1898 enterea the employ of Frank 
Krack. in a new groceiy store established at 
the corner of Tenth and DuBois streets. He 
continued in Mr. Krack's employ till in March, 
1898, when he bought the business and has 
since continued to conduct it at the same place, 
where he carries a large and complete stock 
and enjoys a good, healthy trade in groceries, 
notions, etc. Mr. Halter is a thorough business 
man and close attention to business, coupled 
with fair dealing, has given 'him a strong hold 
on his trade. 

Mr. Halter was married in 1890 to Miss The- 
resa Bohnert. They have one son. 

Lawrence S. Bey. 

Lawrence S. Bey was 
born in Viocennes, Au- 
gust 10. 1872. He was 
educated in the Catho- 
lic schools of the city 
and after leaving school 
was first employed 
when about fifteen 
years of age, in the 
woolen mills of Fyfield 
& Lee. Two years la- 
ter he entered the 
employ of Jacob W. 
Cassell, wholesale and rei . i grocer, with v hoin 



he remained two and a half years. Following 
this he was with Bey Brothers, Seventh and 
Main street, for nine years- In 1898 he em- 
barked in grocery business at Seventh and Hart 
streets, which he continues to conduct. Law- 
rence Bey carries one of the most complete lines 
in the city, which is always kept in first-class 
shape. Catering to the best class of trade he 
has built up an excellent custom which he holds 
by an ever anxious solicitude to meet its wants. 
Mr. Bey was married. September 29. 1896, to 
Miss Mary Fritsch. of the city. They have one 



William W. Cassell. 

William W. Cassell. confectioner and caterer, 
,No. 300 Main, was born in Jacksonville, 111., 
March 16, 1860. Was elucated in the schools 
of that city and learned the trade of candy 
maker, which he followed for some years there. 
There he was married in 1884 to Miss Wilhelmi- 
na Knollenberg of Jacksonville. They have one 
son living. 

Mr. Cassell came to Vmcenmes in 1891 and 
soon afterward .formed a partnership with J. J. 
Dawson, under the firm name of Dawson & 
Cassell, and they embarked with small capital 
in the ice cream and confectionery business. 
The business was successful trom the start, and 
grew rapidly in proportions. At the end of one 
year Mr. Gassell bought the interest of his part- 
ner and has since condiu ted the business with 
profit and credit to himself, seeing it grow year 
by year from a small retiiil business to a whole- 
sale one of large dimensions, especially in the 
departments of ice cream and candies of his 
own manufacture. Being of a studious and ex- 
perimental turn Mr. Cassell makes many con- 
fections of his own compounding that have 
grown into great favor. To the end that his 
goods may at all times be pure and wholesome 
he makes not only his candies but also the 
extracts, flavorings, sirups and colors that enter 
into them. Long since the demands of his 
trade required the installation of a power plant, 
to which he has been compelled to add from 
time to time as requirements of the business 
dictated, until it is now most complete. His 
wholesale trade extends over a radius of 75 
miles or more and his chief consideration, has 
not been its extension but rather its detention 
within the bounds of his capacity, his chief 

desire being to cater to the local trade. 

An idea of the extent of his trade may be 
drawn from the fact that his consumption of 
ice during the summer season reaches from 
3.(oo to r-.OOO pounds daily. 

Rumor & Son. 

The business of Rumer & Son, candies, con- 
fectionaries, cigars, ice cream, etc., 220 Main 
street, was established 
in 1893, on a capital of 
$185, of which $100 
was borrowed. It has 
grown and flourished 
from the first and now 
has reached propor- 
tions which rank it 
among the prominent 
ousinesses on Main 
street. With a stock 
and fixtures averaging 
from $3,000 to $4,000 

and a weekly business of from $200 to $600, 
the Messrs. Rumer have no cause to complain 
that prosperity has not come their way. This 
is one of the Vincennes houses that discounts 
its bills. 

Samuel Rumer was born in Vincennes Octo- 
ber 18, 1851, and was educated in the city 
schools, being graduated from the High 
School. While yet a school boy he was em- 
ployed in the Fyfield & Erushaw woolen mills 
in vacation time. After leaving school he 
learned telegraphy, which he followed at va- 
rious points for nine years. He was also for 
several years in the employ of Mass & Watson 
in the Union Depot Cafe. He was afterward 
deputy sheriff for a period tf seven years. He 
was elected a member of the city counicil but 
resigned at the end of thirteen months to be- 
come marshal, filling an unexpired term. About 
the year 1890 Mr. Rumer removed to Florida, 
but not liking the country remained only a 
short time. Returning to Vincennes he be- 
came proprietor of the livery stable at the cor- 
ner of Seventh and Fairground avenue. Dis- 
posing of this. he. in 1893, embarked jn his 
present business. He was subsequently on the 
police force, first as patrolman and afterwards 
as sergeant, but the demands of his business 
compelled his resignation. 

Mr. Rumer was married October 16. 1872, to 
Miss Sarah C. Shouse. of Harrison township, 
Knox coun-ty. They have seven children, of 



whom Harry, the eldest, is junior member of 
the firm of Rumer & Son. 

Hairy Rumer, junior member of the firm 
of Rumer & Son, was born in Vineennes Jan- 
uary 15, 1874, and attended, the city schools. 
His first employment after leaving school was 
with C. C. Jones, traveling passenger agent 
of the O. & M. railway for one year. He was 
then eighteen months in tine office of the O. & 
M. railway, the last six months at Washington, 
Ind. Subsequently he worked four years for 
the Hartman Manufacturing Company, and 
two years at Kixmiller's brickyard. After this 
and up to the date of the establishment of the 
present business he was employed in the con- 
fectionery and fruit store of W. A. Miller. 

Mr. Rumer was married April 20, 1897, to 
Miss Mary, daughter of John Heller, of Vin- 
cennes. They have two sous. 


Edward F. Tindolph. 

Edward F. Tindolph was bora at Olney, 111., 
September 29, 1871. In 1871 his parents re- 
moved to Vincennes. 
After leaving the public 
schools he entered the 
Vincennes University, 
from which he was 
graduated in 1891. He 
immediately became 
secretary and superin- 
tendent of the Citizens' 
Electric Railway, a po- 
sition which he held for 
six years, until after 

the death of his father, Allen Tindolph, in 1894. 
In 1896 his interests in the Vincennes road were 
sold, when he accepted a similar position with 
the Springfield Railway Company, of Spring- 
field, Ohio. A year later Mr. Tindolph bought 
an interest in the Virginia Hotel, at Indianapo- 
lis. After two years he sold his interests in 
Indianapolis and -became manager of Hotel 
Emory, at Cincinnati, Ohio. This position Mr. 
Tindolph resigned to return to his old home in 
1900. In January, 1901, he established his pres- 
ent flourishing lumber business at the corner 
of St. Clair street and B. & O. S.-W. railroad. 
He has always been a Republican in politics 
and an earnest party worker. In recognition 

of his services to the party as well as his high 
standing as a man and citizen, he was, Jan- 
uary 11, 1902, appointed by Governor Durbin 
a member of the Metropolitan Police Board of 
the city, for a term of three years. 

Mr. Tindolph was married to Miss Lucile, 
daughter of Mr. G. W. H. Roush, of Vincentnes, 
in 1890. 

Robert 0. James. 

Robert O. James was born in Wabash county, 
Indiana, March 19, 1850, and educated in the 
common schools and at 
the Seminary of South 
Wabash, Ind., from 
which he was graduated 
in 1871. After leaving 
school he engaged in 
farming until twenty- 
seven years of age. He 
then embarked in mer- 
cantile business at Lo- 
gansport, Ind., where he 
remained three years, 
when failing health 
compelled him to dispose of his business and 
the next year was devoted to regaining his 
health, with entire success. In 1881 he became 
agent for the D. M. O. & S. railroad at Des 
Moines, Iowa, which position he held for about 
five years. Resigning this agency he spent the 
winter of 1885 and 1886 with his parents in 
Wabash county, Indiana. In the spring of 1886 
he became a partner in a private bank at Hugo- 
ton, in South-west Kansas. He remained in 
this business four and a half years. Dispos- 
ing of his interest there in the fall of 1890, he 
spent the winter of 1890-91 in Wabash county, 
and in the summer of 1891 bougfot a flouring 
mill at Eldorado, in South-east Kansas. This 
business he continued till the fall of 1895, when 
he dsposed of it and after a few months spent 
at Wabash. Ind., came to Vincennes in May, 
1896, and invested in a large tract of timber 
land. He has since been engaged largely in 
lumber and saw mill business, shipping the 
product of his mills over a wide territory. 

Mr. James was married May 9, 1878, to Miss 
Mary P. Leedy, of Remington, Ind. They have 
one son, Rolin R., now twenty-two years of age 
and a student at Earlham College, where he will 
complete the full classical course next June. 



City Hall Drug Store. 

One of the oldest and best known business 
houses In the city is the City Hall Drug Store, 
established in 1867 
by H. J. Watjen, a 
pharmacist of large 
experience. The 
store was first loca- 
ted in Odd Fellows' 
block, at the corner 
of Second and 
Broadway, where it 
remained for twen- 
ty-one years. In 1888 
it was moved to the 
corner of Second 
and Main, into the 
building now occu- 
pied by the German 
National Bank. 
Here it remained till 
1895, wheni it was 
removed to its pres- 
ent location, corner 
Main and City Hall 
place. Mr. Watjen 
brought with him to 
the business not on- INTERIOR VIEW 

ly long years of experience, many of which had 
been spent in careful and thorough study of 
the science, but well formed business habits, 
which have resulted ini the building up of a 
magnificent trade. Fifteen years ago Mr. Wat- 
jen's eldest son, Woodville C. Watjen, took 
up the study of pharmacy under his father's 
direction and soon became one of the most 
thorough and skilled pharmacists in the city. 
For the past two years the business has been 
under his management entirely the father hav- 
ing let his mantle fall upon the shoulders of 
the son, who wears it with a grace that shows 
him to be of the parent stock. 

The trade of the City Hall Drug Store is, as it 
should be, one of the very best in the city. 

Dr. R. G. Moore. 

Ruben G. Moore, M. D., wholesale and retail 
drugs, paints, toilet articles, etc., 221 Main 
street, is one of tlie business men of the city 
who may be said to be old in the business in 
Yincennes, having been steadily engaged here 
for more than a third of a century. Dr. Moore 

was born within six miles of Indianapolis in 
1837 and came to Vincennes in 1866. Apparent- 
ly his long service has not rendered business 
distasteful to him, for one may confidently ex- 
pect to find the doctor at his desk at all times 

during business hours. 

Dr. Moore was married in 1867 to Miss Sarah 
B. Burns, of Moore's Hill, Imd. They have one 
son, Dr. M. G. Moore, of the city, and two 
daughters, Mrs. John W. Neptune, of Thorn- 
town, Ind., and Mrs. William Evans Jenkins, 
of Richmond, Ind. 

Victor Schoenfeld. 

Victor Schoenfeld was born in Budapest, Hun- 
gary, May 19, 1846. Came to America in 1872. 
The first year after his 
arrival he spent at Cin- 
cinnati; then went to 
Indianapolis, where be 
was in business for six 
years, coming to Vin- 
cennes in August, 1879. 
He went into business 
at once, conducting, a 
notion store at 207 
Main street He re- 
mained at that location 
nine years, removing to 



present location, No. 211 Maim, in 1888. He car- 
ries a complete stock of proprietary medicines, 
wall paper, sihades, paints, etc., and a variety of 
notions anld toys and enjoys a thriving trade. 

Mr. Schoenfeld was married in 1879 to Miss 
Rifka Wile, of Vincennes. They have two 
daughters, Misses Elizabeth and Elvira. 

Photo by Shores 

Watjcn's Wonderful Cat, "Mascot" 

John M. Duesterberg. 

John M. Duesterberg, druggist, 624 North 
Second street, was born, reared and educated 
ia Vincennes. His first 
employment after leav- 
ing school was with H. 
E. Peck, druggist, in 
1861. He remained with 
Mr. Peck and his suc- 
cessors, Messrs. Luck & 
Patton, over four years. 
He was then for three 
years in the employ of 
J. E). Lander, druggist. 
In 1868 he embarked in 
business for himself, 
opening a drug store near the old passenger 
depot ini North Vincennes After two years he 
sold this store and bought an interest with 
Landers. In 1874 this partnership was dis- 
solved and Mr. Duesterberg opened a store at 

No. 325 Main street. A year or so later this 
was removed to No. 316 Main. In 1879 he sold 
this business and was for a time out of busi- 
ness. In 1883 he opened up a new stock at the 
corner of Second and Sott. Here he remained 
ten years. In 1893 he built and occupied his 
present building at 621 North Second. Mr. 
Duesterberg was married in 1874 to Miss Mary 
Rikhoff. of Vinceuues. 

Planke Bros. 

The firm of Plauke Bros., bakers and confec- 
tioners, 502-4 Main street, is composed of Fred- 
erick W. and Henry E. Planke, both who were 
born in Westphalia, Germany, the former Sep- 
tember 11, 18(52, and the latter January 11, 1869. 
Frederick Planke came to this country direct 
to Knox County in 1881. He lived on a farm 
during the first four years after his arrival. 
In 1886 with a brother. William, now deceased, 
he established a business at No. 311 Main, but 
after a few months removed to the present loca- 
tion. William Planke died in October, 1895, and 
later Henry E., who had arrived from Germany 
in June, 1889, became a member of the firm. 

Frederick W. Planke was married in 1886 to 
Miss Annie Spangle, of Knox county. They 
have two children. 

Planke Brothers have fitted their bakery with 
modern machinery and have every appliance 
calculated to improve the quality or lessen the 
cost of prodiiction and their product gives uni- 
versal satisfaction. They are large dealers in 
candies and confectioneries and hi season man- 
ufacture and sell at wholesale and retail im- 
mense quantities of ice cream, in which their 
trade has had a steady and rapid growth for 
several years past. 

Herman Boog. 

Herman BOog was born in Brunswick, Ger- 
many, May 28, 1864, and came to America in 
1888 at the age of 24 years. In 1890 Mr. Boog 
came to Vinicennes and engaged with Frank 
Mitcihell as baker. In 3891 he formed a part- 
nership with Henry Bergmann and established 
a bakery at Seventh and Hart streets. In 1895 
the partnership was dissolved and Mr. Boog 
established his present business at 9 South 
Fourth street, where he has had a steady 
growth and now conducts one of the largest 



bakeries in the city, equipped with modern 
steam machinery. 

Mr. Boog was married in 1892 to Miss Lina 
Ahlborn, of Celle, Germany. They have two 
children living and have lost one by death. 

G. R. Harvey. 

Geo. R. Harvey was born in Kingston, Tenn., 
May 14, 1818. When George was two years of 
age his parents removed 
to a farm in) Washing- 
ton county, Ind., where 
he remained until 
twelve years of age. He 
then entered the em- 
ploy of a merchant tail- 
or in Salem and there 
lea rned the tailor's 
trade. He remained 
here five years and then 
established himself in 
business at the small 
town of Bono, in Lawrence county, near the 
Washington county line. Here he commenced 
business in 1833 and continued it till 1847. In 
the latter year on account of failing health, 
due to his confining occupation, he disposed 
of his business and for an open air occupa- 
tion chose flat boating and engaged in tihis occu- 
pation on the east fork of White River, follow- 
ing it for a period of two years. Finding him- 
self then in fairly good health lie removed to 
Vinlcennes, where he embarked in business as 
a merchant tailor, combining with it a book and 
stationer}- business. After two years he sold 
the tailoring department and confined himself 
to the book and stationery business. Very soon 
thereafter in partnership with James A. Mason 
and L. L. Watson, under the firm name and 
style of Harvey, Mason & Co., he, about 1853-4, 
bought the Vincennes Gazette, in connection 
w-ith which the book and stationery business 
was subsequently conducted. In 1859 tihey sold 
the Gazette to Col. C. M. Allen and Dr. H. M. 
Smith and later in the same year sold the book 
store to Major Gould and Dr. Shepard. Mr. 
Harvey was then for two years engaged in an 
auction and commission business, embarking, 
in 1861, In millinery and ladies' furnishings 
and the manufacture of ladies', misses' and 
children's wraps. This business grew to large 

proportions and Mr. Harvey did a business run- 
ning as high as 40,000 to $50,000 a year, making 
nearly all the goods in those lines sold in this 
section. In these lines he has continued to the 
present time, but with advancing years has 
dropped some features of the business entirely, 
and has ceased to push the remainder with 
his erstwhile vigor, being satisfied with a quiet, 
little business that provides a comfortable liv- 
ing for himself and family. When at the height 
of his prosperity in the manufacture of ladies* 
wraps, etc., Mr. Harvey employed five to six 
tailors and from fifty to sixty needle women. 

Our venerable subject recalls the fact that 
when he came to Vincennes there were in ac- 
tive business ini the city fifty-two men. Of 
these he is now the only one in business. The 
only other one living is Mr. Christian Eberwine, 
of 503 Busseron street. 

Mr. Harvey was married April 12, 1849, to 
Miss Laura B. Brace, of Haysville, Dubois 
county, Ind., who is still living and assisting 
in the business. 

Robert M. Glass. 

Robert M. Glass was born in Lewistown, Pa., 
and educated in the schools of that city. He 
came to Vincennes in 
1879 For a period of 
seven years he was em- 
ployed as a salesman by 
B. Kuhn & Co., and I. 
Joseph & Sons, In 1885 
Mr. Glass embarked in 
business for himself, 
buying the millinery 
business of J. T. Mc- 
Jiinsey, theretofore es- 
tablished at 15 North 
Second street, where he 

has continued in business to the present time. 
Mr. Glass carries one of the most complete lines 
of millinery in the State and having at all 
times the best trimmers obtainable, enjoys the 
cream of the city's millinery trade. 

Mr. Glass was married in 1885 to Miss Fannie 
E. Collins, of the city. They have two children. 


Mrs. E. J. Loten. 

The business conducted by Mrs. Eleanor J. 
Loten at 416 Main street, was established by 
John Loten, about 1856. Mr. Loten was born 



in England and came to this country with his 
father in 1853 to a farm near Grayville, 111. He 
had learned the trade of house painter and 
decorator in England and in 1854 came to Vin- 
cennes, where lie followed his trade for a time 
and then established a paint and paper store 
on Fourth street, between Maim and Busseron. 
He later bought two Main street lots of Dr. Hitt 
and erected buildings, one of which is yet occu- 
pied by the business conducted by his widow, 
Mrs. Eleanor J. Loten, nee Roberts, to whom 
he was married in Hull, England, in 1851. Mr. 
Loten dying in 1876 Mrs. Loten> succeeded to 
the business, which she has since conducted 
most successfully, having added to it a fine line 
of pictures, frames and ornamental goods, in 
which she deals largely. 

Charles W, Helle. 

Charles W. Helle, dealer in pictures, mould- 
ings, wall paper, paints and window shades, 219 
Main street, was born 
at Freelandville, Knox 
county, August 11, 
1866. His father died 
when he was but five 
years of age, and his 
widowed mother re- 
moved soon after to 
Vincennes, where he at- 
tended St. John's Evan- 
gelical school and sub- 
sequently the public 
schools. Necessity com- 
pelled him to seek employment at an early age 
and he found it mainly in stores until he de- 
cided to learn the trade of paper hanger, which 
he did with Henry Miller. In 1887 he went to 
Cincinnati and became foreman of the freight 
house of the C., H. & D. railroad, in which po- 
sition he remained for six years. He then fol- 
lowed his trade of paper hanger for five years. 
Returning to Vincennes in 1898, he bought of 
J. J. Dawson the business which he has since 

Mr. Helle was married in 1889 to Miss Mary 
Hays of Cincinnati. 

White Bicycle Company. 

The White Bicycle Company, bicycles, repairs 
and general repair work, 202 North Seventh 
street, is the outgrowth of a business estab- 
lished in the spring of 1897, by George M. White 

and Lafayette LeGros, under the firm name of 
George M. White. The firm continued un- 
changed till December 1, 1901, when Oliver 

Mrs. Loten's New Building, Telephone Exchange, 
Fourth, Between Main and Busseron 

Pierson bought the interest of Mr. White and 
the present firm was formed, consisting of Mr. 
LeGros and Mr. Pierson, and the name "The 
White Bicycle Company" adopted. 

The White Bicycle Company handles a large 
line of the best wheels made, and are exclusive 
agenits for the Crescent and one or two other 
high grade wheels. They also handle a full 
line of specialties and repairs and do all kinds 
of repair work, including enameling and nickel- 
ing, under a full guaranty. 

Oliver Pierson, of the White Bicycle Com- 
pany, was born in Knox county, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 13, 1836. After leaving the public schools, 
young Pierson took an academic course at Mar- 
tinsburg and there attended college for a time. 
He afterward learned the trade of chair maker 
but did not long follow it, taking up that of 
house painting, emigrating in 1857 to Marshall 
county, Illinois. Here he taught school onie 
year and then returned to Ohio. While in Illi- 
nois he met and won Miss Martha Fountain, of 
Marshall county, and in 1860 returned and mar- 
ried her. He then followed school teaching In 
Ohio one year, after which he returned to 
Wenona, 111., where he followed the trade of 



house painting for some five or six years. From 
there he went to Oskaloosa, Iowa, where he 
was engaged, in the manufacture of window 
blinds. Here he remained till the fall of 1882, 
when he removed to Wabash county, Ind., and 
engaged in the saw mill business. In this he 
continued till 1892, when he engaged in the 
same business in Knox county and continued it 
till the year 1899. 

Mr. Pierson is a skillful mechanic and well 
versed in everything pertaining to saws and 
saw mills; At filing and re-hammering saws 
he has few superiors amd bJs trade in this line 
is quite large. Mr. Pierson is the father of two 
sons and two daughters. 

Lafayette LeGros was born at Allendale, Wa- 
basti county, 111. When he was six or seven 
years of age his father removed to Bridgeport, 
Lawrence county, 111., where he attended the 
public schools. At the age of seventeen years 
he engaged to learn the trade of miller and 
was for several years employed in. a large flour- 
ing mill at Bridgeport. Having a natural me- 
chanical turn he quickly obtained an expert 
knowledge of the trade and was placed in en- 
tire charge of the mill at an early age. Find- 
ing his health suffered from the occupation, 
however, he gave it up and came to Vincennes 
in 1892 and was employed in a bicycle repair 
shop. In 1894, he accepted a position in a 
large mill at Davenport, Iowa, which, however, 
he was compelled to give up on account of his 
health, after one year. Returning to Vincennes 
he took charge of a bicycle department for C. 
Scott & Son. Later he was offered and ac- 
cepted the formanship of a large bicycle repair 
shop at Atlanta, Ga. In 1897, with George M. 
White he established a general bicycle business, 
of which the present "White Bicycle Company" 
is the outgrowth. 

E. B. Hunter. 

E. B. Hunter was born at Newberry, Green 
counity, Ind., but his father dying when our sub- 
ject was quite small, he was placed with his 
grandmother on a farm near Washington, Davis 
county. When fourteen years of age. striking 
out for himself, he went to Mattoon, 111., where 
he remained until 1875. Here young Hunter 
learned milling and the machinists trade. 
Leaving Mattoon he spent one year in Terre 
Haute. Coming to Vincennes in 1877, he took 
charge of the milling department of a starch 
factory for a time and subsequently of flouring 

mills at Bridgeport, 111., and at Vincennes. In 
1890 Mr. Hunter opened a bicycle store, coup- 
ling with it a bicycle repair shop, which has 
sin/ce developed into a general machine and re- 
pair shop, wherein Mr. Hunter's superior tal- 
ents are in great demand. Recently Mr. Hunter 
has become proprietor of the "Racket Store" for 
some years conducted by Mrs. Barlow in an ad- 
joining building, which has been connected by 
an archway. Energy, enterprise and skill have 
combined to build up for Mr. Hunter a busi- 
ness of large proportions and which is appar- 
ently destined to a much larger growth. Mr. 
Hunter was married December 11, 1879, to 
Miss Esther A. Thomas, of Washington, Ind., 
who died Sept. 27, 1899, leaving four children. 
He recently married Miss Anne Barrows. 

L. A. Frederick. 

Louis A. Frederick, wholesale and retail deal- 
er in coal, 1115 Main street, was born in Louis- 
ville, Ky., October 20, 
1858, and received his 
education in the schools 
of that city. At the age 
of twenty years, In 
1878, he entered the 
shops of the Indianapo- 
lis car works and learn- 
ed the trade of car buil- 
der and subsequently 
became car inspector on 
the Pan Handle rail- 
road and remained In 

the employ of the Pennsylvania system for fif- 
teen years. In 1885 he came to Vincennes as 
inspector for the I. & V. railroad and continued 
to hold the position here until 1892. In the 
mean time he had built up a flourishing coal 
business, to which he has since devoted his en- 
tire time and attention building up a whole- 
sale and retail business of large proportions. 
He handles the Jackson Hill and Princeton, two 
of the best grades of coal to be had in this 

Mr. Frederick is an "old reliable" among 
Republicans, and though in no sense a seeker 
after office he waft in 1894 the Republican nomi- 
nee for trustee of Vincennes township, and 
notwithstanding a normal majority of over five 
hundred in favor of the Democrats, his popular- 



ity was attested by the fact that he was beaten 
by only 89 votes. He is a member of the M. E. 
church and also of a number of fraternal and 
beneficiary societies, including the Odd Fellows, 
K. of P., Uniform Rank K. of P., of which he 
is captain; Modern Woodmen and Ben Hur. He 
is also a member of the Vincennies Board of 

Mr. Frederick was married, January 10, 1SS5, 
to Miss Mary E., daughter of James L. Lowe, 
of Indianapolis. This union has been blessed 
by nine children, of whom six sons and one 
daughter are living. He resides with his family 
on his farm of forty acres just east of the city 

John D. LaCroix, Coal and Ice. 

John D. LaCroix, dealer in coal and ice, was 
born in Yincennes, April 5, 1856. He obtained' 
his education in the schools of the city and in 
early life was employed as a salesman in the 
dry goods store of his father in the city. Soon 
after the death of his father, he, in 1877, formed 
a partnership with Htigh Bowen and embarked 
in the grocery business at 309 Main street, un- 
der the firm name of LaCroix & Boweru, com- 
bining with it a coal and ice trade. At the end 
of one year he bought his partner's interest and 
continued the business until 1890, when he dis- 
posed of the grocery store in order to devote 
his entire time attention) to the other branches 
of the business, which had grown to large pro- 
portions, erecting an office which he still occu- 
pies, at 18 South Third street. 

Mr. LaCroix was married June 5, 1889, to 
Miss Mary Brackette, of St. Louis. 

John A. Henderson. 

John A. Hendersom was born in Yincennes, 
August 18, 1842. His mother dying in his in- 
fancy he was placed in the care of relatives 
in Parke county, Ind., where he remained till 
the breaking out of the war of the Rebellion, 
when ho enlisted in Company "I," First Indiana 
Cavalry. With this company he served three 
years, being mustered out July 4, 18G4, and saw 
much hard service. He was in the second bat- 
tle of Bull Rui\ and was with Grant before 
Petersburg. His,- command took an- honorable 
part in a number of hard fought battles and 
many skirmishes. In 1867 Mr. Henderson came 
to Vincennes and formed a partnership with 
Irvin Wilkinson in a tin and stove business. 

After about two years he sold his interests here 
and went to Nashville, Tenn., where he took 
stock in a cotton compress company and be- 
came assistant superintendent of the business. 
Afterwards returning to Vincenmes he entered 
the employ of the Adams Express Company 
with which he remained eleven years as way- 
bill and money clerk. In 1880 Mr. Henderson 
embarked in coal and ice business at corner of 
Third and Scott streets, where he is still lo- 
cated. Mr. Henderson was married October 
20, 1869, to Miss Hanmah R. McClure, of Vin- 
cennes. They have one son and one daughter. 

Edwin L. Ryder. 

Edwin L. Ryder was born aear Lebanon, Ky., 
May 20, 1846. He was educated at Iowa Col- 
lege, Davenport, Iowa. 
He learned telegraphy 
and was first employed 
at South Charleston, O., 
on the Little Miami 
railroad. For some years 
he continued with this 
road occupying various 
positions as operator 
and agent. He was 
night manager for the 
Western Union at Cin>- 
cinnati, Ohio, when the 
Rebellion came and was made operator at 
Camp Dennison, near that city, when troops 
began to mobilize. Mr. Ryder attempted to en- 
list but was rejected on account of being an 
operator, his services in that capacity being 
urgently required. He subsequently made a 
second attempt with a like result. In 1866 Mr. 
Ryder came to Vincennes as train dispatcher 
for the O. <t M. railroad. After one year he 
was made train master of the western division 
and subsequently of the entire system from 
Louisville to St. Louis. Later he became assist- 
ant general superintendent of the road. In 
1874 he resigned this position to become divi- 
sion superintendent of the Missouri Pacific and 
Iron Mountain roads, with headquarters in St. 
Louis. In 1885 he resigned this position and 
returned to Vincennes, embarking in a coal 
business and sack exchange, which he has 
since conducted. 

Mr. Ryder was married in 1869 to Miss Mary 
Wise, of Vincennes. now deceased. He has one 
daughter, Mrs. William C. Breed, of New York 




George Klein. ~ 

George Klein, dealer in shoes at 329 Main 
street, was born in Alsace, at that time French 
territory, in 1833. He cum* to this country at 
the age of 19 years, landing at St. Louis, where 
he remained about 
eight years, following 
the trade of shoemaker. 
He spent also three 
years at Bt-ntonsport, 
Iowa, whence he re- 
turned to St. Louis, 
coming to Vincennes in 
1868. Working for a 
time as a journeyman 
at his trade he, in 1869, 
established a business 
of his own at 323 Main. 
The business flourished and was in 1878 re- 
moved to its present location, where it has since 
been continued. 

Mr. Klein was married in 1864 to his present 
wife, who was Miss Lena Heybeck, of Ger- 
many, whither he had returned on a visit. They 
have four children. 

Racey Palfrey Shoe Co. 

The Racey-Palfrey Shoe Company is com- 
posed of Wm. S. Racey and Thomas F. Palfrey 
and was formed in December, 1899. 

Wm. S. Racey was born on a farm near Oak- 
town. In 1808 he took a position in the general 
store of Watts Bond, 
of Oaktown, anid re- 
mained with him sev- 
en years. In March, 
1895, he formed a 
partnership with James 
Hedden and embarked 
in the grocery business 
at the corner of Fifth 
and Main Streets, Vin- 
cennes. In December, 
1899, Mr. Racey sold 
his interest in the 
grocery store and formed a partnership with 
Thomas F. Palfrey in the shoe business, which 
they have since conducted at 218 Main street. 
Mr. Racey was married in October, 1889 to Miss 
Maggie E. Shepherd, of Oaktown. They have 
two children living. 

Thomas F. Palfrey was born in Detroit, Mich., 
and educated in the schools of St. Louis, to 

which city his parents 
removed when Thomas 
F. was a small boy. In 
1889 he took a position 
with the Simmons 
Hardware Company, of 
St. Louis, in which 
company he soon after 
became a stockholder 
and traveling salesman 
and remained in that 
connection for ' ten 
years, withdrawing in 
December, 1899, to enter the shoe business. Mr. 
Palfrey was in 1894 married to Miss Mary L. 
BurrelJ, of St. Louis. They have three children. 
(Messrs. Racey and Palf/ey are both mem- 
bers of the BractonrRacey Grocery Company.) 

Chas. E. Shepherd. 

Charles E. Shepherd was born on a farm in 
Knox county near Oak- 
town. When he was 
qaito small his parents 
removed to Sullivan 
county, where he was 
reared and educated. 
He remained on the 
farm until twenty years 
of age, when he took a 
position with Racey & 
Hedden, grocers, with 
whom he remained for 
several years. He be- 
came a salesman for tiie Racey-Palfrey Shoe 
Company in September, li)l. 

T. Ray Cross. 

T. Ray Cross was born and reftred on a farm 
near Vincennes, attending the schools of the 
city, including one year 
in the high school. In 
1896 he entered the em- 
ploy of Racey & Hed- 
den grocers, Fifth and 
Main, and remained 
there until the death of 
Mr. Hedden. in the fall 
ot 1891, which resulted 
ir closing the business 
temporarily. In Octo-- 
ber, 7901, he became a 
salesman in the shoe 

store of the Racey-Palfrey Shoe Company, 
where he is now employed. 



W. H. Weed. 

William H. Weed was born in Grayville, Illi- 
nois, May 5, 1803, and received his general edu- 
cation in the schools of that city. He after- 
wards attended Easthan/s Business College, of 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
from which he was 
graduated in 1880. 

He first embarked in 
business at Fairfield, 
Illinois, where he con- 
ducted a hardware 
store for a few mouths, 
removed to Grayville, 
where he was in busi- 
ness about two years 
before coming to Vin- 
cennes in 1887. Here he 
first occupied the storeroom at 214 Main street, 
where he remained twelve years, moving into 
the large double stores at 410 and 412 Main in 
1899, remaining here to the present time. 

Mr. Weed handles a general line of builders' 
hardware, stoves, furnaces, tinware, tools, wire, 
rooting, etc., and has built up a fine business 
and a reputation for fair dealing that is as 
broad as the territory over which Vincennes 
trade extends. 

Mr. Weed was married at Grayville, Illinois, 
in 1884, to Miss Mary B. Spring. They have 
one son. 

N. Smith & Sons. 

The firm of N. Smith & Sons is one of the 
oldest in the State of Indiana, dating back to 
the year 1817, when Nicholas Smith ,the foun- 
der, and father of the present proprietors, came 
to Vincemies from Cincinnati, being originally 
from Newark, N. J. He established himself as 
a blacksmith, subsequently adding a tin shop 
and in 1834 putting in> a line of stoves. Mr. 
Smith, in 1828, bought the property, then va- 
cant, where the business now stands, No. 313 
and 315 Main street, together with that at Nos. 
317 and 819 Main, and about the year 1860, 
erected the building now occupied by H. Brok- 
hage & Sons, and in 1864 that occupied by the 
present firm of N. Smith & Sons. 

The firm was originallv composed of the fath- 
er, Nicholas Smith, and his two elder sons. G. 
Foster and C. C. Smith. The two sons with- 
drew from the firm in 1856 and embarked in 

business together at Terre Haute, where C. C. 
Smith is still engaged, G. Foster being now de- 
ceased. After the withdrawal of his sous Mr. 
Smith continued alone till the year 1864 when 
Edward H. and John A. Smith were admitted 
to a partnership and the old name has con- 
tinued to the present date, though the elder 
Smith died in the year 1871, and the business 
has been conducted with m irked success by the 
last named brothers. The line includes every- 
thing in lieating and cooking stoves, kitchen 
utensils, tin work of all descriptions, steam, 
hot water and hot air furnaces, mantels, roof- 
ing, guttering, etc. The growth of the business 
has recently compelled the addition of a large 
ware room in the rear to accommodate it. Be- 
sides their business, the Messrs. Smith are large 
owners of valuable real estate in the city. They 
are enterprising and public spirited men and 
ready ,\t all tin?es to lead a holping hand for the 
advancement of the city E. H. Smith was a 
charter member of the board of trade and is a 
director in the First National Bank. 

P. Eluere & Sons. 

The firm of P. Eluere & Sons is one of the 
oldest houses in the city and owes its beginning 
to a small repair shop started by Prosper El- 
uere, in the year 1842, on Broadway between 
First and Second streets. Born in Rennes, 
France, in 1812, Mr. Eluere learned the trade 
of gun and locksmith and became an expert 
in general repair work. Ernmigrating to Ameri- 
ca and coming direct to Vincenmes in the year 
last above mentioned, he established himself 
in business as stated and as his talents were 
recognized and his business and capital grew, 
he put in a line of guns 
and sporting goods, 
adding to it other lines 
as his trade demanded, 
from time to time, until 
he carried a great varie- 
ty of goods, represent- 
ing a large investment. 
Mr. Eluere was married 
in 1847 to Miss Mary 
Louise Bayard and to 
the union were born 
five sons, Edward, Sam- 
uel, Louis, Prosper, Jr., and William, and three 
daughters. Misses Emma, Frances and Eliza- 
beth. Before many years the business of Mr. 
Eluere had outgrown its quarters, and its char- 



acter and dimensions demanded a better loca- 
tion. Accordingly he removed to 305 Main 
street where he continued to conduct it for 
many years to the date ol his death in 1891. 
Two years prior to his death Mr. Eluere asso- 
ciated with himself ini the business his three 
sons, Prosper, Louis and William, who had 
grown up with it, and thuy now conduct the 
business. P. Eluere & Sons is not only one 
of the oldest but one of the largest retail busi- 
nesses in the city. They carry an immense 
line of hardware, cuttlery, guns, sporting goods, 
notions, toys, etc. 

The Messrs. Eluere are skilled mechanics and 
in their repair shop do in the most skillful man- 
ner all kinds of repairs in metal. Born, reared 
and educated in Vincennes, they are known 
as careful and reliable business men, whose 
word is as good as their bond, and is taken 
by their customers at its face value. 


Peter J. Burns. 

Peter J. Burns, of the Standard Monument 
Works, 14 South Second street, was born In 
Pittsburg, Pa., March 9, 
1854. He was educated 
in the schools of Louis- 
ville, Ky., and at St. 
Mary's Academy, of 
Floyd county, Indiana, 
from which he was 
graduated in 1871. He 
learned the trade of 
marble cutter at Louis- 
ville, Ky., and followed 
the trade as a journey- 
man marble cutter for 
about ten years, traveling for a marble firm 
during an interval of four years. Mr. Burns, 
in 1885, embarked in business in Vincennes 
with E. M. Salyards as a partner, under the 
firm name of Salyards & Burns. This part- 
nership was dissolved after two years and Mr. 
Burns went into business alone. The pres- 
ent firm was organized in 1896. Mr. Burns is a 
thorough master of the mechanical side of his 
bii^eer. 's a designer of ability and taste, and 
having a broad acquaintance in this section 
his firm enjoys a large and profitable custom. 
He has done much work of the higher class 
for wealthy and distinguished peoole of this 
and other cities. 

Mr. Burns was married October 3, 1882, to 
Mrs. Mary Walter, of Jeffersonville, Ind. They 
have one daughter. 

E. M. Salyards. 

Edward M. Salyards was born at Portsmouth, 
Ohio, March 12. 1845. When he was eight years 
of age his father re- 
moved to Orleans, Ind., 
where the son grew to 
young manhood and 
where at the age of 16 
years he enlisted in the 
Twenty-fourth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry and 
remained in the service 
till the close of the war, 
four and a half years, 
seeing much hard serv- 
ice and being engaged 
in maiijy battles of importance, among them 
Shiloh, Champion Hill, Mississippi, and Vicks- 
burg, Mis?. 

After the war he attended the Indiana Uni- 
versity at Blooraington for eighteen months. 
After leaving school Mr. Salyards learned the 
trade of marble cutter with his father at Or- 
leans and has followed it ever since. He first 
went imto business for himself at Madison, Ind. 
From there, he went to New Albany where, 
with a partner, he conducted a large business 
for ten years. In 1885 he engaged in business 
in Vincennes, where he has continued to the 
present time. Mr. Salyards was married at 
Bloomington. Ind.. in 1867, to Miss Eleanor An- 
derson. They have four children. 

Ora J. 

Ora J. Hartley was 
in 1874. He received 


born at Hillsboro, Ind.. 
a gooa education in the 
schools of Crawfords- 
ville. After leaving 
school young Hartley 
learned telegraphy and 
followed the vocation of 
telegraph operator for 
three years. He was 
then for three years 
with H. L. Steers, un- 
derfci ker. in T e r r e 
Haute. He came to 
Vincennes in February. 
1901 buying the inter- 



est of John Weber in the undertaking business 
of Karaschefsky & Weber, the firm, becoming 
Karaschefsky & Hartley. Mr. Hartley is a 
thorough master of the undertaker's profession 
and in every way a good citizen and business 
man. His firm is doing a good business. 

Mr. Hartley was married October 15, 1901, to 
Miss Lida Swain, of Vincennes. 

Dexter Gardner & Son. 

The firm of Dexter Gardner & Son, under- 
takers, 427 Main street, dates back to 1816, 
when Andrew Gardner, a native of Boston, 
Mass., arrived in Vincennes and estab- 
lished a furniture and undertaking 
business. About 1840, Andrew Gard- 
ner associated with himself his son, 
Elbridge G. Gardner, who had for a 
number of years had practical charge 
of the business, and the firm beeame 
Andrew Gardner & Son. After the 
death of the Elder Gardner, in 1860, 
the business was continued by the sou 
in liis own name. The latter conducted 
a factory for the manufacture of furni- 
ture as a feeder for the business Tind 
this was on a large scale for those 
days. In 1884 Elbridge G. Gardner 
associated with himself in the business 
his sons, Dexter and Edward, under 
the firm name of E. G. Gardner & 
Sons, and o continued till 1892, when 
the business was divided between* the 
two sons, Edward taking the furniture 
business, which continued in the name 
of E. G. Gardner & Sons, and Dexter 
continuing the undertaking business. 
In 1899 George E., son* of Dexter Gard- 
ner, was admitted into the business 
and the firm became Dexter Gardner 
& Son. 

The firm of Dexter Gardner & Son 
has long been one of the leading under- 
taking firms of Southern Indiana and 
has don>e a large business in the city 
and vicinity. The father, Dexter Gard- 
ner, died February 8, 1902, and the 
firm as now constituted is composed of the 
heirs of Dexter Gardner and George E. Gard- 
ner. George E. Gardner is assisted in the man- 
agement of the business by his sister. Miss 
France D. Gardner, who is a practical funeral 
director and embalmer. 

George Elbridge Gardner was born and reared 
in Vinceunes and educated in its schools. After 
leaving school he was for nearly two years in. 
the railway mail service, after which, in 1891, 
he entered the employ of Stanley & Co., under- 
takers, of Memphis, Tenn. He remained with, 
them six years, returning to Vincennes in 1867. 
He was then employed by his father until he 
became a member of the firm as above stated. 
Since the death of his father Mr. Gardner has 
been appointed the Democratic member of the 
Metropolitan Police Board of Vincennes, suc- 
ceeding his father, a position for which he had 


the hearty endorsement of Republicans and 
Democrats alike. 

Mr. Gardner was married in 1897 to Miss 
Ella Whittle: of Vinrennes. They have an inter- 
rstinu; little daughter of five years and an in- 
fant son. 



E. E. Shores. 

Elmer E. Shores was born at Waverly, Iowa, 
July 2, 1862. Came to Vincennes 1876. Was 
graduated from the 
Vincennes High School 
ini 1880. Taught school 
two years. He then 
studied crayon work 
and in 1883 opened a 
studio for this, class of 
work in St. Louis. To 
this he subsequently 
added photogr a p h y . 
Here he remained, con- 
ducting a 'successful 
business till the year 

1892, when he came to Vincennes and 
established his present business, Since- Sep-^ 
tember. 1895. Mr. Shores has been traveling for < 
the W. A. Seed Dry Plate company,, of St. ( 
Louis, having charge of eight states for that '" 
concern. In the mean time his%business here 
is in competent hands and receives,- much per- ' 
sonal attention from the proprietor. , The busi- 
ness here has been eminently successful, be- 
ing one of the largest in the state, "turning out ' ! 
every class of photography knpwn to the craft. 

Mr". Shores was. in 1883. parried to Miss,/ 
Anna Bloom, of Vincenmes. They have two 

Edward S. Clark. 

Edward S. Clark was born at Assumption, 
Christian county, Illinois, and educated in the 
schools of Taylorville, 
attending the high 
school of that city. He^ 
remained in Christian 
county, part'of the time^ 
on a farm. . until 17 
years of age, when he 
went to Indianapolis, 
where he learned pho- 
tography and has since 
followed that profes- 
sion. He remained sev- 
en years in one of the 
leading Indianapolis galleries then spent two 
years in a Chicago gallery. From Chicago he 
took a tour through Wisconsin, making views 
for the Wisconsin Ledger, of Milwaukee. Re- 
turning to Indianapolis, he was again employed 
in a leading gallery for some two years, after 

which he embarked with a partner in business 
at Noblesville. After near two years sold this 
business and returned to Indianapolis where 
he was employed for about five years, coming 
to Viucennes in 1899 as operator at E. E. 
Shores' gallery, where be has since been em- 
ployed. Mr. Clark is a pastmaster of the art 
and has given excellent satisfaction to the 
patrons of this establishment. Much of the 
finest engraving in this work is from negatives 
taken and pictures finished by Mr. Clark. 

Martin V. Presnell. 

Martin V. Presnell, photographer, was born 
and reared in Vincennes and educated in the 
public schools. Mr., 
presnell engaged in the 
business of photogra- 
phy in 1883, and has 
followed it continuous- 
ly since. He has been 
near five years at his 
present number, 207$ 
Main. He has made it 
a point to keep abreast 
of the imprivernents in 
photography and his 
work shows him as a 

\ thorough master of his profession. 

A number of the portraits in this volume are 

-f row: photographs from his studio. 

I. E. Townsley. 

Isaiah E. Townsley Was'-born on a farm in 
Fountain County, Ind., in 1847.- Was educated 
in the schools of that 
county and remained 
on the farm until 32 
years of age. In the 
winter of 1864-5, when 
in his 17th year, Mr. 
Townsley enlisted in the 
150th Indiana Volun- 
teers and served to the 
end of the war. - In 
INS2 he came to Vin- 
cennes and embarked 
in business as a pho- 
tographer, in which business he has since been 
engaged. Mr. Townsley is devoted to his call- 
ing and makes a superior line of work. Many 
of the illustrations of this volume are from 
photographs made by him. Mr. Townsley was 
married October 30, 188K to Miss Eliza Harris, 
of Vincennes. 



Cassius E. Todd. 

Cassius E. Todd was born at Mt. Vernon, 
Ohio, Sept. 6, 1879, and educated in 1 the schools 
of Fredericktown in 
that state. After reach- 
ing manhood Mr. Todd 
spent several years on 
a farm. Coming to 
Vincennes in 1897 he 
engaged in the lumber 
business with hia 
father at the corner of 
Third and Scott Streets, 
under the firm name of 
W. J. Todd & Co. After 
three years in this bus- 
iness he took up the business of photography, 
to which he had previously given much atten- 
tion. After spending some months in the gal- 
lery of J. S. Thompson he bought the business 
in April, 1901. Mr. Todd is an industrious and 
capable young man and can at all times be 
found at his place of business, 308 N. Second 
Street, ready to take a good photograph for a 
reasonable price. Mr. Todd was married 
March 28, 1899, to Miss Hayth-Hifdson, of Vin- 

* '' 

John Hartigan. 

John Hartigan was born in County Limerick, 
Ireland, June 24, 1850. He came to this coun- 
try with a sister in 1865, direct to Evansvijle, 
where he remained about thirteen years; remov- 

Hartigan Office Building. Second, bet. Main 
and Vigo. 

ing to Vincennes in 1878. Mr. Hartigan received 
his education in Ireland. He learned the trade of 
stone cutter in Evansville, which he followed 

as a journeyman for about eleven years. He 
then established a tombstone and monument 
business in Vincennes, which he conducted for 
seven years, then becoming a contractor in 
which he is still engaged. While he does not, 
as a rule, furnish plans, he does so in some 
instances when the work is entirely of stone. 

Mr. Hartigan has erected a large number of 
important buildings in Vincennes, either in 
whole or in part, including a number of fine 
residences and public buildings. Among the 
latter are the West End School, an addition to 
the Vincennes University, etc. He was also 
contractor for the residences of Mr. John 
Smith, E. Bierhaus, J. B. La Plante and many 
others. Other important buildings he has 
erected are the electric ligiht plant at 
corner Eleventh and Church Streets and the 
stock house, bottling department, etc., of the 
Eagle Brewery. In addition to his contract 
business Mr. Hartigan is a l.'irge dealer in Port- 
land cement. Mr. Hartigan is a public spirited 
man, and has always been found ready to lend 
a hand to any enterprise that tends to the ad- 
vancement and development of the city. 
He has borne an important part in se- 
curing to Vincennes a number of industries, 
prominent among which is the Vincennes Nov- 
elty Works, of which he is treasurer. He has 
now in hand some important enterprises which 
will be of great benefit when developed. 

Mr. Hartigan was in.'ijried in 1873 to Miss 
Barbara Snyder, of Evansville. They have 
two sons living. 

Stephen Arnold. 

Stephen Arnold, contractor and builder, 42ft 
Church Street, was born* in Alsace, Prance (now 
a German province), 
July 18, 1846, and there 
received his educatida 
arid also learned the 
trade of carpenter: and 
cabinetmaker in a most 
thorough manner, ac- 
cordiag to the require- 
ments of continental 
Europe. Soon after at- 
taining his majority he 
entered the French 
army, where he served 

for a period of four years. It was during his 
service that the Franco-German war occurred 
and in this he saw most interesting service. He 



was in a number of hard-fought battles, in one 
of which he received a German bullet in his 
left shoulder, suffering a severe wound. This 
was in. the battle uf (iravelotte, the most im- 
portant and terrible battle of the war, and one 
of the greatest ever fought In this battle 175,- 
000 French were engaged and their loss in 
killed and wounded exceeded thirty thousand. 
It occurred on the eighteenth of August, 1871. 

Soon after the close of the war, Mr. Arnold 
came to America, direct to Viacennes, making 
the trip from Strasburg, France, to Vincennes 
in eleven days. He has since coming here fol- 
lowed the occupation of conti actor anil builder, 
and his services have always been in demand 
as one of the most thorough and reliable mas- 
ters of the builder's art. He has done the 
woodwork on many of the finest residences and 
other buildings in the city. 

Mr. Arnold and family are members of St. 
John's German Catholic congregation and he is 
a member of Branch 533, Catholic Knights of 
America, and also of the Uniform Rank. He 
is a director in the German Mutual Insurance 
Co., of Vincennes. 

Mr. Arnold was united in marriage October 
24, 1873, with Miss Mary Memering, of Vin- 
cennes, who is a native of Hannover, Prussia, 
and who had preceded him to this country sev- 
eral years. They have five children living and 
five dead. The living are four sons, John, 
Frank. Herman, Aloisius and one daughter, 
Miss Catherine. Four children died in infancy 
and early chi'dhood and one son, Jorseph, at 
the age of eighteen years. 

W. H. Moore. 

William H. Moore, contractor, was born in 
Richland County, Illinois, May 4, 1854, and was 
educated in the schools 
of that county. His 
first employment was 
as water boy to a con- 
struction gang on the 
O. & M. Railway. 
Later he became a 
newsboy on the same 
line. He then became 
a fireman and received 
his engineer's license at 
the age of twenty-two 
years. He subsequent- 
joined the bridge gang 
and continued in this line of construction work 

for twelve years with the O. & M. and was 
then made- inspector of bridges for the entire 
line from Ciueinwiti to St. Louis and also on 
the Springfield branch of the road. In 1886 he 
resigned this position and became a general 
contractor in building and street work in East 
St. Louis. He came to Vincennes in 1898, and 
has been engaged in the same line here since 
that time. Since coir ing to Vincennes he has 
executed a number of important contracts in 
the cit3' and vicinity, his latest being the hand- 
some new depot of the Terre Haute Brewing 
Co., on First Street. 

He has also built a large amount of fine side- 
walk. He is an Odd Fellow and a member of 
Malluch Court, No. 45, T. B. H., of this city. 

Mr. Moore was married in February, 1877, to 
Miss Mary Alice Courter, of Wabash County, 
111. They have two sons. . . 

D. W. Norton & Co. 

The firm of D. W. Norton & Co., general 
contractors, is one of the strong and substantial 
firms added to the business fraternity of Vin- 
cennes lately. They 
have secured office ac- 
commodations and per- 
manently located with 
J. S. Spiker, at 408* 
Main Street, where* they 
will be pleased to con- 
fer with any person, 
firm or municipality 
having work in their 
line, whether a large or 
small amount is to be 
done, such as ditching, 

grading, paving, excavating, sewer construc- 
tion 1 , sidewalk building, etc. The firm is com- 
posed- of D. W. Norton and J. W. Landrum and 
has been for a number of years largely engaged 
in this line of work. . J'liey are familiar with 
every detail, are abundantly responsible and 
make a pohit of complying strictly with the re- 
quirements of their contracts. Among the con- 
tracts executed by this firm in the past two 
years are the following: 

Cement sidewalks an(? curbing at Mattoon, 
Illinois, amounting to $20.000: street paving at 
Champaign. Illinois, to the same amount; street 
paving at Lebanon, Ind.. to the amount of $50,- 
000: a sewage system at Martinsville, Ind.. $">(.- 
000; large contracts for sewers, excavations, ce- 
ment work, etc., at Terre Haute and elsewhere. 



and cement sidewalks and curbing on Eighth, 
Ninth, First and Busseron Streets in Vincennes, 
to the amount of eighteen thousand dollars, the 
latter executed during the summer and fall of 

They do not ask their patrons to take 
their work on faith, but make a positive and 
unequivocal five years' guaranty" on all con- 
tracts executed by them. During the past year 
their relations with the city and business men 
have been so pleasant and their bearing has 
been so universally business-like that they have 
taken a high place in the estimation of our 
people, by whom they are welcomed to our 
midst as a valuable acquisition to the business 

Thomas Campbell. 

Thomas Campbell, architect and builder, cor- 
ner First and Perry Streets, was born in Ire- 
land April 1, 1851, and came to this country 
with his parents at.fhe age of three years. His 
father located on a farm in Richland County, 
111., six miles south of Olney, where young 
Campbell grew to manhood. When eighteen 
years of age he was apprenticed to John Bar- 
low, of Olney, with whom he learned, the car- 
penter's trade. After completing his ap- 
prenticeship he continued to work at his trade 
in Olney for one year, coming to Vincennes in 
1873. He worked here as a journeyman car- 
penter for several years, embarking in his pres- 
ent business in 1892. Mr. Campbell furnishes 
plans for the greater pa:-t of his work and has 
to his credit many fine buildings in this- city 
and neighboring towns. Among these -are the 
First M. E. Church of tlna city, which is shown 
elsewhere, the business block at north corner 
Main and Third Streets, that at 207-17 North 
Second, residence of Fred Bierhaus, on Fifth, 
between Perry and Seminary, residence Guy 
Mc.Timsey. 414 N. Sixth the Christian Church 
at Lawrenceville, C. P. Church at Monroe City 
and M. E. Churches at Shoals, Worthingfon, 
Carlisle and Farmersbur?, rnd. Also superin- 
tended the $50,000 addition made to the Grand 
Hotel in this city in 1900 Mr. Campbell dis- 
plays a taste in design and a genius in his 
plans that renders his work popular. He is a 
careful superintendent, permitting no deviation 
from specifications and the only difficulty he 
experiences is in meeting the increasing de- 
mand for his services. Mr. Campbell was 
married in 1876 to Miss Lucinda Matters, of 

Vincennes. They have two children living and 
one dead. 

William Simpson. 

William Simpson, livery, 15-21 North Third, 
opposite Grand Hotel, was born on a farm four 
miles east of Vincennes, 
Feb. 18, 1869. He attend- 
ed the public schools 
and subsequently Vin- 
c e n n e s University, 
almost completing the 
course of that institu- 
tion. He remained on 
the farm till 1891 and 
was for four years sub- 
sequently a full partner 
in the Knox Nuseries. 
In December, 1895, he 
accepted a position in the hardware and im- 
plement house of Simpson, Emison & Laue. 
Here lie remained over four years till, in 1900, 
he bought the livery and boarding stable at the 
above numbers, which he has since conducted. 
Mr. Simpson is not only a genial and pleasant 
gentleman, but an energetic and progressive 
man and the business under his management 
has shown material advancement, and the 
number of its customers has greatly increased. 

Frank Green. 

Green's livery stable, Broadway near Busse- 
ron, was established by William Green, who 
came to this country 
from Somersham, Hun- 
tingtonsihire, England, 
in 1831. After some 
years spent as a driver 
of stages, mainly on the 
Evansville and Terre 
Haute line, ^during a 
considerable part of the 
time making Vincennes 
a stopping place, he, in 
1836. in partnership 
with Samuel Emison, 
established a livery business in Vincennes. 
They continued in partnership till 1S55. con- 
ducting a livery and stage business, their sta- 
ble was on the east corner of Second arid Broad- 
way. The stable was built on its present site 
in 1863 and the business has had a continuous 
existence since. With his advancing years, Mr. 



Green, the elder, found in his son Frank a 
steady and reliable business man on whom 
his mantle could fall with no fears that it would 
not rest on worthy shoulders. Since 1890 Frank 
has conducted the business uninterruptedly, 
save for a period of two years during which 
he resided in Indianapolis. Under his manage- 
ment Green's Livery has always done its full 
share of business. Familiar with v every detail, 
Mr. Green permits nothing but the most faith- 
ful attention from his employes and ttjfe best 
service to his patrons. . 

John F. Mail. 

John F. Mail, proprietor of Mail's livery, was 
born in Johnson township, Knox county, July 
14, 1860. He was educated in the schools of- the 
county and engaged in fanning on. obtaifiing 
his majority. Having a good business head as 
well as the necessary energy and * push, Mr. 
Mail's farming operations were eminently suc- 
cessful and he soon accumulated a competence. 
In August, 1891, he bought the Caney livery, 
boarding and sale stables, at 22 South Sixth 
street, which he continues to conduct. Mr. Mail 
has probably the largest and most commodious 
buildings in the city and is always to be found 
at his post ready to accommodate his trade, 
which under his management is showing a 
healthy growth. 

Mr. Mail was married in 1885 to Miss Annie 
Johnson, of Johnson township. They have four 


J. S. S piker. 

Jacob S. Spiker was horn in Clay Bounty, 
Coming to Vincennes in 1883, : he en- 
tered the Vincennes 
University J and was 
graduated therefrom in 
18S7. The following 
year he was elected 
surveyor of Knox 
County. After serving 
very acceptably to his 
constituents for some- 
thing over three years, 
Mr. Spiker resigned the 
office for the purpose 
of taking a special 
course in civil engineering at Purdue Univer- 
sity, which he did. After leaving the uni 


versity Mr. Spiker. in 1893, opened an office in 
Vincennes for the practice of his chosen pro- 
fession, also prepared an index to the Knox 
County records for the purpose of abstracting 
titles, in which his office has done a large busi- 
ness, notwithstanding the fact that the increas- 
ing demand for his professional services has 
compelled him to leave this branch mainly in 
the hands of his associates. 

Mr. Spiker is a thoroueh master of his pro- 
fession, a careful and exacting superintendent, 
permitting nothing short of perfect compliance 
with specifications in work which he super- 
vises. He has been employed very largely in 
the construction of levees, drainage ditches, 
roads and bridges, and so favorably has he be- 
come known through the excellence of his work 
that his services are in demand in an ever 
broadening field. He has been compelled to 
call in the aid of a number of assistants., To 
a considerable extent his services have been in 
demand as consulting engineer in matters per- 
taining to heating and various structural work. 
Mr. Spiker was in 1898 elected a member of the 
City Council from the Third Ward and has 
been one of the most careful and serviceable 
members of that body. Mr. Spiker was mar- 
ried October 23, 1891, to Miss Elizabeth Hoi- 
lingsworth, of Vincennes. They have one son. 

A. C. Spiker. 

Augustus C. Spiker was born in Clay County, 
Illinois, July 1, 1872. When he was twelve 
years of age his father 
removed to Stoddard 
County, Missouri (his 
mother having previ- 
ously died), and here he 
grew to man'hood, be- 
ing employed on the 
farm and as salesman 
m a store. His father 
dying in 1891, he came 
to Vincennes in May 
of that year and at- 
tended Vincennes Uni- 
versity during the school year of 1891-2. He 
then, in the fall of 1892, entered Purdue Uni- 
versity, which he attended for four years and 
from which he was graduated in June, 1896. 
His class record having given him a high 
standing with the authorities, he was at once 
appointed an instructor in practical mechanics 
and drawing, a position which be held for two 



years, in the course of which, on the produc- 
tion of a satisfactory thesis, he received the 
master's degree of C. E. In 1898 Mr. Spiker 
came to Vincennes and opened an office for the 
practice of his piofession. 

In January, 19(11, he was engaged to en^- 
gineer and superintend the construction of a 
large system of drainage in Stoddard and New 
Madrid Counties, Missouri, and' has been em- 
gaged there since, completing contracts aggre- 
gating over $351,000. On the seventh of Janu- 
ary, 1902, he let an additional contract for $87,- 
000 worth of work which will begin soon. His 
thorough mastery of his profession places him 
in position to take charge of all sorts of con- 
struction work and the care with which he 
supervises work entrusted to him entitles him 
to the consideration of all who have need of 
the services of a competent and faithful civil 

Mr. Spiker was married, Sept. 26, 1900, to 
Miss Mabel Loten, grand-daughter of Mrs. E. 
J. Loten, of the city. 

Koh-l-Noor Laundry. 

The Koh-I-Noor Laundry was established in 
1880 and become the property of Mr. S. S. Bur- 
net by purchase in 1891. The Koh-I-Noor is 
supplied with a most complete equipment of 
the most modern and approved machinery 
throughout, and under the efficient manage- 
ment of Mr. S. S. Eastham gives universalsat- 
isfaction to its large and increasing custom. 
Besides its city patronage it has a large list of 
patrons in the territory adjacent and tributary 
to Vincennes. It gives steady employment at 
good wages to twenty-five to thirty people. 

Stephen S. Burnet, proprietor Koh-I-Noor 
Laundry, was born in Orange, Cayahoga coun- 
ty, Ohio, April 8, 1834. He received his educa- 
tion in the public schools and at Hyram College, 
Hyram, Ohio. His first employment in a busi- 
ness way was in a wholesale liquor store at 
Nashville. Tenn. He came to Vincenaes in 
1862. Later he was many years engaged here 
in furniture business and subsequent to this in 
lumber and the manufacture of boxes, which 
he continued to about the time he purchased 
the laundry, as noted above He is a member 
of the Royal Arcanum and of the Knights 
of Honor and a Republican in politics. 

Mr. Burnet was married in 18(38 to Miss Kate 
Nance, of Putnamville. 

Ivory Steam Laundry. 

The Ivory Steam Laundry was established in 
1899 by Pomil & Purcell and was successfully 
conducted by them until sold to the Merchant 
Brothers, present proprietors, in October, 1901. 
It is equipped with modern machinery of the 
best makes and is able to turn out a large 
amount of first-class work, giving excellent 
satisfaction to its custom, which is by no means 
confined to Vincennes, extending over a wide 
radius of the surorunding territory. 

The Merchant Brothers are young men of ex- 
cellent parts, lull of energy and closely atten- 
tive to business. Both are native to the city 
and no one stands fairer than they in the esti- 
mation of the people. 

Since taking charge of the Ivory Laundry the 
Merchant Brothers have added not a little to 
its equipment and capacity by putting in a 
number of modern machines of the most ap- 
proved pattern. They have further improve- 
ments in contemplation and are determined to 
make the Ivory one of the very best plants in 
the state. 

John A. Merchant, the senior member, took 
a course in stenography and, after two years 
in the employ of the McJinsey Buggy Company, 
entered the division freight office of the B. & 
O. railroad, in 1894. After one and a half years 
here he was in 1896 transferred to the Spring- 
field, 111., office, where he remained until Octo- 
ber, 1901, when he resigned his position to be- 
come an active partner in the Ivory Laundry. 

Foster B. Merchant founii his first employ- 
ment after leaving schoo) as driver for the 
Ivory Laundry and has thus been with it from 
the first dtry it ran to the present. He is famil- 
iar with every branch of the business and has 
become expert in the operation of some of the 

Albert P. DeBruler. 

Albert P. DeBruler was born on a farm in 
Pike Co., Ind., July 4, 1842. Was educated in 
the public schools and enlisted in the army at 
the age of 17 years, joining the Seventeenth In- 
diana Infantry and remaining to the end of the 
war. serving four years and two months. Was 



a corporal when mustered out. His regiment 
belonged to Wilder's brigade and was a part 
of the time attached to the Fourteenth Army 
Corps, but a part of the time acted independ- 
ently. It belonged to the Army of the Cumber- 
land, was in the battle of Chickamauga, and 
passed through the famous Atlanta campaign. 
Mr. DeBruler was wounded at Selma, Ala- 
bama, April 2, 1865, and still carries the ball. 
He was taken to a rebel hospital at Montgom- 
ery, where he remained till the close of the 

After the war Mr. DeBruler spent several 
years trading on the river and then went into 
planing mill business at Petersburg. Dispos- 
ing of this business he returned to the river 
for a time. Was subsequently two years in 
marble business at Petersburg and was Deputy 
Sheriff of Pike County two years. Came to 
Vincennes in 1881 and embarked in Real Es- 
tate and Insurance business in which he has 
continued ever since. Mr. DeBruler repre- 
sents six fire, one life, one accident and one 
live stock company and does a good business, 
being recognized as a thoroughly reliable and 
responsible man. He has a clientele which has 
remained steadily with him through a long 
term of years. 

Mr. DeBruler was married July 6, 1886, to 
Miss Harriet A. Long, of Wheatland, Ind. 

Milton P. Ghee. 

Milton P. Ghee was born at Thompson, 
Geauga Co., Ohio, March 3, 1822. He was edu- 
cated in the schools of that place and at Lord's 
Seminary, Painesville, Ohio. Mr. Ghee came to 
Vincennes in 1845 and became a teacher in the 
schools of Knox Co. In 1847 he was married to 
Miss Sophia Langdon, of Palmyra Township, 
who still survives and with whom, in 1897, he 
celebrated their golden wedding anniversary. 
Soon after marriage he became Deputy Auditor 
of Knox Co., under Abraham Smith, in which 
capacity he continued to serve till 1854. In 
1856 he bought an interest in the Daily Gazette 
ami a book and stationery business run In con- 
nection therewith under the firm name and 
style of Harvey. Mason & Co., the other mem- 
bers of the firm being George R. Harvey, still 
of the city, and James A. Mason, now deceas- 
ed. Mr. Ghee was city editor and advertising 
manager of the Gazette. About 1859 the pa-, 
per was sold to Dr. Hubbard M. Smith and 

Hon. C. M. Allen and Mr. Ghee was retained 
in the same capacity till the paper later passed 
under the control of Wm. Denny, in 1860. 

In 1800 Mr. Ghee became Deputy United 
States Revenue Collector, under Hon. H. i$. 
Shepard, which position he held for some six or 
seven years, until the close of Mr. Shepard's 
term of office. In 1869 he became United 
States gauger of distilled spirits and so re- 
mained until 1874. In the meantime he had 
established himself in a fire amd life insurance 
business and subsequent to that date devoted 
himself exclusively to this line. 

Mr. Ghee was in 1854 admitted to the prac- 
tice of law, but followed the profession but a 
short time. His first vote was cast in 1844 for 
Henry Clay, the Whig candidate for President. 
He continued a member of the Whig party till 
the formation of the Republican party, voting 
for Fremont in 1856, and adhering consistently 
to the tenets of that party ever since. Mr. 
Ghee was the Republican nominee for repre- 
sentative in the legislature from Knox Co., in 
1898, and his popularity is attested by the fact 
that he ran something like 400 ahead of his 

Mr. Ghee has four children, one son and three 

Col. George W. McCoy. 

George W. McCoy was born in Knox County, 
Ind., and attended the schools of the county. 
He remained on the 
farm till 1879, when he 
entered Purdue Univer- 
sity, from which he 
was graduated in 1884, 
taking the degree of B. 
Sc. On leaving college 
Mr. McCoy came to 
Vincenmes. In 1885 he 
was admitted to the 
bar, but has not active- 
ly practiced his profes- 
sion, having devoted 

himself principally to the business of fire in- 
surance, in which he has been eminently suc- 
cessful. In 1889 Mr. McCoy was appointed 
Captain of Co. A, First Regiment. I. N. G., and 
in 1892 became major of the same regiment. 
In December of the same year he was pro- 
moted to the lieutenant colonelcy. On the 
declaration of war against Spain, in 1898, the 



First Regiment was mustered into the service 
of the United States as the One Hundred and 
Fifty-Ninth Indiana Volunteers, and Col. Mc- 
Coy went with it to the field. After the close of 
the war Colonel McCoy was promoted to the 
colonelcy of the regiment and still holds that 

Col. McCoy was married JMov. 19, 1885, to 
Miss Gernand, of Danville. 111. They have no 
children living, having lost a son and a daugh- 
ter by death in infancy. 

Wm. L. Te Walt. 

Will L. TeWalt was born in Vincennes, Sept. 
3, 1865, and was educated in the schools of the 
city, including the uni- 
versity, which he at- 
tended for a number of 
years.. He- subsequent- 
ly erfterecL the Terre 
Haute: Commercial Col- 
lege and was graduat- 
\, f 'ed therefrom in 1882. 
His first business was 
that of breeder of 
blooded trotting and 
racing stock, imported 
German coach horses 
and hiah grade saddlers, at the same time con- 
ducting a successful livery business. 

In 1884 he established the Wabash Valley 
Stock farm, which became famous for the qual- 
ity of stock it produced. This business he 
continued till 1892. When he went west and 
spent one year at Monte Visto, Colorado, as a 
broker in mining stocks, and also doing a real 
estate and loan business. Returning to Vin- 
cennes in 1893 he established his present real 
estate and insurance business, buying an in- 
surance business theretofore conducted by Mr. 
Fred Hall. He has since added to the busi- 
ness until he now does every species of insu- 
rance known to this section. He represents 
seven of the leading fire companies, also Tor- 
nado. Steam Boiler, Plate Glass, Live Stock, 
Life and Accident. He also represents the Fi- 
delity and Deposit Bond Co. His insurance 
linos have had a steady and satisfactory 
growth and Mr. TeWalt stands exceptionally 
high in insurance circles, adjusting losses for 
his companies in Southern Indiana and Illinois. 
In the other side of his business, that of real 
estate find loans. Mr. TeWalt has been equally 

a marked success. He has handled much val- 
uable property in a way which denotes his pe- 
culiar abilities in this direction and to give 
most excellent satisfaction to his clients, and 
he has reason to pride himself on the character 
of the clientele he has built up. In the midst 
of his large business he has yet been able, 
through bis thorough system, to fiind time to 
execute numerous trusts imposed upon him in 
the way of Guardianships, Administration of 
estates and executorships, in all which capaci- 
ties he has served most satisfactorily. 

He is a member of a number of fraternal and 
beneficiary orders, in most of which he holds 
responsible official positions. He is scribe of 
Mallnch Court, No. 45, Tribe of Ben HUT, 
Record and Finance keeper. Vincennes Tent, 
No. 1-19. K. O. T. M.; chairman of the commit- 
tee on credentials of the Suprece Council of 
American Plowmen, of Logansport, Ind. He 
is also a member of the Masonic fraternity of 
Vincenntes, and is director and treasurer of the 
Wabash Building and Loan Association. 

Mr. TeWalt was married Sept. 3. 1884, to 
Miss Alice, daughter of Dr. John Williams, of 
Olney. 111. They have one daughter, Miss 

Maitland A. Claycomb. 

Maitlamd A. Claycomb was born in Lawrence 
County. Illinois, Nov. 10, 1863, removing to 
Knox County, Ind., to 
make his home with 
his graindparents on the 
death of his mother, 
in 1869. He was edu- 
cated in the schools of 
Knox County, remain- 
ing on the farm until 
23 years of age, when 
he engaged in , a mer- 
cantile business at Giro, 
Gibson County, secur- 
ing and naming the 

postotfice at that place. Remaining here but 
six months he removed to Monroe City in May, 
1887. where he continued in business till Sep- 
tember. 1900. when he sold his store and came 
to Vincennes, where he ably represents the 
Aetna Life Insurance Co., of Hartford, Conn. 
Mr. Claycomb has always been an earnest 
worker in the cause of Democracy and was in 
1896 elected to the state legislature to repre- 



sent Knox County, and re-elected in 1898, serv- 
ing with ability in the sessions of 1897 and 

1899. Mr. Claycomb was married in 1899 to 
Miss Barbara M. Marchino, daughter of Baltzer 
Marchino, of Vincennes. They have two chil- 

John Selby. 

John Selby was born on a farm in Spencer 
County, Ind., where he remained until nine- 
teen years of age. Af- 
ter leaving home he 
spent one and a half 
years in Indiana Uni- 
versity at Bloomington. 
He was then for two 
years connected with 
a gents' furnishing 
store at Mount Pulaski, 
111. After some years 
spent in various occu- 
pations he embarked in 
the work of life insu- 
rance, engaging with the New York Life In- 
surance Co., at Evansville. For this line of 
work he showed a special talent and was emi-' 
nently successful from the beginning. Was 
placed in charge of the Vincennes field in July, 

1900, where he has since been engaged with 
an energy that has proven most profitable to 
himself and his company, and has easily dis- 
tanced all competitors. About the first of 'the 
year 1902 he was made manager of a district 
composed of a number of counties, with" head- 
quarters at Vincennes. 

Carlin Utterback. 

Carlin Utterback, general agent of the Na- 
tional Surety Company, was born in Clay Coun- 
ty, Illinois, where he received a common school 
education, after which, a three years' mixed 
course in the Vincennes University. 

He became a resident of Vimcennes in-. 1888, 
since which time he has engaged in the book 
and stationery, insurance and surety bond busi- 
ness successively, having now the general 
agency of Soxithern Indiana for the National 
Surety Company, of 340 Broadway, IJew York, 
and transacting a general surety business 
through a local board, composed of George W. 
Donaldson and Charles Bierhaus. Vice-Presi- 
dents; Clarence B. Kessinger, Attorney, and 
himself Resident Assistant Secretary. 

Mr. Utterback has built up a profitable busi- 

ness and is recognized as one of the leading 
surety bond men of this section of the United 

States. He is also actively engaged in the de- 
velopment of the natural adv-afttages of the 
city, and improvements in the North Side, 
where he has valuable real estate interests, 
having recently platted and annexed a subdi- 
vision of 1JM) desirable residence building lots, 
where many beautiful cottages are now in 
course of construction. 

Mr. Utterback was married to Miss Elizabeth 
Broulette, of Vincennes, October, 1887, and to 
them have been born one son, Ben, and three 
daughters, Esther, Catherine and Ruth. 

F. A. Thuis. 

Frank A. Thuis, bottler of soda, cider, seltzer 
and other "soft" drinks, 15 South Third Street, 
was born in Vincennles, November 11, 1859. He 
attended the schools of the city, inculding the 
High School and Vincennes University. After 
leaving school he was for a time employed in 
R. J. McKenney's Bank and then entered the 
employ of his father, Mr. H. F. Thuis, who con- 
ducted a confectionery and bottling works. He 
was later admitted to a partnership in the busi- 
ness and became sole proprietor in 1895, by 
purchase from his father. Mr. Thuis enjoys a 
large city trade and also ships largely over a 



radius of twenty to thirty miles: His goods 
have a reputation for purity and excellence 
that makes them popular wherever used. 

Mr. Thuis is a leading member of the Im- 
proved Order of Red Men of the city, and has 
held all the important offices of Peankeshaw 
Lodge, No. 108, of the city. He has for ten 
years held the office of "Chief of Records" 
save when filling another office incompatible 
therewith. He has been for many years chair- 
man of the Democratic City Central Commit- 
tee. Mr;- Thuis was, in November, 1884, mar- 
ried to Miss Mary Raben, of St. Wendel, Posey 
County, Ind., who conducts a prosperous mil- 
linery business at No. 217 Main Street. They 
have three sons and one daughter. 

John B. Zuber. 

John B. Zuber was born in Vincennes, May 
9, 1858. He was educated at the German 
Catholic Parochial 
Schools till ten years of 
age, whent he went to 
regular work, driving a 
team. This he con- 
tinued to do for several 
years, assisting to sup- 
port a widowed mother. 
Later he worked some 
two or three years in 
the poultry house of 
Bierhaus & Sons. He 
afterwards became 

weighmaster at the Baltic Mills, then owned 
by .Louis Schliep. Here he remained for six 
years, when he embarked in the butcher busi- 
ness with his brother Joseph, in 1890. In 1895 
Mr. Zuber bought his brother's interest in the 
business and now conducts two shops, one at 
523 Main, and the other at 913 N. Seventh 
Street. He has his own large and well ap- 
pointed slaughter house, where his meats are 
dressed in the very best manner. Mr. Zuber 
was married in 1878 to Miss Elvira Lovell, of 
Henderson, Ky. 

A. M. Yelton. 

A. M. Yelton was born in Butler, Pendleton 
County, Ky., and received 'his education in the 
schools of that town. After leaving school he 
learned telegraphy, soon acquiring great pro- 
ficiency, so much so that at the age of twenty- 
one years he became train dispatcher on the 
M. & O. Railroad. This position he held for 

three years. In 1874 he came to Vincennes as 
agent for the C. & V. and I. & V. Railroads, 
now the Big Four and Pennsylvania. He con- 
tinued as such agent for seventeen years, until 
he entered upon the duties of clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court to which office he was elected on 
the Democratic ticket, in 1890. As circuit 
clerk Mr. Yeltou gave eminent satisfaction, be- 
ing at all times courteous and obliging, and his 
niomination and election to a second term was 
accomplished without great effort on his part. 

Mr. Yelton is the Democratic nominee for 
alderman of the Third Ward in the pending 

Mr. Yelton was married, Dec. 14, 1875, to 
Miss Carrie J. Shaw, of Alexandria, Campbell 
Co., Kentucky. They have two sons and one 

J. C. Wagner. 

John C. Wagner was born in Knox County 
Nov. 8, 1857, and came to Vincennes in 1872. 
Learned the jeweler's 
trade with Bitterman 
Brothers, who conduct- 
ed a business at No. 
206 Main Street. He 
remained with this 
firm four years, the last 
two of which were in 
Evansville, whither 
they removed. Mr. 
Wagner then followed 
his trade at Freeland- 
ville about two years. 

In May, 1878, he took employment with Perry 
Tindolph. with whom he remained till 1889. 
In February of the latter year he formed a 
partnership with E. J. Julian, under the firm 
mime of Julian & Wagner. Their business was 
located at the corner of Third and Main Streets. 
This partnership was dissolved in December, 
1898, and in the following February Mr. Wag- 
ner established his present business at 429 
Main, where a upiform courtesy and a careful 
.study of the wante of his patrons has led to a 
most satisfactory development, and where he 
carries a lajjge ?n<d elegant lino of watches, 
clocks, jewelry, sterling silverware, cut glass 
and similar goods usually carried by the jew- 
elry trade. 

Mr. Wagner was married in 1884 to Miss 
Elizabeth Briggs, of Evansville. They have 
two children. 



W. H. Propes 

William H. Propes. manager ef the Vincennes 
branch of the Terre Haute Brewing Co., was 
born in Lawrence Coun- 
ty, Illinois, and re- 
ceived his education in 
the schools of Law- 
renceville. His first 
business experience 
was as an undertaker 
in the employ of his 
father, who was in bus- 
iness in Lawremceville. 
Here he remained six 
years till offered his 
present position in 
1892. Since coming to Vincenues in that year 
Mr. Propes has built up for his company a fine 
trade, which has necessitated the erection dur- 
ing the past year of the fine new depot on 
First Street, which is shown elsewhere. He 
has taken a high standing among the business 
men of Vincennes. 

W. A. Reiman. 

William A. Reiman. florist, 104 Sycamore 
Street, was born in New York City, Feb. 21, 
1851, and educated in 
the schools of that city. 
After leaving the pub- 
lic schools he attended 
the Free Academy of 
the city, from which 
he was graduated 
in 1872. His first 
employment was with 
the banking house of 
Kidd. Pierce & Co., 
fiscal agents of the 
Wabash Railway. A. 

Boody, president of the railway, was also a 
member of this concern and through him Mr. 
Reiman was, when only twenty-two years of 
age. made a passenger conductor on that road, 
an occupation which he followed om this and 
other roads for twenty years, his last position 
of this kind being on the Frisco, out of Fort 
Smith. Ark. This he resigned in 1892, to be- 
come special agent of the Fidelity and Casualty 
Company on the Texas lines. This, after some 
years, he resigned to assume the management 
of the Vincenines Calorific Brick and Tile Co., 
in which he was financially interested. After 
two and a half years with the company, he 

bought the green houses and good will of John 
A. Balmer, which he has since conducted with 
the exception of two years during which he 
was again on the road for the Fidelity & 
Casualty Co. Mr. Reiman has a taste for this 
line of business and under his management it 
has had a steady growth which has compelled 
him constantly to enlarge his houses and in- 
crease -his facilities, until he now has one of 
the most complete plants in the state, and a 
constantly increasing outside demand for his 

Mr. Reiman has been twice married, his first 
wife being Miss Mary Louise Bakeman, of 
Syracuse. N. Y., to whom he was married in 
1875. Her death occurred in 1885. He 
was married to Mrs. Fannie B. Callender, of 
Vincennes, Dec. 15, 1898. They have one son. 

R. J. Greenhow. 

Richard J. Greenhow was born in Vincennes 
Feb. 3, 1845. He was educated in the schools 
of the city, completing 
his education at the 
Vinicennes University, 
from which he was 
graduated in 1860. His 
first employment was 
as clerk in the Vin- 
cennes postofiice under 
Dr. H. M. Smith. He 
subsequently engaged 
in book and stationery 
business, buying the 
business of Capt. Wat- 
sou when the latter enlisted in the army. The 
business was resold to Captain Watson on his 
return from, the war, and on the appointment 
of Mr. Greerihow to a clerkship in the paymas- 
ter's department at Washington. He was sub- 
sequently a clerk in the Pension Bureau. After 
two years he was assigned to the Commisary 
Department of the South .and afterwards on 
the Western frontier, being station^ at Forts 
Fletcher and Riley, while the famous Custer's 
Seventh Cavalry was being organized. Mr. 
Greenhow was well acquainted with all the 
officers of this famous but ill-fated command. 
In 18(38 'he returned to Vinicennes and was con- 
nected with the construction of the I. & V. and 
C. & V. Railroads under Colonel C. M. Allen, 
and subsequently became agent for these rail- 
roads, in which position he remained for some 
years. For the past twenty years he has been 



engaged in business as a grain dealer. He is 
the Vincennes correspondent of Gill & Fisher 
of Baltimore and Philadelphia. Mr. Greenhow 
was married in November, 1870, to Miss Eliza- 
beth B. Hays, of Gosport, Ind. They have two 

Samuel Riddle. 

Samuel Riddle was born in Warrick County, 
Ind., and educated in the schools of that coun- 
ty. He learned the barber's trade in Oakland 
City and there followed 
it for a period of ten or 
twelve years. He came 
to Vincentaes in 1896 
and soon after became 
proprietor of a leading 
shop. This business he 
disposed of in *3ie 
spring of 1901, and 
after prospecting for a 
time for another loca- 
tion decided there is no 
place like Vincennes, 

and accordingly bought his present business, at 
No. 516 Main', where his old friends have 
quickly found him out. 

Mr. Riddle was married April 29, 1890, to 
Miss Ida M. Richardson, of Oakland City. They 
have two children. 

H. J. Hellert. 

Henry J. Hellert was born in Prussia, Ger- 
many, March 21, 1845. He attended school 
there until 14 years of 
age. Came to America 
with his parents in 1860, 
at the age of 15 years. 
They came direct to 
V in c e n n e s, where 
Henry obtained em- 
ployment at various oc- 
cupations for a time 
and then was for some 
years in the employ of 
the E. & T. H. Rail- 
road, at first on a work 
train, and the last two years as fireman. In 
1866 he embarked in the saloon< business at 
Eleventh and Main Streets, a year later moving 
to 1003 Main. In 1868 he erected the build- 
ing at the corner of Tenth and Main Streets 
where he has since continued in business. In 
1870 Mr. Hellert added a grocery department 

which he continued to conduct for ten years. 
In 1880 he began the business of bottling Hack 
& Simon's beer, which he continued for 16 
years. In the spring of 1895 lie embarked in 
the wholesale liquor trade, in which he has 
since done a thriving and profitable business at 
Tenth and Main, and later also at 6 and 8 North 
First Street, having bought, in 1899, a business 
long conducted there by S. Gimbel, and after 
his death by his 'heirs. 

Mr. Hellert was married in 1870 to Miss Lucy 
Althoff, of Vincennes. They have two sons 
living and one daughter recently deceased. 

A. S. Reel. 

Abe S. Reel was born in Palmyra Township, 
Knox County, Indiana, Oct. 22, 1843. Was 
educated in the schools 
of the county and at 
Otterbein University of 
Westerville, O. Though 
but eighteen years of 
age when the war of 
the Rebellion broke 
upon the country, he 
was early to the front, 
enlisting in the Seventh 
Battery, Indiana Light 
Artillery, in 1861. He 
continued in the ser- 
vice till the end of the war. The Seventh be- 
longed to the artillery brigade commanlded by 
General Terrell, who was killed at Perry ville, 
Ky,. It took an active part in nine battles of 
considerable importance, including Shiloh, 
Chickamauga and Stone River, and in 168 
skirmishes, more or less bloody. In the last 
battle in which it was engaged, Jonesboro, Ga., 
the brigade lost every third man. 

Mustered out of the army ini December, 1864, 
Mr. Reel entered Otterbein University, at 
Westerville, Ohio, where he remained two 
years and then returned to the farm. While 
remaining on the farm Mr. Reel devoted much 
of his time to saw milling for ten or twelve 
years; also to tubular wells. He removed to 
Vincenntes in 1895, embarking in business as a 
plumber and contractor. Later he bought the 
building at 114 Main Street, where the busi- 
ness is located. 

Mr. Reel has always been prominent in 
church work. Was for twenty years an elder 
in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church and 
for five years in the Presbvterian Cturch, of 



which he is still a member. Was for three 
years county superintendent of Sunday school 
work and three years townsihip superintendent. 

He was, in December, 1901, elected com- 
mander of Jeff. C. Davis Post, No. 16, G. A. R., 
of the Department of Indiana, located at Vin- 

Mr. Reel was married Jan. 2, 1867, to Miss 
Martha V. Pea, his present wife. They have 
live daughters. 

Joseph Kitchell. 

Joseph Kitchell was born in Springfield, Ohio, 
Aug. 13, 1851, and attended the schools of that 
city. When twenty 
years of age he came to 
Indiana and located at 
Patoka, where he 
learned .the trade of 
shoemaker and fol- 
lowed that occupation 
till 187t', when he re- 
moved to Vincennes, 
where he has dince re- 
sided.^ Mr. Kitchell 
has recently patented a 
device to take the place, 
of the hook fastener, so largely used on shoes,;,, 
and his invention is highly commends! by shoe 
men, many of whom believe it will displace the 
hook and thus prove a most profitable discov- 
ery 4 Our subject has always been a stanch 
Republican and one of the most faithful work- 
ers in the party. 

Mr. Kitchell was married in May, 1882, to 
Miss Lizzie Flood, of Vincennes. They have 
one son and one daughter. 

E. Yunghans. 

Emil H. Younghans was born in Saxony, Ger- 
many, Aug. 13, 1855. Came to America in 
1871, to Vincennes in 1876, having spent the in- 
tervening time at Terre Haute. Mr. Yunghans 
learnted the trade of cigar maker in Germany 
and established his factory here in the year 
1876 in a small building on the present site of 
the Vincennes Implement & Carriage Co. 
In 1877 he removed to a building at 325 Main 
Street, where he remained till 1883, when he 
purchased the lot and erected and occupied 
the building at present in use, at 409 Main. 
Mr. Younghans employs an average of five 
men in his factory and manufactures a num- 
ber of popular brands of hi^h grade cigars, in- 

cluding "Little Cubans," "No. 150," etc. He 
also makes a number of private brands for Job- 
bers and other dealers, in which line he has 
quite an extensive and growing trade. 

Mr. Younghans was married in 1878 to Miss 
Julia Kolb, of Vincennes. They have a fam- 
ily of ten children living. 

H. S. Latshaw, D. D. S. 

Dr. Henry S. Latshaw, dentist, was born at 
Ottawa, Illinois, May 14, 1846, and when about 
eight or nine years of 
age removed with his 
mother to Evansville, 
Ind., where he attended 
the public schools for a 
time, ' but being com- 
pelled by^circumstances 
to support a widowed 
molber and three 
younger children, his 
educational acquire- 
ments are chiefly due 
to his- own persevering 
labors at leisure moments and the assistance 
of a friend: At the age of 17 he took up the 
study of dentistry under Dr. Isaiah Haas, of 
Evans.ville, under whom he studied for seven 
years, the kind-hearted doctor knowing the 
stern necessities of his case, paying him a small 
salary, contrary to the usual practice in such 
cases, increasing it from time to time as his in- 
creasing usefulness warranted. At the age of 
twenty-two years Dr. Latshaw struck out for 
himself, going to Carlisle, Ind., where he met 
and on June 8, 1869, married Miss Nannie E.. 
Sullivan. The doctor continued to practice his- 
profession with success 1 at Carlisle till 1881, 
when he removed to Petersburg, Ind., where he 
engaged in drug business, Having a half inter- 
est in two stores. He was doing a prosperous 
anfd promising business, when misfortune over- 
took him and in a twinkling the accumulations 
of years were wiped out by fire. About 1884 
he came to Vincennes and for about ten months 
was in charge of a drug store for W. A. 
Markee, after which he again took up the prac- 
tice of dentistry, which he has continued to the- 
present time, building up a large practice, 

Dr. Latshaw Is a member of a large number 
of fraternal and beneficiary societies, in all of 
which he is prominent. He is an Odd Fellow, 
a Knight of Pythias, member of the Encamp- 
ment, IT. R. K. P., Daughters of Rebecca, I. O. 



R. M., A. O. U. W., Tribe of Ben Hur, The 
Escenic Order and the Noble Order of Buffa- 
loes, being a charter member of Herd No. 1, 
and, as the doctor says, "last but not least, a 
Prince of the Orient." He is P. C. and Rep. 
of Dioscuri Lodge, No. 47, K. of P., and has held 
the office of Master of Finance since Janiuary, 
1893. Has been financier of Vincennes Lodge, 
No. 29, A. O. U. W., since January, 1893, keeper 
of the Wampum in I. O. R. M., since 1897. He 
also held the office of keeper of tribute of Mal- 
luch Court, T. B. H., one term, and is now drill 
master of the degree team of that court. 

Dr. and Mrs. Latshaw have two children liv- 
ing, Mrs. A. J. Firnhaber, of Evansville, and 
Frank H. Latshaw, of the city. 

McJimsey's Opera House. 

The Mc-Jimsey Opera House is the successor 
of Green's Opera House, which was first built 
in 1860 'by William 
Green. The building 
was burned in 1885 and 
rebuilt by Mr. Green 
the same year. The 
property was bought by 
J. T. McJimsey and 
name changed, in 18s.">. 
It has a seating capaci- 
ty of 1250^ including the 
balcony. The stage is 
large $nd commodious' 
being' 45x75 feet aOd fit- 
ted with every modern convenience for the 
proper staging of the drama and the conven- ; 
ient shifting of scenery. The auditorium is ele- 
gantly finished, decorated and furnished and its 
acoustic properties are all that could be de- 

The manager, Mr. Frank Greeru, is a veteran, 
having been for twenty years manager of this 
house, save during an interim of two years, 
when he was a resident of Indianapolis. Mr. 
<Jreen knows a good thing in the way of a 
dramatic organization when) he sees it and 
bears well in mind the demands of his patrons, 
so that Vincennes has no dearth of that which 
is really good in the way of entertainment. 
Careful of a well earned and well established 
ivputation for discernment and veracity in con- 
n"ction with the stage, Mr. Green does not reck- 
1 ssly advertise that as good which is in reality 
in different and the patrons of McJimsey The- 
ater have learned to rely with confidence on his 

recommendations. No city of its size in the 
United States enjoys a higher class of theatri- 
cal performances than does Vincennes. 

John Hack. 

John Hack was born in Hesse Darmstadt in 
1842. Came to this country with his parents 
when five years of age. 
settling at Adrian, 
Mich., where our sub- 
ject attended the 
public schools, and 
made his home until 
1861, when he enlisted 
in Company B, 47th 
Ohio infantry, and was 
mustered into the Unit- 
ed States service June 
15, 1861, and remained 
in! the service till 
Aug. 20, 1864. While engaged in running the 
rebel blockade at Vicksburg, May 3, 1863, Mr. 
Hack, with his command, was captured and 
lay in Libby prison until Oct. 14, when he was 
exchanged and rejoined his regiment two days 
before the battle of Missionary Ridge, in which 
he participated. From here his regiment went 
to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, winter- 
ing at Chattanooga. In the Atlanta campaign, 
which followed, Mr. Hack's command was in 
more than a dozen battles during the ensuing 
six months. He was mustered out before At- 
lanta, Aug. 2, 1864, after three years and two 
months' service. Returning to Adrian, Mich., 
he jwrent to work in a machine shop and fol- 
lowed his trade for a number of years. In 
1876 he came to Vincennes as foreman of the 
old O. & M. round house, where he remained 
eleven years. During this time he served four 
years, 1885-89, in the City Council, from the 
Fifth Ward. On the building of the water 
works Mr. Hack erected the machinery and 
served as engineer for a time. He then ac- 
cepted a position as foreman of the machine 
shops of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 
Railroad, at Trenton, Mo., where he remained 
eleven years, returning to Vincennies in October, 
1900, to embark in the oil business. He is pro- 
prietor and manager of the Vincennes Oil Co., 
which is doing a lively and growing business at 
wholesale and retail. 

Mr. Hack was married Oct. 24, 1864. to Miss 
Dell F. Cooli\v. of Adrian, Mich. They have 
two daughters and onte son. 



Frank Lieberman. 

Frank Lieberinan was born in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, July 1, 1854, and was educated in the 
schools of that city and those of Evansville, to 
which place his parents removed when) he was 
eleven years of age. He there learned the 
trade of bookbinder, which he followed for six 
or seven years. In 1875 he came to Vincennes 
and established himself in business as book- 
binder and stationer, first at 403 Main Street, 

soon after removing to 504 Main, where he 

remained eight years, removing to his present 
location, 500 Main, in 1884. In addition to 
stationery Mr. Lieberman deals in pictures and 
frames and kindred specialties. His bindery, 
which turns out a large variety of first-class' 
work, is often taxed to its utmost capacity tor 
meet the demands made upon it. 

Mr. Lieberman was married in 1881 to Miss? 
Sarah. Kapps, of Vincennes. They have one 
son living and one daughter dead. 

Wm. Davidson. 

William Davidson, booka and stationery, 425 
Main Street, was born in County Antrim, Ire- 
land, Oct. 24, 1833. After receiving a good edu- 
cation in the schools of that county he learned 
the jeweler's trade and with his widowed 
mother anid brother, when in his twentieth 
year, he came to America, locating in Darke, 
one of the Western Reserve counties, Ohio. He 
worked at his trade for a time at Sidney. Ohio, 
and then, after spending some time in travel, 
took an engagement with the firm, of Clayton 
& Jenkins, of Cincinnati, the largest wholesale 
jewelers in the West at that time. Here he re- 
mained two years and then came west on a call 
to Princeton, Ills., where he worked at his 
trade for about one year. From there he went 
to Oskaloosa, Iowa, arriving there by stage in 
March, 1856. Here he remained till February 
of the following year, when he decided to turn 
with the tide to Kansas. He embarked in busi- 
ness at Leavenworth, Kansas, where he had a 
flourishing trade for over seven years. Mr. 
Davidson relates that he became a citizen of 
that state, and there cast his first vote, which 
was done viva voce. In 1864 he disposed of 
his business there and, finding himself pos- 
sessed of a goodly sum of money, looked about 
for a time and finally decided to locate in Vin- 
cennes. On Oct. 24. 1864, the 31st anniversary 
of his birth, he bought a book and news business 

which had been established at 217 Main Street. 
After a short time he removed to No. 207 Main 
Street. Two or three years later he rented 
the store at No. 314 Main Street, where he con- 
tinued in busintess something like thirty years, 
until Jan. 1, 1901, when he removed to his pres- 
ent location, No. 425 Main, where he handles a 
general line of school and miscellaneous books, 
school supplies, blankbooks, stationery, etc., 
and in addition conducts a general news 
agency, handling the dailies and all the stand- 
ard magazines and periodicals. 

Mr. Davidson was married, Jan. 17, 1865, to 
Miss Mary E. Piquett, of Cincinnati, who de- 
parted this life on the 2d day of October, 1901, 
leaving two daughters. 

George E. Greene, Mayor. 

George E. Greene, mayor of the city, was born 
and reared in Vincennes. His father, George 
E. Greene, bought the 
Western Sun in 1854, 
and continued to pub- 
lish it until his death, in 
1870. Mr. Greene at- 
tended the public 
schools and also St. 
John's College, Dayton. 
Ohio, and Cecilian Col- 
lege, near Elizabeth- 
town, Ky. He entered 
the office of the "Sun" 
in 1873, where he 

learned the trade of compositor, which he fol- 
lowed in Vincennes, varying it with reportorial 
and editorial work, until 1882, when he accepted 
a position on the Courier-Journal of Louisville. 
Ky. Here he remained one year. Returning 
to Vincennes he was engaged in newspaper 
work until 1886,- when! he was elected city 
clerk, and to this office he was twice re-elected. 
In 1894 Mr. Greene was elected mayor of the 
City of Vincennes and re-elected in 1898, being 
now in the eighth year of his service as mayor. 
Mr. Greene is an able man and has made a con- 
servative an'd safe chief magistrate, while at 
all times ready to do whatever may be done 
for the advancement of the interests of the city. 



Photo by Shores 

Thomas Eastham, Treasurer. 

Thomas Eastham was born in Nelson County, 
Ky., February 25, 1835. After leaving the pub- 
lic schools of Bardstown he attended 
St. Joseph College, of the same place. 
His father was engaged in the stage 
business, conducting a line from Louis- 
ville to St. Louis, via Vincennes, and 
after leaving school our subject identi- 
fied his interests with those of his 
father. Vtacennes being the half-way 
point and therefore a convenient one 
for headquarters, they removed to this 
place in 1851. They conducted a daily 
line, one coach arriving, one departing 
every twenty-four hours from each end 
of the line. The time to St. Louis was 
thirty-six hours, frequent changes of 
horses being made at relays of ten or 
twelve miles each, along the route. 
This business was continued till 1838, 
when the O. & M. Railroad going into 
operation rendered it unprofitable. It 
required no less than 300 horses to 
meet the demands of the line. Messrs. 
Eastham & Son subsequently conduct- 
ed a livery business for a- time and 
then embarked in the lumber business, 
having large saw and planing mills to 
which was later added a furniture 
factory. Mr. Isaac N. Eastham, fath- 
er of our subject aind senior member 
of the firm, dying in 1868, the latter 
continued the business some thirteen 
years longer, till 1891, when it was dis- 

and at McKendree College, of Lebanon, 111. He 
became a teacher and taught in the schools of 
Illinois for a period of four years, after which 

continued and property sold to the O. & M. 
Railroad, whose freight depot was erected on 
its site. 

Mr. Eastham then retired to 'his farm near 
the city, where he remained till the year 1896. 
In the spring of 1897 he was elected treasurer 
of the city, which office lie still holds and to 
which he has been renominated by the Demo- 
cratic Party in the pending campaign. 

Mr. Eastham was married in 1801 to Miss 
Jane Burnet, of Vincennes. They have four 

Daniel Bonner, President Met. Police Bd. 

Daniel L. Bonner was born at Montfort, 
Grant County, Wisconsin, March 12, 1856. He 
was educated in the public schools of Carlyle, 
Illinois, to which place his father had removed, 

CITY HALL-Built J886, Fourth and Main 

he came to Vincennes and was for one year 
book-keeper at the Atlas Mills. He was then 
book-keeper five years for E. Bierhaus & Sons, 
wholesale grocers, subsequently traveling one 
year for the same firm. He then became a 
traveling salesman for Hulman & Co., import- 
ers and jobbers, of Terre Haute, and has since 
continued in that connection. He is also large- 
ly engaged in the general merchandise busi- 
ness, owning and conducting a store at Decker, 
Knox County, and another at Hazelton, Gibson 
County, Indiana. 

Mr. Bonner has always been a staunch and 
uncompromising Republican in politics and a 
worker in behalf of the party principles. He 
has on several occasions been pressed forward 
by his frienids for high political preferment, be- 
ing strongly endorsed for Bank Examiner in 



1896, and in 1898 came within one and one-half 
votes of being the Republican nominee for Con- 
gress, Judge Gardner, of Washington, having 
won the nomination by that narrow margin. 
His merit was in some degree recognized by 

<Gov. Durbin. who in 1901 appointed him metro- 
politan police commissioner for three years. 
On the organization of the board Mr. Bonner 
was elected chairman and has continued to 
hold that position to the present time. 

Mr. Bonner was married in 1877 to Miss Ara- 
tine Ludington. of Cleveland. Ohio. They have 
one son, Leonard, who is manager of the Hazel- 
ton store, and two daughters. Miss Anne Lucile, 
now in college, and Miss Clara Bernice, at 

(For biographies of Messrs. Gardner and Tin- 
dolph, the other members of the board, see un- 
der business heads elsewhere.) 

Thomas L Robertson, late Capt. Police. 

Thos. Robertson was born in Vincennes, Nov. 
4, 1854, and attended the schools of this city. 
After leaving school he worked for a time on 
a farm. He then learned the printer's trade, 
working at the case for some nine years. In 
1888 he became riding deputy sheriff under 
Dr. McDowell. This position he resigned after 
two years to become deputy city marshal under 
Frank Johnson, in November. 1890. This posi 
tion he filled most acceptably for over seven 
years, when he was. in 1898. elected to the of- 

flrst term in this office when, by the passage 
of the metropolitan police law, the office was 
abolished and he was by the commissioners 
made captain on the new force, May 1, 1901. 
Captain Robertson has a clean record as a po- 
lice officer, being sober, active, fearless and ef- 
ficient, and deserves well at the hands of the 
appointing power. The captain is the regular 
Democratic nominee for city clerk in the ensu- 
ing May election. 

Captain Robertson was married in 1880 to 
Miss Emma Sellers. They have three daugh- 

(Since the above was written, Captain Rob- 
ertson has resigned the captaincy and is making 
the race for city clerk with strong prospects of 

Ayers J. Taylor. 

Ayers J. Taylor was born in Jassamine Coun- 
ty, Kentucky, Oct. 5, 1849. His father, who 
was a slave-holder, dis- 
posed of his slaves and 
other property and re- 
moved to Boone Coun- 
ty, Indiana, in 1854, and 
here the son was reared 
and educated. In 1863, 
at the age of 14 years, 
he enlisted in the 116th 
Indiana Volunteers and 
served thence to the 
close of the war of the 
Rebellion, having twice 
re-enlisted, and seeing some hard service. His 
first active service was in the campaign for the 
repulsion of Morgan from Indiana. After the 
war Mr. Taylor was for nineteen years con- 
nected with a circus and with it visited every 
section of the union. He came to Vincennes in 
1890. After tending bar for some years he 
embarked in saloon 1 business for himself in 
1895. In 1896 Mr. Taylor became an independ- 
ent candidate for member of the City Council 
from the First Ward, but was defeated by a 
small plurality. In 1898 he was the regular 
Democratic nominee by almost two to one ma- 
jority, and was elected by a majority of thirty- 
eight votes in the election a few weeks later, 
im a ward that had been very close in previous 
elections. In the council Mr. Taylor is always 
active, energetic and eloquent in advocacy of 
measures which meet his approval, and often 

fice of marshal. He was in the midst of his A takes the initiative in important legislation. 



Mr. Taylor was married in 1880 to Miss Hul- 
da Carr, of Providence, R. I. 

Jere Hershey, City Engineer. 

Jere Hershey was born in Martinsburg, Pa., 
Oct. 15, 1839. He moved with his parents to 
Wabash County, Illinois, when a small boy, 
and received his edu- 
cation in the schools of 
that county. For ten 
years Mr. Hershey 
taught in the schools of 
Wabash and Lawrence 
Counties 111., and Knox 
County, Ind., coming 
to Vincennes in 1865. 
He was one year with 
Chas. S. Kabler, civil 
engineer, and then be- 
came county surveyor 
for one year. In May, 1871, he. was elected 
city engineer and has held the office continuous- 
ly since that date, having been many times re- 
.elected. His official services have given emi- 
nent satisfaction. 

Mr. Hershey was in 1863 married to Miss 
Martha J. Jackmam, of St. Francisville, 111. 
They have one son living, Mr. Joseph B. Her- 
slit'V, civil engineer, Vimcennes, and who was 
for six years county surveyor of Kuox County. 

Frank Horsting, Trustee. 

Frank Horsting was born at Coefield, near 
Munster, Westphalia, Prussia, January 31, 1831. 
He came to this coun- 
try with his parents 
when fourteen years of 
age. They took ship at 
the port of Bremer- 
haven in a sailing ves- 
sel and were exactly 
eight months on the 
sea, arriving at the port 
of New Orleans. Soon 
after landing they came 
to Vincennes, where 
he has since resided. 
His father located on a farm near the city and 
Frank worked ?t various occupations, including 
six months 5m a tan yard conducted by John C. 
Holland. He finally learned the trade of shoe- 
maker, which he followed for eighteen years. 

He then embarked in saw mill business on the- 
river front at the site of Harrison Park in Vin- 
cennes. This he continued for some years and 
then formed a partnership in the grocery busi- 
ness with Chas. G. Mathesie, under the firm 
name of Mathesie fc Horsting. They were lo- 
cated at 205 Main Street. After about two and 
one-half years, Mr. Horsting bought his part- 
ner's interest. He continued the business for 
about seven years till 1884, when he sold the 
grocery and went into boot and shoe business, 
which he continued for two years. In 1886 Mr. 
Horsting was elected trustee of Vincennes 
Township and served four years in this capaci- 
ty. He then engaged in the lumber business, 
which he conducted for four years. At the end, 
-of that time he closed this out and became a 
salesman in the grocery store of John Burke, 
and after the death of Mr. Burke he managed 
the store for^Vlrs. Burke until it was sold to 
Wm. Tromley in 1900. In November, 1900, Mr. 
Horsting was again elected trustee of Vin- 
cennes Township, the duties of which office 
now occupy his time and attention. 

Mr. Horsting was married in 1856 to Miss 
Mary A Knirihn. They have nine children liv- 
ing and two dead. 

Edward Weisert, J. P. 

Edward Weisert was born in kingdom of 
Wurtemberg, Germany, July 21, 1839. He wa 
educated at Heilbronn 
Government School. 
Came to this country 
with two sisters, in 
1857, when 18 years of 
age. Landing in New 
York, they were met by 
Charles M. Weisert, a 
brother, who had pre- 
ceded them and who- 
was already located in 
Vincennea, where they 
soon after joined him. 

After about a month Edward departed for New 
Orleans. La., where he found employment and' 
where he remained until the capture of the citj 
by the government forces in 1863. Here he 
was a member of the French Legion, a home- 
guard organized for the protection of the city 
in case of a negro uprising. Colonel Reauch- 
ereaux. After the capitulation of New Or- 
leans, Mr. Wt'isert took ship for New York, 
but the vessel was pressed into service of the- 



government as a dispatch boat and sent to Key 
West and other points, greatly extending the 
voyage. Finally reaching New York, he re- 
mained there three years, two of which were 
spent in the Cooper Institute. He then spent 
one year in the oil regions of Pennsylvania as 
superintendent of wells for a large New York 
oil company. In 18(30 he returned to Vincennes, 
where he has since resided. He was engaged 
in general merchandise and lumber business; 
was also largely interested in agriculture, own- 
ing and conducting four farms. lu 1887 Mr. 
Weisert engaged in real estate and loans, which 
business he has followed to the present time. 
In the summer of 1901 he was appointed a jus- 
tice of the peace. 

Mr. Weisert was in 18(37 married to Miss Eliz- 
abeth Gerard, of New Orleans, La., who de- 
parted this life Feb. 2(5, 1901. They had ten 
children, of whom seven are living. 

E. A. Baecher, J. P. 

Engelbert A. Baecher was born in Bavaria, 
June 22, 1845, and educated at the seminary of 
Eichstaedt, a government school, a certificate 
of graduation from which entitled the holder to 
a position in the government service for life. 

Being graduated at the age of 18 years, he en- 
tered the government service, but after one and 
a half years' service decided to come to Amer- 
ica. Reaching our hospitable shores in 1865, 
he decided to take a course of instruction in one 

of our schools, and accordingly entered St. Vin- 
cent's College, Pennsylvania, where he passed 
the first year's work and was graduated in 
18(37. He taught three years in the schools of 
York, Pa., coming thence to Louisville, Ky., 
where he was principal of the Third Ward 
school for six years. From Louisville Mr. 
Baecher came to Vinc-ennes and was for five 
years principal of the German Catholic schools. 
Was then for one season superintendent for the 
Western Mining Co. In 1881 Professor Baecher 
erected the brick store at the corner of Sixth 
and Main Streets, adding 'the remainder of 
Baecher Block in 1895. 

Prof. Boecher was editor and proprietor of the 
Vincennes Post, published in both English and 
German, from 1892 to 1898. 

Feb. 10, 1899, Prof. Boecher was appointed 
justice of the peace, an office which he h%s con- 
tinued to fill most satisfactorily to the present 
time. He has made a record which has never 
been equaled in the county and probably not In 
the state. Of more than 1,300 cases heard and 
decided in his court, the squire has the satis- 
faction of knowing there have been biit sixteen 
appeals from his decisions and of the cases ap- 
pealed, not one has been reversed in the higher 

In the midst of a very busy life Squire 
Baecher has found time to cultivate a musical 
talent far above the average. He has produced 
more than 200 musical compositions, both vocal 
and instrumental, of a high order of merit. 

Mr. Baecher was married at York, Pa., to 
Miss Mary E. Pheffer, on the 14th day of 
August, 1871, and they celebrated their thirtieth 
anniversary (or as the squire jocosely says, "the 
thirty years' war") in August, 1901. They have 
four sons and two daughters. 

Louis C. Summit, Sheriff. 

Louis C. Summit, sheriff of Knox County, was 
born in this county Sept. 19, 1801. Educated in 
the schools of the county, he remained on 
the farm on which he was born and 
reared, having bought the interests of 
the other heirs after his father's death, con- 
ducting the business till the year 1898. when ho 
bought the Green livery stable on Broadway, 
between) First and Second Streets, and re- 
moved to the city. This he conducted till 1000. 



The campaign for the Democratic nomination 
for the shrievalty in the spring of 1900 was 
hotly contested, there being no less than six 
candidates in the field. 
Mr. Summit was nom- 
inated by a good plural- 
ity and was duly elect- 
ed to the office in No- 
vember following. He 
has always been a 
stanch Democrat of the 
Jacksonian type. So 
ardent is his admira- 
tion of "Old Hickory" 
that his first son was 
named for the doughty 
old hero. 

Mr. Summit was married Nov. 16, 1887, to 
Miss Mattie Traylor, of Petersburg. They have 
two children. 

James F. Lewis, County Clerk. 

James F. Lewis was born in Pauquier Coun- 
ty, Virginia, July 29, 1853. When he was 12 
years of age he took up 
his residence with a sis- 
ter in St. Louis and re- 
ceived the principal 
part of his education in 
the schools of that city. 
After leaving sc'hool 
Mr. Lewis learned tele- 
graphy, which he fol- 
lowed, for fifteen years, 
largely on the L., E. & 
St. L. Railroad, of 
which he became cash- 
ier and paymaster. This position he resigned 
in 1882 and became book-keeper for Joseph 
Pollock, of the Broadway Mills, in Vincennes. 
After Mr. Pollock's death, Mr. Lewis succeeded 
to a partnership in the business, the firm being 
composed of Dawsou Blackmore. of Cincinnati; 
Thomas Borrowman. of Vincennes: J. C. Me 
Kinzie, of Montgomery, Ala., and Mr. Lewis, 
under the firm name of Blackmore & Co. In 
18!)2 Mr. Lewis retired from the mill, but con- 
tinued to deal in 1 grain till in February, 1899, 
when he entered upon the duties of the office 
of clerk of Knox County, to which he had been 
elected in November. 1898. Mr. Lewis was 
married. Feb. 3, 1873, to Miss Elizabeth Pol- 
lock, of Vincennes. They have one son, Harry 

II. Lewis, of the firm of Daily & Lewis, attor- 

James D. Williams, Auditor. 

James D. Williams was born on a farm in 
Harrison Township, Kn>ox County, Aug. 25, 
1863. After leaving the 
public schools he at- 
tended Purdue Univer- 
sity for several years, 
taking a special course. 
He engaged :n farming, 
which he has continued 
to the present time, 
though, of course, since 
his election to office, he 
has resided in the citf. 
Mr. Williams is a 
breeder of short-horn 

cattle and Poland China hogs and has s,qme of 
the highest prize winners in the United States. 
Mr. Williams has always been a staa^i-and 
consistent Democrat. He is a grand sqn of 
Hon. James D. Williams, who was governor of 
the state, 1877-1891, dying just before /the, ex- 
piration of his term of office. 

Mr. Williams was married in September, ^885, 
to Miss Martha A. Nicholson, of Steen Bpwn- 
ship, Kuox County. They have five sons and 
one daughter. 

Charles A. Weisert, Treasurer.; 

Charles A. Weisert was born in Vincennes on 
the seventh day of January, 1860. He was 
educated in the city 
schools of Vincenues 
and was graduated 
from the St. Louis Uni- 
versity in June, 1878. 
He was first employed 
as book-keeper for his 
father, Mr. C. A. Weis- 
ert, wholesale grocer 
and pork packer. After 
the death of the latter, 
in 1880, lie became time- 
keeper for constructors 

of Toledo, Cincinnati and St. Louis,, and later 
for the Chicago, Springfield & St. Louis Rail- 
road. Subsequently for ten months he was en- 
gaged on the coast and geodetic siii'vey, in the 
employ of the united States' . government. 
The appropriation for this work having been 
exhausted and the work ceasing. Mr. Weisert 



turned his attention to the business of expert 
book-keeper and accountant. In November, 
1891, he was appointed deputy auditor of Knox 
County, under C. H. DeBolt, which position he 
held for four years. During the year 1896 Mr. 
Weisert was clerk of the Democratic State Cen- 
tral Committee, to the duties of which position 
he devoted almost his entire time. On the 
election of W. H. Vollmer to the treasurership, 
in 1896, Mr. Weisert was made deputy treas- 
urer of Knox County, wliich position he held 
until he succeeded to the office of treasurer, to 
which he was chosen at tke election of 1900. 

Mr. SVeisert was married, Oct. 17, 1893, to 
Miss Julia O'Daniel, of Owensboro, Ky. They 
have one son. 

Dr. Henry W. Held, Coroner. 

Dr. Henry W. Held, coroner of Knox County, 
was bora in Vincennes, July 30, .1870. He was 
educated in the schools 
of the city and attended 
Ohio Medical College, of 
Cincinnati, from which 
he was graduated in 
1894, entering on the 
practice in Vincennes 
soon thereafter. Dr. 
Held is a Democrat in 
politics and was elected 
coroner on the Demo- 
cratic ticket in 1898 and 
re-elected in 1900. 
Dr. Held was married in June, 1895, to Miss 
Amelia Buschiflg, of Vincennes. They have one 

Peter Phillippe, Superintendent Schools. 

Peter Pbillippe, county superintendent of 
schools, was born on a farm near Bicknell, 
Knox County, March 6, 
1863. Was principally 
educated In the schools 
of Bickn'ell. Became a 
teacher in the schools 
of Knox County, and 
followed that occupa- 
tion for a period of 
eight years. He was 
elected superintendent 
of schools in June, 1891, 
and re-elected in 1899, 
having held over in 
1895 and '07. bv failure of the board to elect. 

Mr. Phillippe is a thorough and accomplished 
educator and has devoted his time and talents 
to the schools of the county, to their great ad- 

Mr. Philippe was married, May 15, 1897, to 
Miss Lettie A. Heuring. They have tive 

John M. Stork, Assessor. 

John M . Stork was born in Knoz County, near 
Petersburg, Sept 12, 1863. He attended school 
in Petersburg, and also attended the Central 
Normal School at Dan- 
ville. He became a 
teacher in the schools 
of Knox County and 
was so engaged for six 
years. In 1896, Mr. 
Stork was elected as- 
sessor, and came to the 
city the following 
spring to enter upon 
the discharge of his of- 
ficial duties. In June, 
1898, Mr. Stork bought 
the interest of Robert Mayfield in the abstract 
business of Pennington and Mayfield, and has 
since been actively connected therewith. 

Mr. Stork was married, Se^t. 13, 1893, to Miss 
Anna Garner, of Keensburg, 111. They have 
three children. 

Frank P. Emison, Recorder. 

Frank P. Em\son was born< May 20, 1864, and 
reared on a farm in Palmyra Township, Knox 
County, Ind., and was 
educated in the schools 
of that township and at 
Vincennes University. 
On leaving school. Mr. 
Emison returned to the 
farm, wliere he con- 
tinued to reside until 
after his election to the 
office of recorder of 
deeds, in 1898. Mr. 
Emison has always 
been a consistent advo- 
cate of the doctrines of Democracy and a work- 
er in the councils of the party, and as a reward 
for his services was. as already intimated, 
elected to the office of recorder of Knox Coun- 
tv in 1898. an office whose duties he has dls- 


charged to the entire satisfaction of his consti- 
tuents of all parties. 

Mr. Emisou was, in 1894, married to Miss 
Mattie Root, of Vincennes, but a happy life of 
four years was rudely broken wfren' death 
claimed Mrs. Emison on the 28th day of May, 

John E. Rogers, Surveyor. 

John E. Rogers, surveyor of Knox County, 
was born in Rush County, Ind., April 27, 1860. 
When he was eight years of age his parents re- 
moved to Edwardsport, 
where he attended the 
public schools. He also 
attended the high 
school of Washington, 
Ind. He subsequently 
attended the Normal 
School at Danville, Ind., 
taking a thorough teach- 
er's course. Mr. Rog- 
ers became a teacher in 
the schools of the 
county, teaching six- 
teen terms. In 1895 he embarked in the cloth- 
ing business, which he continued till elected 
surveyor in 1898. In his early youth Mr. Rog- 
ers had a fondness for mathematics and took 
up the study of surveying when 14 years of 
age, devoting more or less time to it during the 
years spent in the school room. 

Mr. Rogers was married in 1893 to Miss Lula 
Hill, of Lawrence County, Illinois. They have 
two children. 

W. H. Pennington, County Attorney. 

William H. Pennington was born in Palmyra 
Township, Knox County, Ind., June 18, 1855. 
He was educated in the schools of Vincennes 
and in the State Normal School at Terre Haute. 
He taught school for ten years in Knox County, 
devoting his leisure time to reading law un- 
der direction of Cobb & Cobb. He was elected 
county superintendent of schools in 1883, and 
served four years in that capacity. In 1887 
Mr. Pennington embarked with E. B. Milam in 
a book and stationery business, under the firm 
name of Milam & Pennington. This he dis- 
posed of at the end of two years, and in "1892 
entered on the 1 practice of law, which he has 
continued to the present time, combining with 
it an abstract business, which has reached large 
proportions. Mr. Pennington has always been 

a Democrat, and since 1890 has been chairman 
of the County Central Committee of his party. 
He has served as county attorney since 1897. 
Mr. Penuingtpn was married Aug. 21, 1880, to 
Miss Annie C. Shively, of Edwardsport, Ind. 
They have three children. 

Frederick Samonial, President Board of 

Fred Samoniel was bom in Floyd Co., Ind. r 
Dec. 31, 1839. When Fred was seven yeirs or 
of age his father re- 
moved ' to Louisville, 
where he grew to man- 
hood and where he was 
educated. He learned 
the trade of harness 
maker which he follow- 
ed for some years. In 
the fall of 1858 he re- 
moved with his father 
to Mt. Carmel, ill., 
where his father estab- 
lished a tannery. Fred 

didn't take kindly to the tannery amd accord- 
ingly followed various occupations for some 
years, including stage driving for more than 
a year. Subsequently he spent some time in 
Evansville, ooming to Vincennes in 1863. His 
first employment here was as a teamster, 
which occupation he followed for about a 
year. He then for about the same length of 
time drove cattle for a firm of government 
beef contractors. He was" then employed as 
driver for 1 the Adams Express Co. for a year 
and by the American Express Co. for about 
the same time. In 1870 he became superin- 
tendent of teams for Frank Fay, who did a 
general transfer business. This position he 
held for five years. In 1876 he established 
himself in the transfer business in which he 
has since been engaged. In 1882 he was elect- 
ed trustee of Vincennes township and ^e-elect- 
ed in 1884, serving till 1887. In that year he 
embarked in the coal business in which hy is 
still engaged. In 1894 he was elected county 
commissioner and has served continuously 
since that time. Mr. Samoniel has always been 
a consistent Democrat. He is a. member of the 
Catholic Church. 

Mr. Samoniel was, on February 13, 1873, mar- 
ried to Miss Bridget Quinn. They have four 



Henry Frederick, Commissioner. 

Henry Frederick was born Oct. 2, 1837, in 
Washington township, Knox County, Indiana, 
where he attended the public schools. He re- 
mained under the parental root' until twenty- 
three years of age, when he bought land nar 
his father's farm and embarked in business for 
himself. On this farm he continued to reside 
until 1895, when he returned to Bruceville, 
where he now resides. Mr. Frederick was a 
successful farmer and succeeded in providing 
a comfortable competency for his declining 
years. He was elected County Commissioner 
in 1898 and re-elected in 1900. He had pre- 
viously served as trustee of Washington town- 

Mr. Frederick was married, in 1861, to Miss 
Mary E. Hollingsworth, who died in 1894. He 
has two children. 

John W. McGowen. Commissioner. 

John W. McGowen was born in Gibson Coun- 
ty, Ind., December 10, 1849. His father became 
a citizen of Knox County and young John at- 
tended the public schools of this county. His 
parents both dying when he was quite small, 
he was reared an orphan among strangers. 
But John had in him the metal that makes a 
way for its possessor, and, notwithstanding 
the difficulties under which he labored he was 
able in 1877 to buy a farm in Johnson Town- 
ship, on which he has since resided, making a 
comfortable living. In 1890 he was elected 
trustee of Johnson Township and held that of- 
fice for five years. He was elected County 
Commissioner iai 1898. He has always been a 
Democrat in politics. 

Mr. McGowen was married in 1877 to Miss 
Ella G. Berdlow. They have four children. 


Daily and Weekly Commercial. 

The Vinceimes Weekly - Commercial was 
established in 1878 by S. F. Horrall & Sons, 
formerly of Washington, Irid., who moved here 
and established a republican newspaper. The 
Commercial was quite a success from the start, 
and in 1880 the Horralla established the Daily 

This paper had an active career during the 
presidential campaign in 1880. In 1881 the 
entire plant was sold to the Commercial Print- 
ing Co., a stock company organized of the lead- 
ing republicans of Knox County, and the 
Messrs. Horrall retired from the field. 

The new company took charge in February, 
1881, and continued the publication of the Com- 
mercial until April, 1882, when the plant was 
sold to Thomas H. Adams, the present proprie- 
tor, who has been sole owner and publisher 
ever since. 

The Commercial is issued in three editions, 
Daily, Weekly and Sunday. Shortly after Mr. 
Adams as'sumed control, the ; Sunday edition 
was started and has been in successful opera- 
tion since. 

The Commercial is recognized by the frater- 
nity everywhere as one of the most successful 
county seat newspapers in Indiana. It has a 
good, substantial circulation, and is the Repub- 
lican organ of Knox County. 

There have been republican newspapers pub- 
lished in Vincennes at various times for over 
a half a century. During the war the repub- 
lican organ was the Vincennes Daily Gazette. 
This paper was published for a great many 
years until Jts proprietors sold it to those who 
changed its name and afterwards published it 
as an independent newspaper. 

In the 70s the republicans were without an 
organ for several years, until the establishing 
of the Vincennes Commercial in 1880 by Mr. 
Horrall. Since that time the republicans have 
had in the Commercial an active, energetic and 
aggressive organ. 

Thomas H. Adams. 

Thomas Henry Adams, publisher and pro- 
prietor of the Vincennes Daily and Weekly 
Commercial and post- 
master of Vincennes, 
was born at the little 
town of Grand Rapids, 
on the Auglaize River, 
in Paulding County, 
Ohio, July 19, 1860. His 
father, Rev. Josiah Ad- 
ams, was of English 
birth and was in the 
forties married to Miss 
Elizabeth Wykes, of 
land, soon afterwards coming to America. 



Rev. Adams became a member of the Northern 
Ohio M. E. Conference and was engaged in the 
ministerial work in the bounds of this confer- 
eiice at the date of his death, in 1865. 

Thomas H.. on account of the limited re- 
sources of tiie family, was early compelled to 
leave school and seek employment to assist }n 
the support of his widowed mother. He en- 
tered a printing office, where a natural aptitude 
.and that energy and pluck which have charac- 
terized him in later life and enabled him to 
-triumph over difficulties that would have con- 
quered a less resolute spirit, came to his assist- 
.ance and he advanced rapidly in his calling. 
At the age of sixteen he published a small 
weekly paper at the town of Edwardsport, in 
Knox County Ind. Later he became editor and 
publisher of the Lancaster Free Press and Re- 
publican, at Lancaster, Ohio. Here he met 
with reasonable success and, in 1882, purchased 
the Vincennes Daily and Weekly Commercial, 
becoming a resident of the city. Though its 
field in the beginning was a liimted one and its 
.struggle for an existence in a democratic 
stronghold was a hard one, he was equal to the 
occasion, and now has one of the best news- 
paper properties in the state. 

In addition to his newspaper, Mr. Adams is 
largely interested in a number of other busi- 
ness enterprises of. considerable magnitude, in- 
cluding a popular proprietary medicine line. He 
has for a number of years been a member of 
the board of trustees of Vincenrnes University 
.and is a trustee of the First M. E. Church of 
the city; was during the year 1901-2 president 
of the Pastime Club, the leading club of the 

Though always active in politics and a lead- 
ing member of the local committees, and at 
different times of the state committees, he has 
never been a seeker after political preferment, 
and has never held any public office until ap- 
pointed postmaster by President McKinley, in 
1897. He was in 1901 reappointed and con- 
tinues to hold that office. He was chairman of 
the Republican Congressional Committee of 
the Second District in 1888 and 1890. He was 
also a member of the advisory board of -the Re- 
publican State Committee in 1898 and 1900. 

Mr. Adams was, in October, 1879, married to 
Miss Irene, daughter of J. Thornton Willis, of 
Knox County. They have one son, Chester 
TV., who will this year be graduated from Cul- 

ver Military Academy, and one daughter, Miss 

Daily and Weekly Sun. 

The Western Sun proudly dates its origin 
back' to the early days of the 19th century, 
when, in 1804, Elihu Stout, a young man of 
energy and capability, transported an outfit on 
pack mules from Frankfort, Ky., and on July 
4, of that year, issued his first edition of the 
"Indiana Gazette." Mr. Stout in 1807 lost his 
plant by fire and the paper was for a short time 
suspended, but, a new plant 'having been pro- 
cured,, it again appeared on the fourth of July, 
1807, as the "Western Sum" Mr. Stout's con- 
nection with the paper continued, with the ex- 
ception of one year, until 1845, when it was 
sold to John R. Jones, Mr. Jones and his 
brother William continued the publication till 
1849, wnen it was for a time suspended. It 
was resuscitated under the name of "Jones' 
Vinceunes Sentinel." It soon afterward be- 
came the "Indiana Patriot, in the hands of 
James J. Mayes. Later it again changed own- 
ers and became the "Vincennes Courant." In 
1856 the plant was- purchased by George E. 
Greene, a practical newspaper man, who re- 
vived the original name and soon placejd it on 
a paying basis and continued its publication 
till his deatb, in 1870. ( In that year, by admin- 
istrator's sale, the paper became the property 
of Gen. R. C. Kise, who, with Dr. Andrew J. 
Thomas, continued its publication till tihe death 
of Gen. Kise, in 1873, when it passed into the 
hands of Dr. Alfred Paton, by whom, three 
years later, it was sold to Royal E. Purcell, 
who has since owned and conducted it with 
marked success. The Daily Edition of the Sun 
was established by Mr. Purcell in 1879. The 
Western Sun- is a seven-column, eight-page 
paper and the daily a seven-column, four-page 
paper. It occupies a three-story brick building 
at 119 Main Street, owned by the proprietor. 

Royal E. Purcell. . 

Royal E. Purcell was born in Knox County, 
Ind., July 26, 1849, both parents likewise being 
natives of this county, his grand-parents having 
immigrated from Virginia. After leaving the 
public schools Mr. Purcell taught in the schools 
of the county for a time and afterwards attend- 
ed Hanover College, from which school he was 
graduated in the year 1874. taking the degree 
B. Sc., receiving the degree of A. M. in 1883. 


He studied law for a time, but his purchase 
of the Western Sun in 1876 led him into the 
journalistic profession, so that he has since de- 
voted his entire time to that line of work and 
with eminent success. Publishing a leading 
organ of his party (Democratic), Mr. Purcell 
has of necessity been' high in its councils and 
was in 1898 elected to the state senate. In the 
senate he was an untiring worker and was 
largely instrumental in securing tne passage of 

a number of bills, among them the bill to re- 
imburse the Vincennes University for funds 
diverted from it to state uses. The bill was, 
however, subsequently vetoed by Governor 
Mount, was again introduced at the session of 
1900 and passed the Senate but failed in the 

Mr. Purcell was a member of the City Board 
of Education, 1891-3, and is a member of the 
Board of Trustees of Vincennes University, 
also of Hanover College. He was in 1883 a 
member of the World's Fair Board for Indiana. 
He was chosen a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the National Editorial Association, 
and president of the Indiana Editorial Asso- 
ciation in 1899. He was postmaster at Vin- 
cennes in 1893-97. 

Mr. Purcell has been twice married: first to 
Miss Mary Pidgeon, of the cuy, who died in 
1880. In December, 1886, he was married to 
Miss Georgie Wise, of the city. They have 
five children. 

W. B. Purcell. 

William B. Purcell, son of William and 
Sophia (Beckes) Purcell, was born in Knox 
County. He attended, 
the common schools 
during winter and 
worked on the farm 
during summer months. 
Later he taught school. 
He was married to- 
Miss Mary D. McCord, 
of Vincennes, in Au- 
gust, 1874. He located 
on a farm and con- 
tinued with marked 
success in this business 

till 1886, when he moved to Vincennes to ac- 
cept the business management of the Vincennes 
"Sun," a position he still retains. Mrs. Purcell 
died July 24, 189 1. Mr. Purcell's family con- 
sists of four daughters, Misses Mabel, Robert- 
ine, Delia anld Mary. Two children died in 

Aside from his duties in the management of 
a newspaper, Mr. Purcell is extensively en- 
gaged in farming, owns a large area of fine 
farming land in the vicinity of this city and 
drives out weekly to look after his landed in- 
terests, all of which he manages in a practical 
and profitable way. 

Daily and Weekly Capital. 

The Vincennes Weekly "Capital" was estab- 
lished by George M. Cook in the spring of 1899, 
its first edition bearing date February 24, and 
was issued from 207 Main Street. Early in 
the following year Mr. Cook formed a stock 
company with an authorized capital of ten 
thousand dollars and interesting a number of 
prominent citizens of the county, began the 
publication of the Daily "Capital," an evening 
paper, of which the first edition was issued on 
the 26th of February, 1900. The capital had 
much to contend with m making Its way into 
the esteem of the people of Vincetfnes, but the 
manager, Mr. Cook, succeeded in placing his 
paper on n. sure fixating, where it is a recog- 
nized force in the business affairs of the city 
and countj. On the fifth of March the Capital 
became the property of a company composed 
of Perry D. Green, Frank W. Curtis and John 
R. Du Kate, who have been connected with it 
in editorial and reportorical capacities, Mr. 
Curtis since its inception. 



Perry D. Green. 

Perry D. Green was born in Vincennes, Ind., 
Aug. 2, 1876, and was educated . in the Vin- 
cennes University. Inl 1894 he-removed to In- 
dianapolis and in 1895 accepted a position in 
the clerical department of the Western Union 

Telegraph Company. In this department he 
held several positions. Mr. Green resigned 
July G, 1901, and two days later associated him- 
self with the Vincennes Capital. He is a son 
of Mr. and Mrs. John L. Green- and belongs to 
a family that is well' known throughout the 
southern part of the state. 


The names of the r.ewsfratherel*8 al>ovp, reading from left to right, be.irinning at top of cut. are as fol- 
lows: A. B. Brouilette, Commercial; J. R. DuKate. Percy D. Green, Capital; Joseph I. Mdentzer, Sun; 
Frank W. Curtis, Capital; George IMelj Democrat; L. V. Tucker, Sun; R. F. Weenis, Commercial. 

Within a few weeks after the above cut was made radical changes in the relations of a number of the 
young men to their papers have occurred. Messrs. Curtis, Green and DuKate ha\'e become proprietors 
of the Capital, and Messrs. Weems. Tucker and Piel have severed their connection with their 'papers. Mr. 
\Veems had beeu 19 years with the Commercial, and Mr. Tucker a number of years with the Sun. 



Frank W. Curtis. 

Frank W. Curtis was born Sept. 8, 1868, at 
Albion, 111., and after graduation from High 
School served apprenticeship in' the Albion 
Journal office; later was employed as foreman 
on the Alt Veruon Register, and for one year 
managed the publication of the News at 
Lawrenceville, 111. He became a resident of 
Vincennes in 1899. and has served as city edi- 
tor of Daily Capital since its first number. In 
1898 was married to Miss Flora Andrus, a tal- 
ented musician and teacher, of Mt. Carmel. 
Airs. Curtis has been teacher in the free public 
kindergarten ever since its establishment in 

Air. and Airs. Curtis are active members of 
the Presbyterian Church and because of their 
musical talent are prominent in the club and 
social circles of the city. 

John Ralph DuKate. 

John Ralph Du Kate was born in Wheatland, 
Ind., March 24, 1881, and is a son of Dr. John 
B. Du Kato, a prominent physician, who re- 
moved to Vtacennes in 1895, and lias since re- 
sided here. Ralph attended the public schools 
here, including the high school, and subsequent- 
ly the university. In October, 1900, he took a 
position as reporter on the Daily Capital and 
has been connected therewith shice that date. 

The Knox Co. Democrat. 

The Knox County Democrat, Weekly, was 
established in 1893. It is Democratic in poli- 
tics. The publishers are Alessrs. Gerard and 
Quigle. It has a good circulation throughout 
the county. 

The National Era. 

The National Era. the Populist organ of 
Southern Indiana, is published by A. L. Harbi- 
son, who has for a number of years )>een promi- 
nent in Populist circles. It was established in 
1890. It has been an. able and industrious ex- 
ponent of the doctrines of that party. 

A. V. Crotts. 

Alfred V. Crotts was born in Jackson Coun- 
ty, Ind., and educated in the schools of Vin- 
cennes, to which city his father removed. Mr. 
Crotts learned the printer's trade with the 
Western Sun when conducted by Mr. George E. 
Greene, continuing his connection there for ten 
years. In 1879 Air. Crotts bought the plant of 
the old Vincenn'es Times and established a job 

business, which he has continued to the pres- 
ent time, building up a fine patronage in this 
and adjoining counties. Being himself a 
thorough master of the printer's art and a 
thorough business man, he has been- able to 
meet the demands of his custom in a way that 
has resulted in a constant and healthy growth. 
He now has one of the most complete and 
thoroughly equipped job offices in Southern In- 
diana. Keeping abreast of the times ini all 
that pertains to the business, including styles 
and type faces, he is never at a loss to meet the 
requirements of a patron. He has a large 
battery of jobbers run by power and all other 
needed machinery, and is always ready to meet 
any competition. 

H. B. Hitt. 

Harvey Brace Hitt was born and reared in 
Vinceunes and educated in its schools. His 
first experience in a 
business way was as a 
carrier on the Vin- 
cennes Daily Commer- 
cial, a morning paper, 
and the stuff of which 
he is made is exempli- 
fied in the fact that, be- 
ginning this not over 
pleasant work at the 
age of nine years, he 
continued it for a peri- 
od of nine years. Being 
possesed of a mechanical genius and a desire 
to earn money for himself, he, in 1892, when 
but a small boy, organized the "Hitt Printing 
Company," interesting in the venture some of 
his juvenile friends and using a room in his 
father's residence as an office. Working be- 
tween school hours under Harvey's supervi- 
sion, and by dint of industry at solicitation as 
well as in doing the work, they built up a trade 
that brought them not a little income. In 1901, 
having added to the business that of the manu- 
facture of rubber stamps, the company rented 
office room in the Bishop Block under the name 
of The Hitt Printing and Rubber Stamp Co. 
The business flourished to such an extent that 
they were compelled to seek enlarged quarters 
and they are at present occupying large and 
commodious rooms above the postoffice, at Sec- 
ond and Busseron Streets. Radical changes 
having been made in the firm. Mr. Hitt is now 
in full control and management of the busi- 



ness. Mr. Hitt's success is an example of 
what may be accomplished by pluck and perse- 
verence, coupled with a head for business. 



Especially equipped for treating diseases of Eye, Ear, Nose and 

Throat. Twenty beds, modern operating and office rooms, 

Turkish and Electric Baths, Massage Treatment. 

Corner Fourth and Broadway. 

Dr. L. M. Beckes. 

Dr. Lyman M. Beckes was born on a Knox 
County farm, Jxily 26, 1862. He attended the 
district school during 
the winter and worked 
for his father on the 
farm during the sum- 
mer, until eighteen 
years of age. In Sep- 
tember, 1880, he enter- 
ed the Vincennes high 
school, taking the latin 
course. From this school 
he was graduated June 
15, 1883, with a high 
record of scholarship on 

account thereof being valedictorian of his class. 
The next day after graduation young Beckes 
accepted a position on the staff of the Daily 
Sun. This he filled acceptably during the sum- 
mer mouths, but having a well-formed purpose, 
in the following October he entered Chicago 
Medical College and begin the study of medi- 
cine. At the cloue of his first term here he be- 
came a student under Dr. W. B. Fletcher, of 
Indianapolis. This resulted in his matricula- 
tion at the Indiana Medical College, of which 
his preceptor was a leading professor. From 
this school he was graduated in March, 1887, 

and was chosen president of the Sydenham So- 
ciety of the Indiana Medical College. In his 
struggles to this date Dr. Beckes had master- 
ed all difficulties and had twice been honored, 
as valedictorian', jut now began the real strug- 
gle, the battle of life. The result is so well 
known it is unnecessary here to say more than 
that the doctor's victories and triumphs did not 
end with his school life. 

1'n 1896, at a time when the doctor was over- 
whelmed by an extensive practice, he cast it 
aside and went east, devoting another year to 
study and research for the latest and most ad- 
vanced ideas and practice as taught by emi- 
nent physicians in the hospitals and polyclinic 
of New York City. Before returning home, 
accompanied by Mrs. Beckes he crossed the 
Atlantic and made a tour of England, Scotland, 
France and Belgium. 

On his return home he resumed his practice 
and the demand for his professional services 
has "been all that he could desire, leaving him 
small leisure for the amenities of life. 

Dr. Beckes is eminently practical and observ- 
ing in his practice. During the past ten years 
he has devoted much time and energy to the 
perfecting of a remedy to be used by local ap- 
plication. He recognized this as of great im- 
port and believed it would be possible to per- 
fect local medication to a degree that would 
result in great good. That he has met with 
abundant success many of our citizens can te<- 
tify. Without entering into details, suffice it 
to say that he has perfected a local remedy 
(Zenol), which is as near a specific for inflam- 
mation as has ever been found for any disease. 
Unlike many discoveries in the field of medi- 
cine the doctor declined to reap a special per- 
sonal benefit in a financial way by throwing 
about his discovery the protection of the pa- 
tent office and gave the profession its full bene- 
fit by making public the formula. 

Dr. Beckes has been several times honored 
by the appointing power. He was secretary of 
the City Board of Health for two years, exam- 
ining surgeon on the pension board, a position 
which he resigned before going east in 1896, 
and county health official, a trust which he still 
holds. He also held the office of coroner for 
four years. He has foeero for many years and 
is now medical examiner for many of the lead- 
ing life insurance companies. As an evidence 
of the esteem in which Dr. Beckes is held 



abroad as well as at home, we mention the fact, 
generally known, that within the past year he 
has been offered several positions of trust and 
emolument, one of which was a high official 
position, carrying with it a salary of $6,000 per 
annum. None of these, however, offered any 
temptation to the doctor, even temporarily to 
divorce himself in any degree from his pro- 
fession, to which he is as loyal and devoted as 
to the good woman he chose for the sharer of his 
life's joys and sorrows, when, May 25, 1891, he 
plighted his troth to Miss Helen L. Staub, of 
Terre Haute, Indiana. As in all other under- 
takings Dr. Beckes had succeeded, so in the 
matter of choosing his life partner he made no 
mistake. Brilliant, beautiful and womanly, she 
is an artist of acknowledged talent, and settled 
as they are in the beautiful home shown else- 
where, it need not be said they are happy, pro- 
gressive and successful. Two beautiful chil- 
dren have blessed this union. The first, Irving 
Wadsworth, died in infancy, but Marlin Lyman, 
born April 6, 1899, serves to complete the hap- 
piness of this well ordered home, which is the 
culmination of a zealous and honorable strug- 
gle for some of the good things of life. 

Dr. H. M. Smith. 

Dr. Hubbard M. Smith was born at Win- 
chester. Kentucky. Sept. 6, 1820, and was edu- 
cated in the schools of that county. He left 
school at the age of fourteen years and learned 
the saddler's trade, which he followed for some 
five or six years and then took up the study of 
medicine, bearing his expenses while reading 
by teaching in the public schools. In 1844 he 
attended the medical department of Transyl- 
vania University. He then entered upon the 
practice of his profession at New Liberty, Owen 
County, from there going to Warsaw, Ky. 
After some two or three 
years he entered Star- 
ling Medical College, at 
Columbus. Ohio," from 
which place he was 
graduated with honors 
In 1849. Immediately 
after leaving this school 
Dr. Smith came to Vin- 
cennes and entered 
upon the practice and 
has since been actively 
engaged here. 

Dr. Smith was married, in 1846, to Miss 
Nannie W., daughter of Gen. Edmund Pendle- 
ton, of Clark County, Ky. Mrs. Smith died in 
1895. Five children survive. Two of Dr. 
Smith's sons have attained distinction in the 
diplomatic service of the United States gov- 
ernment The doctor's eldest son, Edmund VV. 
P. Smith, died while in the service as consel 
general, at Bogota, Columbia, South America, 
and acting minister to that country. Another 
son, Hubbard T., after having served as clerk 
in both the war and treasury departments, was 
appointed to a clerical position with the Beh- 
ring Sea commission; was subsequently vice 
cotinsul at Paris, Prance, and later at Constan- 
tinople. In 1898 he was appointed vice consul 
at Kobe, Japan. From here he was transferred 
to Canton, China, in charge of the consul's of- 
fice. On the appointment of Commissioner 
Rockhill he became his secretary, a position 
which he still holds. Dr. Smith was appointed 
postmaster of Vincennes by President Lincoln, 
in 1861, and continued to hold the office till 
1869. He is president of the Board of Trus- 
tees of Vincennes University, :beiug in point of 
service the oldest member of that body. He 
also held the position of examining surgeon un- 
der the pension bureau for about twelve years. 
The doctor has always had a taste for literary 
pursuits, and in the midst of a busy profession- 
al career has found time to write much for pub- 
lication, a number of the more prominent mag- 
azines and periodicals having made demands on 
his talent in this direction. In 1898 he publish- 
ed a delightful little volume of poems, entitled. 
"At Midnight and Other Poems." He is a 
charter member of the Western Writers' Asso- 
ciation, whose annual meetings have been held 
at Winona, Minnesota, for the past eight years, 
having been held previously at Indianap- 
olis. The conventions of this society form a 
delightful occasion of reunion for the members 
and usually cover a period of about five days. 
The doctor is prominently identified with the 
medical fraternities, is a Republican in politics, 
and a member of the Presbyterian church. He 
is also the oldest living member, in point of 
continuous connection therewith, of the Ma- 
sonic lodge of Vincennes, having joined the 
same by demit from the Warsaw, Ky., lodge 
in 1849. 



Dr. S. Hall. 

Dr. Silas Hall was born in Wood County, Va., 
now West Virginia, July 29, 1849. He was edu- 
cated at Ohio Univer- 
sity, Athens, Ohio. He 
entered the Physio-Med- 
ical institute, of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, from which 
he was graduated in 
1875. Dr. Hall entered 
upon the practice in 
Ohio, but after a short 
time removed to Law- 
renceville, Illinois, 
where he remained six- 
teen years. In 1891 he 
took a post-graduate course at Columbus Medi- 
cal College at Columbus, Ohio. He removed to 
Vincennes in 1893, where he has since prac- 
ticed his profession, his practice in Vincennes 
and vicinity covering a period of more than 
twenty-five years. Dr. Hall was, in March, 
1878, married to Miss Ella I. Flander. They 
have two daughters and one son. 

Drs. Maxedon & Somes. 

The firm of Maxedon & Somes, Dctors 
Thomas H. Maxedon and Joseph F. Somes, 
physicians and burgeons, was formed in Jan- 
uary, 1900, for the general practice of medicine 
and surgery, giving special attention to female, 
rectal and chronic diseases; also diseases of the 
eve. ear. nose and throat. They have offices at 
No. 120 North Fourth Street, fully equipped for 
the treatment of all diseases in the line of their 

Thomas H. Maxedon was born near Paoli, 
Ind., Aug. 13, 1861. Received a general educa- 
tion in Paoli and Or- 
leans high schools, af- 
ter which he entered 
the Hospital Medical 
College, the medical de- 
partment of the Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 
from which he was 
g r a d u at e d In June, 
1887. After practicing 
his profession for a 
time at Heathsville. 111., 
he took a post-grad- 

uate course in the New York Polyclinic in 
1891. In 1898 Dr. Maxedon visited Europe and 
received post-graduate instruction at Vienna, 
Austria. On his return he took a post-gradu- 
ate course at Philadelphia. He entered upon 
the practice in Vincennes in January, 1899. The 
doctor is official surgeon to Post H.> T. P. A. 

Dr. Maxedon was. married Sept. 26, 1889, to 
Miss Mary A. Duncan, of Flat Rock, Illinois. 
They have two children. 


Joseph F. Somes was born in Vincennes, De- 
cember 18, 1864, and 1 educated in the schools of 
the city. After leaving 
school Dr. Somes was 
for seven years in drug 
business in the city. He 
then entered Rush Med- 
ical College, of Chicago, 
from which he was 
graduated in February, 
1889. He first located 
at Lindsborg, Kansas, 
where he remained five 
years, returning to Vin- 
cennes in 1895. In 1900 

Dr. Somes took a post-graduate course at New 
York Post-graduate Hospital, in diseases of 'the 
eye, ear, hose and throat, Avhich are his special- 

Dr. Somes was married, January 5, 1892, ta 
Miss Ray Lamer, of Lindsborg, Kansas. They 
have one son. 

Dr. William T. Von Knappe. 

Dr. Wilhelm T. von Knappe was born at Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, September 15, 1845. His fam- 
ily were of the most aristocratic at the capitol 
of the Buckeye State. He is the eldest son> of 
the Hon. Horace S. Knappe, the eminent jour- 
nalist and historian w r ho was editor of the '"'Cin- 
cinnati E'nquirer" during the Mexican war, the 
first .editor of the "Ft. W T ayne (Ind.) Times 
and Sentinel,'' "Ohio Statesman," author of 
"The History of the Maumee Valley," etc., etc. 
He was named in honor of Dr. William Trevitt, 
chief surgeon on General Taylor's staff during 
the Mexican War, and afterwards auditor of 
state. He is a lineal descendant of Baron Wil- 
helm von Knappe, with the coat of arms of the 
Red Cross and the Imperial Eagle. His mother 
was the great grand daughter of Lord Robert 
Mac Gee Mac Brenton, of Scotland; coat of 



anus. lion, thistle and star in a garlaud. Dr. 
Von Knappe was educated at HejTs Female 
Seminary, Vermillion Institute, University of 
Norm- Dame du Lac, and University of Leipsic. 
He studied' with Drs. Trovitt & Daw- 

son of Columbus, O., and was graduated at Star- 
ling Medical College; attended two six-months 
courses at Chicago Medical College and was 
graduated at the New York University. He 
spent a year in the hospitals of Dublin, Edin- 
burgh, Berlin, Vienna and Leipsic. While in 
Europe he had the distinguished honor of be- 
ing presented to Queen Victoria and of attend- 
ing a Masonic Lodge presided over by the heir 
apparent to the English crown. 

He received a medal for bravery and skill in 
cholera, from the Royal Legion; was commis- 
sioned by Gov. Flemming of Florida, for suc- 
cess in the treatment of yellow fever; also held 
a commission under Gov. Claude Mathews, of 
Indiana. He is an elder of the Presbyterian 
Church; an Ancient Uniformed Patriarch, I. O. 
O. F.; a member of Star Lodge, No. 7, K. of P.; 
a member of die Royal Arcanum; a Past Com- 
mander of Knights Templars; a 32^ Mason; 
a Mystic Shriner and an honorary member of 
the Masonic order of Pilgrim Knights of Jeru- 
salem, Palestine. 

The doctor is a convert to the Homeopathic 
school of medicine, in which he was graduated. 

He was married at the Church of the Memo- 

rial, at St. Augustine, Florida, December 8, 
1891. Mrs. vou Knappe is a daughter of the 
.'.merkan Revolution, and a member of Caro- 
line Scott Harrison Chapter, of Indianapolis, 

Dr. J. H. Mammon, Optician. 

James H. Haniinon was born near Fort 
Wayne, Ind.. January 30, 1876. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Union City and 
Winchester and in the 
high school of Seymour, 

After leaving the high 
school Mr. Harnmon 
took a preparatory 
course in medicine un- 
der Dr. Porter, of Rush 
County, Indiana. He 
then attended the 
American College of 
ophthalomology, of Chi- 
cago, from which he 

was graduated. Later he took a special 
course under Dr. Runkin, of New York 
City, and another under Dr. Brown, of 
Philadelphia. He also mastered Savage's and 
Stevens' courses in eye-muscular work and Ed- 
ward Jackson's work on skioscopy. He first 
entered upon the practice of his profession at 
Rushville, Rush County, Indiana, going from 
there to Indianapolis, whence he came to Vin- 
cennes on April 8, 1901, where he has since been 
located, at No. 207 Main Street, and where he 
has established an enviable reputation as an 
expert and reliable optician and a large and 
profitable clientele. He is also a practical 
grinder and is making preparations to manu- 
facture everything in the line of optical goods. 

Dr. Ha mm on was married on the fourth of 
April. 1898, to Miss Alberta M. Steward, of 
Shoals, Ind. They have an> infant daughter. 

James W. Emison. 

James W. Emison was born at Bruceville, 
Knox County, Ind., Feb. 7. 1869. After leaving 
the public schools he entered Asbury University 
(now De Pauw), of Greencastle, Inid., taking the 
full classical course. From this school he was 
graduated in June, 1882, with the degree A. B. 
In 1885 he delivered the master's oration at the 



college commencement and the enlarged degree 
of A. M. was conferred. Mr. Emison also at- 
tended the law department of this college for a 
time, afterwards reading in the office of Captain 
George G. Reily, the distinguished Vincennes 
advocate. He was admitted to the bar in 1889, 
and immediately formed a partnership with 
Captain Reily. under the firm name of Reily 
and Emison. which partnership continued till 
the death of Captain Reily, in February, 1899, 
this firm long being recognized as one of the 
leading law firms of the state. In the early 
days of his practice Mr. Emison served as city 
attorney and also as county attorney. He was 
secretary of the Knox County Pair Association 
for eight years, 1889-97. 

Mr. Emison is a Republican in politics 
and has always been held in high esteem 
by the Republican leaders of the state. 
He was in 1884 chairman of the Republican 
County Central Committee. January 1, 1901, 
a partnership was formed between Mr. Emi- 
son and Judge W. W. Moffett, an able and dis- 
tinguished lawyer, of Bloomfield, Indiana, the 
firm name and style being Emison & Moffett. 
Mr. Emison was married Xov. 27, 1890, to Miss 
Sada Rabb, i>f Vincennes. They 'have four 

Judge William W. Moffett. 

Win. W. Moffett was born on a farm in Owen 
County, Indiana, Feb! 19, 1853. He attended 
the public schools and 
was graduated from the 
liigh school of Spencer, 
Ind., in 1876. Immedi- 
ately entering the Uni- 
versity of Indiana, at 
Blooniington, he was 
graduated therefrom in 
1880, with the degree of 
A. B. Entering the law 
office of the distin- 
guished firm of Frank- 
lin & Pickens, of Spen- 
cer, general solicitors for the I. & V. Railroad, 
he diligently pursued his studies under their 
preceptorship and was admitted to the bar in 
Owen County in 1881. Upon the dissolution 
of the partnership of Franklin & Pickens by 
the appointment of the former a member of 
the Supreme Court Commission, in 1881, 
Mr. Moffett formed a partnership with the lat- 
ter, under the firm name of Pickens & Mof- 

fett. In 1883 he removed to Bloomfield, where 
he formed a partnership with his college class- 
mate, Cyrus E. Davis, succeeding the old firm 
of Shaw & Bays, under the firm name of Mof- 
fett & Davis. This partnership continued with 
the name unchanged till 1894, when Mr. Mof- 
fett was elected judge of the Fourteenth 
Judicial Circuit, composed of the counties of 
Green and Sullivan. On account of a fixed 
understanding in the ranks of the Democracy 
in those counties that the judgeship should al- 
ternate between) the two counties, Judge Mof- 
fett declined to be a candidate for re-election 
and retired from the bench at the close of his 
term, in Xovember, 1900. In January follow- 
ing, he entered into partnership with James W. 
Emison, of Viucennes, under the firm name of 
Emison <fc Moffett. Judge Moffett has always 
been a Democrat and a leader in the party 
councils. The judge was married Oct. 27, 
1884, to Miss Maggie Gray. They have two 

Judge 0. H. Cobb. 

Orlando H. Cobb is a native of Lawrence 
County. Ind.. where he was born Nov. 18, 1850. 
He is the eldest son of 
Hon. Thos. R. Cobb, 
who for ten years rep- 
resented this district in 
Congress, but who was 
then a practicing at- 
torney at Bedford, Ind. 
When Orlando was six- 
teen years of age the 
father, together with 
his partner, Judge New- 
ton F. Malott, removed 
to Vincennes, where he 

resided to he time of his death. After leaving 
the public schools, Orlando entered the Uni- 
versity of Indiana, taking the full scientific 
course, and was graduated therefrom in June, 
1872, with the degree of B. Sc. He immediately 
entered the law department and was the next 
year graduated with the degree LL. B. By 
excessive application to his studies for a num- 
ber of years Mr. Cobb had overtaxed his 
strength of body and left school in a low state 
of health. He therefore took a year's vacation 
and was admitted to the Knox County bar in 
May, 1874. Immediately thereafter he became 
a member of the law firm of Cobb, Robinson & 
Cobb, the other members being his father, 



Hon. Thomas R. Cobb and William B. Robin- 
son. This firm continued until 1870, when Mr. 
Robinson became clerk of the Knox Circuit 
Court, when the firm became Cobb & 
Cobb and so remained till the death of the 
senior member, after which Orlando Cobb con- 
tinued the practice of the law alone, until elect- 
ed judge of the Knox Circuit Court, in Novem- 
ber, 1900, for a term of six years. In Novem- 
ber, 1874, Mr. Oobb became deputy Prosecuting 
Attorney under Hon. John H. O'Xeall, then 
Prosecutor of this Circuit, whic'h position he 
held for four years. In November, 1888, Mr. 
Cobb was elected Prosecuting Attorney of this 
Circuit, and was re-elected in 1890, serving 
with distinguished ability for four years. 

Mr. Cobb was married, Nov. 11, 1874, to Miss 
Elizabeth Beckes, daughter of Thomas P. 
Beckes, a prominent farmer of Knox County, 
who afterwards was elected a commissioner of 
the county. 

In the practice of his profession Judge Cobb 
has always emjoyed the confidence of the peo- 
ple in an unusual degree and his practice has 
been one of the most lucrative in this part of 
the state. As judge of the Knox Circuit Court 
he is making an enviable reputation for judicial 
fairness and acumen, .and in the dispatch of 
business he has no superior om the Indiana 

Hon. Mason J. Niblack. 

Mason J. Niblack was born and reared in 
He is a son of Hon. William E. 
Niblack, who for six- 
teen years represented 
this district In Con- 
gress and was on the 
Supreme bench of the 
state for twelve years. 
Mr. Niblack was edu- 
cated in the schools of 
Vincennes and at Cazi- 
novia Seminary, Cazi- 
novia, New York. Ho 
also attended the Mich- 
igan University, for 

several years, and fronl the law department of 
that school was graduated im 1882, with the de- 
gree of LL. B. Mr. Niblack entered upon 
the practice of his profession in Vincennes as 
a partner of Judge F. W. Viehe, under the firm 
name of Viehe & Niblack. He was elected to 
the .State Legislature for Knox County as a 

Democrat in 1880 and 1888, and for the coun- 
ties of Knox, Gibson and Vanderburgh in 1890. 
Mr. Niblack was honored with the speaker-ship 
of the House in 1889, and again in 1891 the du- 
ties of which position he discharged with dis- 
tinguished ability. In 1897 Mr. Niblack be- 
came Grand Master of the Masonic Fraternity 
for the state of Indiana. He has served as a 
member of the School Board for the City of 
Vincennes' for five years, and is now the Presi- 
dent of the Board. 

Hon. S. W. Williams. 

Samuel Wardell Williams was born at Mount 
Carmel, Feb. 7th, 1851. After leaving the pub- 
lic schools he attended 
Friendsville Academy, 
at Friendsville, 111., be- 
ing designed for the 
Presbyterian ministry. 
From this school he 
was graduated in 1867. 
Instead of entering the 
ministry, however, Mr. 
Williams read law with 
Cauthorn & Boyle, of 
Vincennes and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 

1874. Prior 1o this date Mr. Williams had 
served as Deputy Clerk of Wabash County, 111., 
for two years, coming to Vincennes in 1870. 
He was elected Prosecuting Attorney of Knox 
County, and served two years, 1878-80. He 
was elected, on the Democratic ticket, member 
of the State Legislature from Knox Counity, 
and served from 1882 to '86. It was during the 
first term of President Cleveland that Mr. 
Williams, becoming dissatisfied with the course 
of his party leaders, embraced Populism, being 
one of the originators of the party. He has 
since been a leader in the state and nation- 
al councils of that party. He has been a dele- 
gate to every national convention of the party, 
was chairman of the first state convention and 
of nearly all the subsequent conventions. Mr. 
Williams strenuously opposed the fusion with 
Bryan forces in 1896. and at the St. Louis Pop- 
ulist convention secured the reversal of the or- 
der of nomination, by reason of which Watson 
became the Populist candidate for the Vice 
Presidency. Mr. Williams also seconded Wat 
son's nomination. It was through Mr. Williams' 
efforts in the Legislature that Knox County 
was erected into a separate judicial district 


He also introduced and succeeded in passing 
the first bill by a legislature to regulate the 
tolls and charges of corporations. It was 
known as the Williams Telephone Bill. This 
law was attacked in the courts by the corpora- 
tions, but sustained by the Supreme Court. He 
was also author of a number of changes in the 
probate practice. He was four years chair- 
man of the Democratic legislative caucus. 

As a trial lawyer Mr. Williams "takes first 
rank and at the time of this writing is Presi- 
dent of the Bar Association of Knox County. 
He has been engaged ins many of the noted 
jury trials of the past twenty-five years in 
Knox and adjoining counties, among them be* 
ing the Berner murder case, the Carter case, 
the Horrall-Swartzel cases and the Johnson 
will case. 

He possesses rare skill in the preparation of 
legal papers, is a good jury advocate and is un- 
surpased in the art of examining witnesses. 
He is noted for his fidelity to his clients and 
enjoys a large practice. 

Hon. James S. Pritchett. 

.James 8k. Pritchett was born in, 1 Warrenton, 
Gibson Coun^tyr Ind. After leaving the public 
schools he attended Vin- 
cennes University and 
Hanover College, of Jef- 
ferson County, Ind. He 
read law with Col. W. 
A. Jones, and was ad- 
mitted to the practice of 
his profession in 1864. 
He first formed a part- 
nership with Judge 
Harrison Burns, after- 
wards author of Burns' 
Index and Burns' Di- 
gest. This partnership continued for eight 
years, when Burns was appointed private secre- 
tary to Minister Geo. W. Julian. After Burns' 
return, the partnership was resumed and con- 
tinued four years longer, when Mr. Burns re- 
moved to Indianapolis. 

Mr. Pritchett was City Attorney for several 
years early in the fifties, also member of the. 
Council, and in 1857 was chosen Mayor of the 
city, serving one term. In 1896 he was again 
elected member of the City Council and has 
served continuously since, having been re- 
elected in 1900. In the City Council Mr. Pritch- 
ett is an able and aggressive advocate of what 

he conceives to be the interests of the city and 
is one of the most powerful and influential 
members of that body. In politics he is a Dem- 
ocrat of Democrats. He enjoys a large and 
lucrative law practice. 

Mr. Pritchett was married in June, 1888, to 
Miss Ella A. Wise, of Knox County, Indiana. 
They have three children. 

Arthur T. Cobb. 

Arthur Thomas Cobb was born in Vincennes, 
Ind., on the 27th day of February, 1871. After 
leaving the public 
schools he entered the 
Vincennes University, 
and the Indiana Uni- 
v e r s i t y, graduating 
from the law depart- 
ment of the latter in 
June, 1899, taking the 
degree LL. B.. Was in- 
mediately admitted to 
the bar in Monroe Coun- 
ty. On the 9th of June, 
1899, he was admitted to 
practice before the Supreme Court of the state, 
and before the United States District Court at 

Mr. Cobb is the youngest son of the Hon. 
Thomas R. Cobb, lawyer and politician. On 
the 20th of September, 1900. Arthur T. Cobb 
was married to Miss Catherine R. Collins, of 
Covington, Ky. 

Hon. W. A. Cullop. 

William A. Cullop, attorney at law, senion 
member of the firm of Cullop & Shaw, was 
born in Knox County, 
March 28, 1853. He 
attended the public 
schools and Oaktown 
Seminary and in 1874 
entered Hanover Col- 
lege of Jefferson Coun- 
ty, Indiana. Taking 
the scientific course, he 
was graduated from 
this institution in June, 
1878, with the degree 
B. Sc. He soon after 
entered the law office of Cobb & Cobb, 
where he spent two years and was admitted to 
the practice before the Knox Circuit Court in 
June, 1880. January 1, following, he opened 



an office and entered upon the practice.. In De- 
cember, 1881, lie formed a partnership with 
George W. Shaw, under the firm name of Cul- 
lop & Shaw. In 1884 Clarence B. Kessenger 
was admitted into the firm, which became Cul- 
lop, Shaw <Jc Kessiuger. In 1877 Mr. Kessinger 
went west, retiring from the firm, which again 
became Cullop & Shaw. In April. 1888, Mr. 
Shaw was appointed judge of the Circuit Court 
and Mr. Cullop continued the practice alone till 
August of that year, when Mr. Kessinger, re- 
turning from the West, again formed a part- 
nership with Mr. Cullop under 'the firm name of 
Cullop & Kessinger. This continued till July, 
1900, when failing health induced Mr. Kessinger 
to retire from the practice and Mr. Cullop was 
again alone until the following December, when 
Judge Shaw, retiring from the bench, again 
entered into partnership with him under the 
firm name of Cullop & Shaw. 

Mr. Cullop was Prosecuting Attorney for the 
12th judicial circuit from 1884 to 1886, and in 
1890 was elected a member of the State Legis- 
lature. He was re-elected in 1892, and in the 
Legislature of 1893 was chairman of the Ways 
and Means Committee of^ the House. He was 
the Democratic nominee for the State Senate in 
1894, but went down with his party in the land- 
slide of that year, though leading the ticket by 
147 votes. He was a delegate to the Demo- 
cratic National Convention at Chicago in 1892 
and was the Indiana member of the notification 
committee, appointed to wait upon the candi- 
dates and give forinal notice, of their nomina- 
tion. ie was also a delegate to the Democratic 
National Convention of 1896. He was the 
Democratic nominee for Elector from this dis- 
trict in 1900. 

Mr. Cullop. besides being one of the most 
active and successful members of the Knox 
County bar, has business interests of consider- 
able magnitude. He is president of the Knox 
County Coal Company, operating at Bicknell, 
Ind., a director of the Hartman Manufacturing 
Co., agricultural implements, and is also a di- 
rector of the Yincennes Board of Trade and En- 
terprise Stove Works. He is also a director of 
and attorney for the Wabash Mutual Insurance 
Company, of the city. 

Mr. Cullop was married in October, 1879, tc 
Miss Kate, daughter of Hon. Thomas R. Cobb v 
of Vincennes. and to this union was born one 
daughter. Miss Carrie. He was a second time 

married, July 28, 1898, to Mrs. Artie Goodwin, 
of Chicago, a lady of rare accomplishments and 
refinement and a popular leader of society. Mrs. 
Cullop is a royal entertainer, and their elegant 
home is one of the most delightful places where 
society gathers. 

In 1900 Mrs. Cullop was signally honored by. 
Governor Mount, who appointed her as one 
of the lady commissioners to the Paris World's 
Fair. She has recently been chosen a state 
delegate to the convention of the National Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs, Which meets at San 
Francisco in June, 1902. 

Dailey & Lewis. 

Charles E. Dailey was born on a farm near 
Olney. 111., Oct. 9, 1865. He was educated in 
the schools of Olney, from the High School, 6f 
which city he was graduated in 1882. Soon 
after leaving school he entered the law office 
of Messrs. McCauley & Moutray, of Olney. He 
subsequently came to Vincennes and read law 
with Hon. Thomas R. Cobb. Was admitted to 
the bar before the Supreme Court of Illinois, at 
Mt. Vernon, in 1889. He first entered upon the 
practice at Olney, whence, after four years, he 
went to Oklahoma, in 1893, remaining there 
three years. In 1896 Mr. Dailey returned to 
Vincennes and formed a partnership with 
Henry S. Cauthorm & Son, under the firm name 
of Cauthorn, Dailey & Cauthorn. This part- 
nership was dissolved in 1900, and the present 
partnership formed with Harry R. Lewis in 
October of that year. 

Mr. Dailey was married in 1894 to Miss May 
Jeanette Boyd, of Casey. 111. They have two 

Harry R. Lewis, son of James F. Lewis, was 
born in Vincennes. Attended the public schools 
and subsequently Vincennes University for sev- 
eral years. He also attended Kent College one 
year. He then entered the law department of 
the University of Minnesota, passing by exam- 
ination the first two years' work and complet- 
ing the three years' course in one year, being 
graduated in 1899 with the degree LL. B. In 
June of the same year he was admitted to the 
bar. After spending some months in the office 
of Cullop & Kessinger, in the following October 
he formed a partnership with Charles E. 
Dailey. under the firm name of Dailey & Lewis. 
Mr. Lewis is a Democrat in politics and an act- 
ive field worker, having stumped the county In 
the interests of his party in 1900. Mr. Lewis 


was married April 16, 1901, to Miss Kathern 
Milligan, of Washington, Ind. 

The firm of Dailey & Lewis is a strong one 
and is rapidly forging to the front. 

Hon. W. B. Robinson. 

William B. Robinson was born in Knox Coun- 
ty, near Wheatland, Sept. 9, 1839. He attended 
the public schools and 
later Lebanon Acad- 
emy, of Lebanon, Ind. 
After being for more 
than a year superin- 
tendent of schools for 
Knox County, he en- 
tered Indiana Law 
School, at Bloomington, 
in 1866, and was gradu- 
ated therefrom the fol- 
lowing year, with the 
degree LL. B. He imme- 
diately entered upon the practice of his profes- 
sion in Vincennes. His first business associate 
was^Jdhn M. Boyle, the firm name being Rob- 
inson ^ST Boyle. Mr. Robinson's career as a 
lawyer was an honorable one. He soon took 
rank as one of the strong members of the Vin- 
cennes bar. In 1869 he was elected Mayor of 
Vincennes, and at the end of two years was re- 
elected, serving two terms as the city's chief 
magistrate. After his election he dissolved the 
partnership with Mr. Boyle and devoted al- 
most his entire time to the duties of his office, 
in which he made a record for which he has no 
occasion to blush. Before the expiration of 
his second term as Mayor, Mr. Robinson formed 
a partnership with Hon. Thomas R. Cobb, un- 
der the name of Cobb & Robinson. This part- 
nership and name continued until in 1873 Or- 
lando H. Cobb, now Judge of Knox Circuit 
Court, was admitted into the firm, which then 
became Cobb, Robinson & Cobb. In 1874 Mr. 
Robinson was elected Circuit Clerk of Knox 
County, entering upon his duties in 1876. He 
was re-elected in 1878, serving two full terms. 
On his retirement from office in 1884, Mr. Rob 
inson decided m t again to take up the practice 
of the law and has since devoted himself to 
farming, stock raising and horticulture, in 
which he has been eminently successful. He 
has been a member of the Board of Trustees 
of Vincennes University for something like 
twenty years, being secretary of the board the 
greater part of the time. 

Mr. Robinson was married, June 5, 1873, to 
Miss Maggie J. La Hue, daughter of ex-Sheriff 
James C. La Hue, of Knox Co. They have 
four sons and one daughter. 

Major Thomas B. Coulter. 

Thomas B. Coulter was born in Vincennes 
and educated in the schools of the city, having 
been graduated from the Vincennes High 
School in 1896. He 
then entered the Indi- 
ana Law School at In- 
dianapolis, from which 
he was graduated with 
honor in 1898, taking 
the degree of LL. B. In 
the same year he was 
admitted to the bar and 
located in Viucennes, 
forming a partnership 
with Duncan L. Beckes, 
which still continues. 

Mr. Coulter joined Co. A, First Infantry, In- 
diana National Guard, in September, 1891, and 
was made corporal in December of that year, 
and the following May, sergeant. In January, 
1893, he was elected second lieutenant. In 
May, 1894, he was elected captain. His regi- 
ment being called into the service of the United 
States in the war with Spain, as the 159th Indi- 
ana Volunteers, Captain Coulter commanded 
his company during the campaign. In July, 
1900, he was promoted to a majority, and stiL 
holds that commission. 

Duncan L Beckes. 

Duncan L. Beckes was born on a farm seven 
miles south of Vincennes. Attended the public 
schools and was graduated from the Vincennes 
High School in 1896. He 
afterwards attended 
Butler College, of In- 
dianapolis. He entered 
Indiana Law School at 
Indianapolis, and was 
graduated therefrom in 
1898, with the degree 
LL. B. He was Im- 
mediately admitted to 
the bar and opened an 
office in Vincennes, 
where he has since 
practiced his profession, having formed a part- 
nership with Major Thomas Coulter in the fall 



of that year, under the firm name of Coulter & 
Beckes. Mr. Beckes is a Democrat in politics 
and a party worker of no mean ability. 

Hon. Thomas R. Cobb. 

Hon. Thomas R. Cobb, father of Judge O. H. 
Cobb and Mr. A. T. Cobb, of the city, was a 
distinguished lawyer 
and pol'tician. He came 
to Vincennes ir\ 1869, 
from Bedford, Indiana, 
with his partner, New- 
ton F. Malott, after- 
wards Judge of the 
Knox Circuit Court. 
Mr. Cobb had previous- 
ly served as commis- 
sioner of the Indiana 
Militia, under appoint- 
ment made in 1852. He 

served in the State Legislature from 1858 to 
1866. He was a member of the Democratic 
National Convention in 1876 and was subse- 
quently for ten years member of Congress from 
this district. He died in Vincennes, Jun>e 26, 

Samuel Judah. 

Samuel Judah, deceased, was born in the City 
of New York, in the year 1798. He was the 
son of Samuel Bernard Judah, a physician of 
that city, and Catherine Hart, his wife. Mr. 
Judah's grand-father came to New York from 
England about 1750, and became a large mer- 
chant there, and signed the compact against 
the importation of British goods, and was 
known as an ardent supporter of the cause of 
the patriots in the Revolutionary War. 

The subject of this sketch was graduated at 
Rutgers College, New Jersey, in 1816, studied 
law in New Brunswick, New Jersey, and emi- 
grated to Indiana in 1818, coming in a wagon 
train. He settled in Vincennes in 1818 or 
1819, and commenced the practice of the law 
and soon gained prominence as a lawyer an<l 
politician, with a reputation throughout the 

He married in 1825, Harriet, the daughter of 
Armstrong Brandon', of Corytlon, Indiana, who 
was U. S. Postmaster. State Printer, and Editor 
of the Indiana Gazette, during the 1 time Cory- 
don was the capital of the state. The Bran- 
dons were of English ancestry and settled in 
Pennsylvania about 1680. 

Samuel Judah was a member of the Legisla- 
ture, from this county, in the sessions of 1828- 
1836-1839 and 1840, and speaker of the House 
in 1840. 

He was United States District Attorney for 
Indiana, under President Jackson, and was 
chairman of the first state convention of the 
Whig Party, which resulted in the reorganiza- 
tion of that party, and the election of W. H. 
Harrison to the presidency. 

We quote the following from the sketch of 
Mr. Judah in the Cyclopedia of Biography: "As 
a lawyer he was noted for his skill, learning 
and originality. Amorg his most celebrated 
cases are Knox County vs. The Ohio & Missis- 
sippi R. R. Company, fn the U. S. Supreme 
Court, and the well known case of the Vin- 
cennes University vs. the State, thrice in the 
Supreme Court or Indiana, and finally in the 
Supreme Court of the United States. Through 
his whole life he was a great and constant stu 
dent and reader. His racy and original wit. 
and brilliant conversation made his company 
much sought after. The Hon. Hugh McCol- 
lough, in his 'Men and Measures of Half a Cen- 
tury,' refers to him thus: 'Samuel Judah, the 
best read man and one of the ablest lawyers of 
the state.' He died in Vincennes in 1869." 

The children of Samuel and Harriet Judah, 
who arrived at maturity, are Caroline, wife of 
Dr. John Mantle, of Vincennes, and Catherine, 
wife of Gen. Laz. Noble, all who are nowi 
deceased; Mrs. Alice Clarke, of this city, widow 
of Franklin Clarke, deceased; Samuel Brandon, 
of Vincennes; John M., of Indianapolis, and 
Noble B., of Chicago, both well known and 
prominent lawyers of their respective cities. 

A, L. Harbison. 

Abraham Lincoln Harbison was born in Parke 
County, Indiana, Feb. 8, 1872. He was edu- 
cated in the schools of 
Crawford County, 111., 
whither his father had 
removed when our sub- 
ject was one year old. 
After teaching school 
eighteen months. Mr. 
Harbison, in 1894, took 
the management of the 
"National Era," a Pop- 
ulist organ, established 
four years previously 
by his father, Mr. D. T. 



Harbison, in Robinson. 111. Mr. Harbison was 
for a short time, beginning in 1892, a citizen of 
Kansas, and it thus happened that his first vote 
was cast for Hon. Jerry Simpson, jocularly 
termed "Socklnss." Thus eaily embracing 
Populism. Mr. Harbison has b?en an ardent 
advocate and consistent expounder of fts doc- 
trines ever since. He has'*t>eet a delegate to 
foul 1 state conventions a: id, one nitional conven- 
tion, that at Cincinnati, in 1900. Was sergeaul:- 
at-arms of the Populist National Convention at 
St. Louis in 1896. In addition to his party 
services as editor of its organ in this section, 
Mr. Harbison has been active on the stump in 
every campaign since and including 1890. Mr. 
Harbison was admitted to the bar in the year 
1897. but did not enter upon the practice of law 
till January, 1901, when he opened an office at 
Secondhand Busseroii and has since given ex- 
clusive attention to it. 

In 189(5. Mr. Harbison was married to Miss 
Mary E. Boyd, of Vincennes. They have one 

Jospeh T. Randolph. 

Joseph Todd Randolph was born in Knox 
County, Indiana, on a farm, in Johnson Town- 
ship, March 26, 1878. 
His father dying when 
he was but ten years of 
age, he was placed with 
a grand-father in Illi- 
nois, where he re- 
mained till sixteen 
years of age, when he 
came to Vincennes and 
attended the high school 
for three years, having 
a determination to 
make his way in the 
world. On> the declaration of war against 
Spain Mr. Randolph enlisted in Company A. 
159th Indiana Volunteers, and went with a 
true soldierly spirit into the field. After the 
war, returning to Vincennes, he took up the 
battle of life where he had laid it down to go 
to the service of his country. He read law 
with Hon. John Wilhelm for about eighteen 
months, supporting himself meantime by work- 
ing as motorman for the Citizens' Street Rail- 
way Co. He subsequently read for a time 
with Prosecuting Attorney Hoover and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Pehuary. 1900. He re- 
mained in the office of Mr. Hoover till October, 

1901. when he established an independent of- 
fice in the Baecher Block. To Mr. Randolph's 
indomitable energy and industry alone is due 
the advancement thus far attained in his pro- 
fession* and we predict for him a successful 

John T. Goodman. 

John T. Goodman was born on a farm near 
Bicknell, Knox County, Ind.. March 31, 1861. 
He attended the Bicknell schools and subse- 
quently the Cen- 
tral Normal Col- 
lege, of Danville. 
Ind., from which 
he was graduated 
in 1880. He 
taught school in 
Knox County for 
two years. He 
read law with 
Cobb & Cobb in 
the office now oc- 
cupied by himself 
over the postof- 
fice, corner Sec- 
ond and Buseron 
Streets, and was 

admitted to the bar in 1882. He first formed a 
partnership with Edward W. Cooper, which 
was dissolved by the reomval of the latter from 
the city. In October, 1883, he became a mem- 
ber of the firm of Cobb, Cobb & Goodman. This 
partnership was continued till October, 1886, 
since which time Mr. Goodman has had no 
partnership in the practice. He was City At- 
torney. 1889 to 1893. In 1892 he was elected 
Prosecuting Attorney for Knox -County and 
twice re-elected, serving six years. Mr. Good- 
man has always been uncompromising in his 
democracy. He was for ten years chairman of 
the Democratic City Central Committee. He 
is a lawyer of recognized ability. As a speaker 
he has a pleasing and forcible address, which 
gives him great power with the jury. He has 
a large criminal practice. 

Mr. Goodman was married in 1883 to Miss 
Mary E. Fuller, of Bickuell. a daughter of 
George W. Fuller, who founded the town of 
Bicknell. They have three children. 

Hon. S. B. Judah. 

Samuel Brandon Judah was born at the fam- 
ily homestead, upon the farm, near Vinceunes, 
upon Dec. 26th, 1845. His father was Samuel 



Judah, a well known lawyer and politician of 
the early days of Indiana, and Lis mother was 
Harriet Judah. daughter of Armstrong Bran- 
don, of Corydou. Ind., both mentioned in a fore- 
going article. 

Samuel B. Judah passed his boyhood and 
youth upon the farm; He attended the Vin- 
cennes University for several years, under the 
instruction of Kev. R. M. Chapman, a noted 
teacher: He took a one-year course, at the 
Rennslaer Institute. Troy, New York, and then 
entered the Polytechnic College of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, where he was graduated 
in 18G5. Shortly afterwards he was appointed 
a deputy under his brother-in-law, the late Gen. 
Laz. Noble, clerk of the Supreme Court of In- 
diana, which situation he held for two years. 
His next employment was as assistant assessor 
of internal revenue of the First District of In- 
diana, first under J. G. Bowman, now deceased, 
and afterwards under James H. McNeely, of 
the Evansville" Journal, both who were as- 
sessors, and where he remained for about two 

la 1871 the subject of this article married 
Miss Emily C. Burnet, daughter of llev. 
Stephen Burnet, of this county, now deceased. 
The fruit of their marriage were two sons, 
Samuel, now deceased, and Charles B. Judah, a 
member of the law firm of Calverley & Judah, 
of this city. From 1875, and until the present 
time, Mr. Judah has had his residence upon 
Burnet Heights, near Vincennes, and for more 
than twenty years followed the business of 
farming and stock raising. He has also for 
many years been employed in the management 
as agent, administrator, executor and trustee 
of valuable and extensive estates, both real and 
personal, to all of which duties he has attended 
honestly and successfully, and to the satisfac- 
tion of the parties interested. 

In the fall of 1898 it became necessary to 
have a branch office opened at Vincennes for 
the collection of internal revenue. Mr. Judali 
was appointed as deputy collector in charge of 
the office at this place by the Hon. David W. 
Henry, collector of internal revenue for this 
district, and up to the present time he has col- 
lected and paid over to the proper authorities 
over eight millions of dollars. 

His motto is "A public office is a public trust, 
and to perform the duties faithfully and consci- 

Orestes C. Phillips. 

Orestes C. Phillips was born at Millsboro, 
Pa.. Nov. 14, 1875. He was graduated from 
the Pennsylvania State 
Normal school at Cali- 
fornia. Pa., in 18'J7. 
Studied Latin and 
(Jivek for a considera- 
ble time under the di- 
rection of Prof. Krehu- 
tield. He entered the 
Tennesse college of 
law, near Nashville, in 
1898, and was graduat- 
ed therefrom in 19L>0 
with degree LL. B. In 

the same year Mr. Phillips came to Vincemies, 
where he entered on the practice of his pro- 
fession with every promise of marked success. 
In a recent edition, in its report of a damage 
suit in the Knox Circuit Court, the Daily Com- 
mercial, of Vincennes, said: 

"The speech of C. C. Phillips, principal at- 
torney for the plaintiff, was pronounced one 
of the most eloquent that has ever been heard 
at this bar. As a pleasing and forcible ora- 
tor, Mr. Phillips certainly has few superiors of 
his age in the state." 

Mr. Phillips was married September 20, 1901, 
to Miss Emily Fairhurst, of Vincennee. 

C. G. McCord. 

Chas. G. McCord was born in the City of 
Vincennes on the 21st day of March, 1851, and 
is the son of William 
R. McCord, Deceased. 
He obtained his early 
education at Vincannes 
University and entered 
Brown University, of 
Providence, Rhode Isl- 
and, in September, 
1870. He was graduat- 
ed from this institution 
In June, 1873. Upon 
his return home he en- 
tered the law office of 
Hen. F. W. Viehe, now deceased. In October, 
1877. lie formed a partnership with Col. C. M. 
Allen, for the practice of the law, remaining 
with him for two years, when he opened an of- 
fice of his own. Having become especially in- 
terested in that branch of the law pertaining to 



titles to real estate, he, in December, 1881, 
opened his present abstract of title office, in the 
Noble block, opposite the court house and has 
since that time given special attention to the 
law of real property and the preparation of 
abstracts of title. He is well known as a title 
lawyer and is regarded by the profession as an 
authority on all complicated legal questions re- 
lating to titles and an expert in the prepara- 
tion of abstracts of title. Mr. McCord has a 
well selected library, especially bearing upon 
the law of real property and a complete set of 
abstract records that are widely known as one 
of the best in the state. His ambition has been 
to become proficient in law of real property and 
an expert in the examination of titles and in 
this he has been eminently successful. 

John L. Buckles. 

John L. Buckles was born in Knox Co., Aug. 
23, 1854. After leaving the public schools he 
attended Danville Col- 
lege, taking about half 
the course. Read law 
four years under the 
preceptorship of pres- 
ent judge of Knox Cir- 
cuit, Orlando H. Cobb, 
and was admitted to 
the bar in 1897. Mr. 
Buckles served as 
deputy sheriff for five 
years, from 1887 to 
1892, and was sheriff 

from 1892 to 1896. Mr. Buckles is also the ef- 
ficient secretary and attorney of the People's 
Savings, Loan and Building Association, or- 
ganized in 1889, with a capitalization of $1,000,- 
000 and in that capacity has done much to for- 
ward the interests of home builders in Vin- 

In December, 1901, a partnership was formed 
between our subject and Robert L. Buckles, 
under firm name and style of Buckles & Buck- 
les, i 
John L. Buckles was married, in 1886, to 
Miss Mary Etta Yates, of Knox County. They 
have two children, one son and one daughter. 

Hon. John Wilhelm. 

John Wilhelm, attorney, is of German paren- 
tage and was bcrn on a farm in Wabash Co., 

near Mt. Carmel, 111., May 10, 1854. His father 
dying when he was but a small boy, John re- 
mained on the farm until he was twenty-three 
years of age, with the exception of the years 
1872-73. during which he was in business in Mt. 
Carmel. At the age of twenty years he took up 
the study of law, which he pursued for four 
years before applying for admission to the bar. 
He entered upon the practice of law in Vin- 
cenes, November 18, 1878. Mr. Wilhelmn's 
first appearance before the people as a candi- 
date for office was in 1885, when he was elect- 
ed mayor on the Democratic ticket, giving to 
the city a clean and able administration of the 
laws. Mr. Wilhelm is a leading member of the 
bar of Vincennes and is at preesnt city coun- 

0. B. Williamson. 

Oscar B. Williamson was born at Lancaster. 
Ohio, May 12, 1872. His parents removing to 
Vincennes when' he was 
small, he was educated 
in the schools of the 
city and was graduated 
from the High School 
in 1889. He then en- 
tered Earlham College, 
of Richmond, Ind., tak- 
ing the mathematical 
course. He was grad- 
uated from this school 
in 1893, with the de- 
gree Bachelor of Sci- 
ence. After leaving College Mr. Williamson en- 
tered the law office of Reily & Emison, in this 
city. He was admitted to the bar in< 1894, and 
remained in the office of Reily & Emison until 
1897, when he formed a partnership with J. S. 
Spiker for the purpose of conducting an ab- 
stract office, the firm name and style being J. S. 
Spiker & Co. This partnership continued until 
August. 1901, when it was dissolved. Mr. 
Williamson has had quite an extended experi- 
ence in making abstracts of title and his 
thorough acquaintance with the records of the 
county, in many instances abstruse and diffi- 
cult to master, makes him one of the most re- 
liable abstractors of the city. Accordingly he 
finds an ever increasing demand for his ser- 
vices in this direction. Mr. Williamson makes 
a specialty of the law of real property and is 
building up a substantial practice. 



Henry S. Cauthorn. 

Henry Sullivan Cauthoru was born in Vin- 
cennes, Feb. 23, 1828. Was graduated from 
the ::Indiana Asbury 
I College." now De Pauw 
University, i n 1849. 
Read law in the office 
of U. S. District Attor- 
ney, Benjamin M. 
I Thomas, of this city, 
and was admitted to 
the bar in 1853, and has 
I since practiced his pro- 
fession at this bar with 
honor and success. In 
1854 lie was elected Dis- 
trict Attorney for the judicial district of Knox, 
Daviess, Pike and Martin Counties. He was 
subsequently for eight years Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court of Knox County. In 1856 lie was, 
on the organization of the city government, the 
first City Attorney. In 1870 Mr. Cauthorn was 
elected representative to the State Legislature, 
and was re-elected in 1872, 1878 and 1880. In 
1879 he was chosen Speaker of the House, a 
position which he filled with credit to himself 
and to the satisfaction of that body. 

In politics Mr. Cauthorn has always been a 
stanch Democrat and in religion a Roman 

He was married, in 1878, to Miss Margaret 
Bayard, of Vincennes. They have seven chil- 
dren living, two sous and four daughters. 

Henry S. Cauthorn, Jr. 

Henry S. Cauthorn, Jr., was born in Vin- 
caun>es, December 4, 1870. He was educated in 
the schools of this city 
and at Notre Dame Uni- 
versity, Notre Dame, 
Ind. After leaving col- 
lege, young Cauthorn 
entered the law office of 
his father, Hon. Henry 
S. Cauthorn, of the city, 
and was admitted to 
the practice Dec. 7, 
1891. He immediately 
entered upon the prac- 
tice in partnership 

with his father, who is looked upon as one of 
the most learned and skillful members of the 
Knox County bar, under the firm name of 

Cauthorn & Cauthorn. In 1896 Mr. Charles E. 
Dailey was admitted into the firm, which be- 
came Cauthorn, Dailey & Cauthorn, and so con- 
tinued till 1900, when, Mr. Dailey withdrawing, 
the firm again became Cauthorn & Cauthorn. 
These firms have handled much business of im- 
portance and magnitude, including the settle- 
ment of the large estates of John B. La Plante 
and Charles Graeter, deceased, and others of 
almost equal dimensions. Mr. Cauthorn has 
made a specialty of probate law, and being a 
young man of studious habits, indomitable en- 
ergy and more than average ability, is forging 
his way upward in the profession. He is a 
Democrat in politics and takes an active part 
in all general elections. In the campaign of 
1900 he was an effective stump speaker. 

Mr. Cauthorn was married, Oct. 6, 1897, to 
Miss Mary T. Bowles, of the city. They have 
one child living. 

Robert G. Cauthorn. 

Robert G. Cathorn was born in Vincennes 
and is a son of Hon. Henry S. Cauthorn. He 
attended Cathedral School until his education 
was sufficient for his 
admission to Vincennes 
University, from which 
he was graduated in 
1896. He then entered 
Georgetown University, 
of Washington, D. C., 
taking the full classical 
course. From this 
school he was gradu- 
ated with honor in 1899, 
taking the degree A. B. 
Mr. Cauthorn is a gifted 
orator and while at the Vincennes University 
captured the "Gould Oratorical Medal" and 
likewise at Georgetown University carried off 
the "Merrick Debating Medal." which is there 
regarded as the ne plus ultra of honors in that 
field.- So highly were his talents in this direc- 
tion regarded by the faculty of the institution 
that he was appointed to deliver the "bach- 
elors' oration" at the commencement. Mr. 
Cauthorn immediately after graduation entered 
the law department of Georgetown College, 
which he attended one year, during which time 
he taught in the preparatory department of the 
college. He was admitted to the practice in 
Vincennes, Sept. 7, 1900. Of more than aver- 
age ability, of excellent habits and a studious 



turn, Mr. Cauthorn gives promise of a bright 
future. He was at a late meeting of the Knox 
County Bar Association elected secretary of 
that organization. 

Wm. S. Hoover. 

William S. Hoover was born in Davis County, 
Indiana, Sept. 5, 1864. He was educated in the 
schools of Knox Coun- 
'ty, to which his parents 
removed in 1866, and in 
the Cincinnati College 
of Law, from which he 
was graduated in 1890, 
with the degree LL. B., 
and was soon after- 
wards admitted to the 
practice in the Knox 
Circuit Court. Mr. 
Hoover is a Democrat 
iu politics, having cast 
his first vote for Cleveland in 1884, and is an 
earnest party worker in all important cam- 
paigns, taking an active part on th<j stump. In 
recognition .of him abilities and a reward for 
faithful party services, Mr. Hoover* in 1898, re- 
ceived the nomination of his party for Prose- 
cuting Attorney for Knox County and was 
elected. So acceptably did he perform the du- 
ties of the office that he was again nominated 
and elected in 1900, being now in the midst of 
his second term. 

A. M. McClure. 

Alvin M. McClure was born in Carroll Coun- 
ty. I ml., Aug. 2C). 1869, and in his early boyhood 
moved to Knox County. 
He was reared, on a 
farm in Busseron 
Township, and received 
his education in the 
common schools and at 
Vincennes University. 
He became a teacher at 
the age of eighteen 
year? and continued to 
teach in the. schools of 
Knox County for a 
period of seven years. 

Taking up the study of law, he spent four and 
one-half years as a student with the well-known 
firm of Cullop & Kessinger. He was admitted 

to the bar in 1893 and in 1895 opened an office 
for the practice of his profession at 320^ Main 
Street, Vincennes, where he has proven himself 
a progressive and successful lawyer, and where 
he has a 'strong and growing clientele. 

Mr. McClure is a Republican and has always 
been a stanch advocate of the principles of the 
party, serving four years as secretary of the 
Republican Central Committee of his county. 
He was the Republican nominee for Prosecut- 
ing Attorney for the Twelfth Judicial Circuit in 
the campaign of 1896, and ran six hundred 
ahead of the national ticket. Mr.' McClure was 
ini 1898, married to Miss Nora Bond, of Oak- 
town, Ind. They reside at 718 Broadway. 

H. W. Alexander. 

Henry W. Alexander was born in Greenville, 
111., Sept. 7, 1852. His ancestry on his father's 
side was of the Sewell 
family of Maine, and on 
his mother's side of the 
Wilkins family of 
South Carolina. He at- 
tended the public 
schools of Greenville, 
and was graduated 
from the Greenville 
High School: In 1872 
he entered the Universi- 
ty of Michigan', at Ann 
Arbor, where he took 
the classical course and was graduated in 1876, 
taking the degree of A. B. He immediately 
entered upon the study of law under the pre- 
ceptorship of Judge Phelps, at Greenville, 111., 
and was admitted to the bar on examination be- 
fore the Appellate Court of Illinois at Mt. Ver- 
non, in 1879. In 1887 he located in Vincennes, 
where he has since remained in the practice of 
his profession, with which he has combined a 
general real estate and loan business. The 
latter has grown to such dimensions as to pretty 
well absorb his attention and in this line Mr. 
Alexander has made a reputation as a prompt, 
reliable and successful dealer. In politics he 
has always been a Republican. He is a mem- 
ber and was for many years clerk of St. Jaroes' 
Episcopal Church, of Vincennes. 

Mr. Alexander was married, Oct. 22, 1884, to 
Miss Flora D. Portmess, of Terrell, Texas. 
They have two daughters. 



Rev. H. T. Willis, First M. E. 

Rev. Tilghman Howard Willis, was born on 
a farm in Sullivan Co., Ind., Oct. 15, 1846. He 
was educated in the public schools and Union 
College, Merom, Ind. 
He enlisted as a pri- 
vate in Aug. 1864, and 
served to the close of 
the war. He was li- 
censed as a local 
preacher in July 1870, 
and entered the Indi- 
ana conference in Sept. 
1871, having traveled 
"White River Mission" 
one year, under the 
presiding elder. He WHS ordained a deacon in 
1873 and an elder in 1875. His first charge 
was Currysyille circuit iii .1871. 'Then followed 
Washington circuit in 1873,. AVheatland circuit 
in 1876, Bruceville, 1879; ,Worthington, 1880. 
Since that date he has been stationed as fol- 
lows: Princeton, 1881-83; New Albany, 1884-89; 
Princeton, 1890; Greencastle, ' 1891 ; Blooming- 
ton district, 1892-98; Vincennes, 1899 to the 
present time. The degree D. D. was conferred 
on Dr. Willis by Moqreshill College 5 in 1898. He 
was a delegate, to the general conference at 
Cleveland. Ohio, in 1896, ^find at 'Chicago in 
1900, representing Indiana "conference, the 
largest conference, in Methodism. 

Rev. Willis possesses a pleasing personality, 
and is an eloquent and feeling speaker and a 
diligent and effective worker. It goes without 
saying, therefore, that he has a strong hold 
upon the affections of his. congregation. 

Mr. Willis iwas marrdedOctober 21, 1869, to 
Miss Sarah E. Johnson, of Carlisle, Ind. They 
have six children/ 

Rev. H. C. Clippinger, Presiding Elder. 

Rev. H. C. Clippinger, A. M., Presiding Elder 
of the Vincennes .District of the Indiana Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was 
born at Concord, New Hampshire, Oct. 13, 1859. 
His father was a Methodist minister. He is a 
graduate of the Evansville High School, of the 
class of 1878, and also of De Pauw University, 
class 1882. He entered the Indiana Conference 
in 1882, and has served New Harmony, Owens- 

ville, Salem, Rockport, Wesley Chapel, New 
Albany and Vincennes M. E. Churches as pas- 
tor, and was made Presiding Elder in 1899 by 
Bishop Goodsell. He was married to Miss 
Hettie L. Blemker, of Evansville, Oct. 22, 1884. 
They have three children, Foster, Gilbert and 
Mary. Mr. Clippinger received the degrees of 
A. B. and A. M. from De Pauw University. He 

is a Trustee of Moore's Hill College, and has 
been Grand Chaplain of the state for the I. 
O. O. F. and has represented his Conference as 
visitor to De Pauw Theological School and to 
Garrett Biblical Institute as Evanston, 111. He 
is a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon Col- 
lege fraternity. 

Rev. Meinrad Fleischman. 

Rev. Meinrad Fleishman, pastor of the 
Church of St. John the Baptist, was bora in 
Switzerland in 1844, 
and came- to this- coun- 
try with h\s parents 
when yet a child. He 
was educated at St. 
Meinrad's Abbey, in 
Spencer County, Ind., 
and was ordained to- 
the priesthood June 21, 
1867. His first work 
was as assistant priest 
at New Albany, where 
he remained about eigh- 
teen months. He then became pastor of St. 



Michael's Church, at Brookville, Indiana, De- 
cember 8, 1868. Here he remained until trans- 
ferred to Vincennes, in December, 1897, twen- 
ty-nine years. 

Rev. W. A. Hunter, First Presbyterian. 

Rev. William A. Hunter, D. D., was born in 
Ohio. His father at the time of the doctor's 
'birth was a wholesale grocer in Cincinnati, but 
later removed to Macomb, 111., where he engaged 

in farming and stock raising. Here Dr. Hunter 
was reared and received his early education. He 
then entered Hanover College, of Hanover, Ind. 
After taking the classical course of this school 
he entered Princeton Theological Seminary, of 
Princeton, New Jersey, from which he was 
graduated in 1879. He was ordained by Schuy- 
ler Presbytery and his first charge was at War- 
saw, Illinois, as pastor of Wythe Church. 
Thence he was called to the pastorate of the 
Presbyterian Church at Clinton, Illinois, where 
he remained fifteen years, during which his 
church grew in strength and general prosperity. 
During this period Dr. Hunter received various 
calls to important charges elsewhere, all which 
were declined because of his attachment to the 
Clinton congregation, but in 1899, receiving a 
call to Fort Collins, Colo., and feeling the neces- 
sity of a change in behalf of the health of his 
family, the call was accepted and he remained 
there until called by the First Presbyterian 
Church of Vincennes. 

Dr. Hunter was a contemporary at Hanover 
College with a number of young men from Vin- 
cennes, including Hon. Royal E. Purcell, Hon. 
W. A. Cullop, J. P. Ooan and J. P. L. Weems. 
Here also he met and won the lady who has 
since been his helpmeet, in the person of Miss 
Mattie Dunn. They have two children, a son 
who is in college at Colorado Springs, Colo., 
and a daughter of five years. 

Dr. Hunter was for twelve years stated clerk 
of the Bloomington (111.) Presbytery and was 
moderator of the Illinois Synod, at Peoria, in 
1895. He wasMn 1900 moderator of the Synod 
of Colorado, at Denver. He received the de- 
gree of A. M. from Hanover College in 1886, 
and that of D. D. from Blackburn University, 
of Carlinville, Illinois, in 1896. 

Rev. Louis Gueqen, St. Franois Xavier. 

Rev. Louis Guegen, pastor of St. Francis 
Xavier Church, was born in Brittany. France, 
in the year 1834. He received his education in 
France and came to America in 1859, when 
just ready for ordination to the priesthood. He 
came direct to Vincennes and was ordained at 

St. Francis Xavier Cathedral, December 8, 
1859. He went to Madison, Indiana, where he 
remained till I860. He was then stationed at 
Washington. Indiana, for a short time in the 
fall of 1860, going from there to St. Marys, 
Floyd Knobs. Floyd County, where he remain- 
ed three years. He was then at New Albany 
for about eight months, going thence to Loo- 



gootee, Martin County, Indiana, where he re- 
mained for more than twenty years. From 
here he went to Madison, Indiana, as pastor of 
St. Michael's Church for five and a half years. 
From Madison he was transferred to Vincenues 
as rector of St. Francis Xavier's Church, in 
1890, and has continued in the pastorate to 
the present time. 

Rev. J. B. Miller, Cum. Pres. 

Rev. John B. Miller, pastor of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, of Vincennes, was 
born at Amity, Pa., 
January I, 1870. His 
education was begun in 
the public schools of 
Amity and continued in 
Waynesburg College, of 
Waynesburg, Pa., 
where he took the full 
classical course and 
form which he was 
graduated' in June, 
1892, taking the degree 
A. B., receiving the ad- 
vanced degree of A. M., two years later. Im- 
mediately after leaving Waynesburg College 
Mr. Miller entered the Western Theological 
Seminary, where he spent two years, following 
which he spent one year in the theological de- 
partment of Cumberland University, Lebanon, 
Tennessee. He was ordained to the ministry in 
April, 1893. His first work was as pastor of a 
Cumberland. Presbyterian Church' at Salem 
City, Pa. Here he remained seven years, re- 
signing the work in March, 1900, on account of 
partial failure of voice, going to California to 
recuperate. From there he was called to his 
present charge, May 5, 1901. 

Mr. Miller was- married, June 27, 1893, to 
Miss Annie F. Edwards, of Slate Lick, Pa. 

Rev. W. G. Law, Baptist. 

Rev. W. G. Law, Pastor of the First Baptist 
Church of Vincennes, was born in Greene Coun- 
ty, Indiana, Oct. 2, 1856. He was reared on a 
farm, but became a teacher at the age of nine- 
teen years and followed that profession for 
twelve years. He was educated at the State 
University .at Bloomington, Ind., and at the 
State Normal School at Terre Haute. He was 
married, Aug. 28, 1889, to Miss Alpina Rails- 
back, of Terre Haute, Ind. To this union were 

born four children, of whom two only are 

After entering the ministry, Mr. Law's first 
pastorate was that of Petersburg, Pike County, 
Ind., where he remained six years. He then 
took charge, of the churches at Freelandvillej 
Edwardsport and Bicknell, making his home at 
Freelandville for the first two years, after 
which he removed to Bicknell, where he re- 
mained in charge of the same work one year 
longer, coming to Vincennes, to his present field 
of labor, Jan. 1, 1901. 

Rev. De Lou Burke, St. James, Epis. 

The Rev. De Lou Burke, Rector of St. James' 
Church, and Professor of Philosophy and Peda- 
gogy in Vincennes University, was born at 
Crawfordsville, Ind., March 24, 1858. He was 
educated in the Central Indiana Normal Col- 
lege, of Danville, Ind., graduating in 1877. He 
taught until 1888, when he entered the Nasho- 
tah Theological seminary of Nashotah, Wis. 
From this school he was graduated in 1892, and 
was ordained Priest by Bishop Nicholson in 
All Saints' Cathedral, Milwaukee, on Trinity 
Sunday. 1892. For two years he was Rector 
of St. Mark's Church, Beaver Dam, Wis. He 
then accepted a call to St. James' Church, 
South Bend. Ind. He was Rector there for six 

years, and in that time built the church there, 
which is one of the most beautiful and churchly 
edifices in the state. In the fall of 1898 he ac- 
cepted a call to St. James' Church, Vincennes, 



holding his first service on Advent Sunday, that 

In September, 1901, he was elected to the 
chair of Philosophy and Pedagogy in the Vin- 
cennes University. This professorship he act 
cepted and now teaches in the University, along 

ivith his duties as Rector of St. James. 
The Rev. Mr. Burke is an Odd Fellow and an 

.nthusiastic Mason, Holding the office of Prelate 
in the commandery and Chaplain in the Blue 
Lodge of this city. 

Rev. William Oeschqer, Christian. 

William Oeschger was born, Sept. 2, 1868, in 
Philadelphia, Penn. When 2 years old his par- 
ents removed to Indi- 
ana, and eight years 
later to Nebraska. He 
received Ms early edu- 
cation in the public- 
schools. In the fall of 
1889 he entered Cotner 
University, at Lincoln, 
Neb. He was gradu 
ated from that institu 
tion with the degree of 
A. B. in June, 1894. In 
July of the same year 
he entered the University of Chicago. He was 

given the degree of A. B. from that institution 
in April, 1895. After this he entered the Divin- 
ity School of the University of Chicago. ID 
1898, after three years of work in that school, 
he was given the degree of Bachelor of Divin- 
ity. From Chicago he went to Fairbury, Neb., 
to take charge of the First Christian Church of 
that city. In the spring of 1900 he accepted a 
call to this city. 

He was married to Miss Dema Hopkins, May 
17, 1899. Rev. Oeschger is a strong and able 
preacher and as a pastor has gained the respect 
and affection of his flock in a marked degree 
since his arrival here. 

'William Simpson's Pony and Cart 

Fourth Street, North from Vigo 



St. Francis Xavier Cathedral. 

The foundation of St. Francis Xavier Cathe- 
dral dates back to the early French settlement 
at Vincennes when the little log structure with 
its chinking of grass and clay served the pur- 
poses of a house of worship for the pioneer in- 

against the Chickasaw Indians, in 1836. A mar- 
riage record bearing date April 21, 1749, and 
signed by Father Meurin, a Jesuit missionary, 
is the next preserved. In the following June 
is a baptismal record of a child. These cer- 
tificates are also signed by M. St. Ange, "Lieu- 
tenant of marines and commandant for the 
king at Post Vincennes." The last record 
made by Fr. Meurin was that of a burial, un- 
der date of March 17, 1853. Fr. Meurin was 

Presbyterian Parsonage and Old Church 

habitants. The first allusion to the Vincennes 
Church in any preserved writings is a letter 
from Father Marest, written from Kaskaskia 
in 1712, in which he states that "the French, 
having lately established a post on the 
Wabash, demanded a missionary and Father 
Mermet was sent , there." How long Father 
Mermet served the new church we are not in- 
formed but it appears that Fr. Senat was pas- 
tor at Vincenntes in 1736, having come here 
with Francis Morgan de Vincenne and per- 
ished with 'him in the ill-fated expedition 

.Main Street, between Fifth and Sixth 

succeeded at Post Vincennes by Fr. Louis 
Vivier, 1753-56. Half the records of this time 
are said to be of "red or Indian slaves" be- 
longing to the commandant and the inhabit- 
ants. Father Julian Du Vernay was the last 
Jesuit missionary at the post, his service being 
1756-03. The records were kept by a notary 
from 1763 to '70, from which it is inferred 
there was no pastor in charge. In the latter 
year Fr. Gibault arrived, and was in charge 
for many years, being absent at Intervals. He 
it was who came from KaskaskJa in the latter 



part of 1778, after Col. Clark's capture of Kas- 
kaskia, and assembling the inhabitants of the 
post in the church, induced them to take the 
oath of allegiance to the state of Virginia. In 
May. following the capture of the post by Col. 

St. Francis*Xavier Cathedral, Second and Church 

Clark, Fr. Gibault again took up his residence 
here. He records the building of a new 
church, 42x90 feet, in 1784. In 1789 Fr. 
Gibault installed Pierre Mallet, a layman, as 
guardian of the church, and this guardianship 
continued until the arrival of Fr. Flajet, In 
1792. Fr. Flaget was succeeded by Fr. Lava- 
doux, and he by Rev. John Francis Rivet 
The last was particularly zealous in his work 

among the Indians and records many mar- 
riages and baptisms among them. He died at 
Vincennes in 1804, the first priest who died 
here. He established the first school in the 
old French village. 

The members of this congregation 
comprise about 300 families. It owns 
the church, library and episcopal resi- 
dence and maintains a parochial 
school for boys, having a large brick 
school house. The instructors are 
Sisters of Providence. The girls are 
also under the instruction of the Sis- 
ters of Providence, at St. Rose Acad- 

The See of Vincennes was erected in 
1834, with the Rt. Rev. Simon G. W. 
Brute as first bishop. He remained 
in charge till his death in June, 1839, 
when he was succeeded by Rt. Rev. 
Celestine Rene Lawrence Guynemer 
de la Hailandiere, who officiated for 
about eight years, resigning the office 
in 1847. John Stephen Bazin became 
Bishop of Vincennes, Oct. 24, 1847, but 
dying April 23, 1848, was succeeded by 
Rt. Rev. James M. Maurice de Long 
d'Aussac de St. Palais, as administra- 
tor till January, 1849, when he was 
consecrated to the bishopric, which he 
held until his death, June 28, 1877. 
August 11, 1878, Rt. Rev. Francis Silas 
Chartard became Bishop of Vincenues, 
taking up his residence at Indianapolis 
instead of Vincennes. Bishop Chatard 
continues in office, the name having 
been' changed about the year 1897 to 
the Diocese of Indianapolis. 

The present rector is Rev. Louis 
Guegnen. Rev. Frederic Burget, as- 

The Cathedral, building now standing 
immediately in Line with Second 
Street, at Second and Church Streets, 

is perhaps the oldest church edifice In the 
state. The erection of a new church was de- 
cided upon at a public meeting called for the 
purpose by Rev. J. L. Champonier and Hya- 
cinth Lasselle, July 24, 1825. The corner stone 
was laid with due solemnity by Father Cham- 
ponier, March 30, 1826. The erection and com- 
pletion of the building occupied several years 
and was not accomplished until the year 1830. 
In connection with the cathedral is a library 



of something like ten thousand volumes, in- 
cluding many rare and valuable books. 

St. James Episcopal Church, Fourth and Busseron 

St. James Episcopal Church. 

St. James Protestant Episcopal Church was 
organized in Vincennes, Oct. 7, 1837, the Rev. 
B. B. Killikelly presiding at the meeting which 
resulted in the organization. Rev. Killikelly 
was the first rector, or as the records say "pas- 
tor." The vestrymen chosen at this meeting 
were George Davis, Geo. Cruikshank, John 
Craiksihank, Jas. W. Groenhow. Samuel 
Langston. A. T. Ellis and Joseph Somes. 
Of these. Messrs. Davis and Greenhow 
were chosen Wardens, Joseph Somes, 
Treasurer. Geo. W. Rathbun was elected Sec- 
retary of the Vestry. Ait this meeting Un- 
church was named St. James and the Rev. Kil 
likelly chosen "pastor." A committee was ap- 
pointed to secure the permission of the town 
authorities to use the town hall for the ser- 
vices until a church could be provided, "and if 

consent is obtained to have the same properly 
fitted up with stoves and seats; and further 
that they correspond with Gen. W. H. 
Harrison in relation to a lot hereto- 
fore donated by him to this church, 
asking permission to sell the lot and 
apply the proceeds to the purchase of 
a more eligible location. The coJ.sent 
of Gen. Harrison to this program was 
later obtained. 

Great difficulties were experienced in 
the early uays of the church in meet- 
ing its necessary expenses. The town 
hall was fitted up at a cost of $117.25, 
and the church granted its exclusive 
use, the vestrymen having agreed to 
contribute $5.00 each on the first Mon- 
day of each month to meet the ex- 
pense. The financial difficulties un- 
der which the infant church labored 
induced the vestry, at a meeting held 
Feb. 20, 1840, to "request anU em- 
power" the pastor to travel and solicit 
aid to erect a new church, and $50 
was advanced him to pay his expenses. 
In May. Mr. Killikelly reported that 
he had been unable to secure any as- 
sistance and refunded the money. At 
a meeting held Dec. 23, a committee 
which had been appointed to secure a 
building lot reported in favor of a 
half lot at corner Fourth and Busseron, 
belonging to the heirs of Hiram Soden, 
deceased, which could be had for $400, 

"$200 cash in hand; balance at the end of one 
year." By a unanimous vote the committee 
was instructed to bay this lot. Here the 
church was erected. Arrangements were soon 
after made for the pastor to make a trip 
through the Eastern States and England to 
secure funds and $400 was borrowed for his 
expenses. On this trip the pastor more than 
redeemed his formed delinquency, raising, ac- 
cording to out- computation from the 
records, the neat sum of $3,527.73. Among the 
contributors in England were many bishops and 
archbishops, lords and members of Parliament. 
The list was headed by a 10 subscription by 
Queen Adelaide, the dowager queem, aunt of 
Queen Victoria. W. E. Gladstone contributed 
5. The present church was erected in 1843, 
but without the tower, which was added in 
1868. The Rectory was erected in 1864-G5. 



Rev. Killikelly, on account of failing health, re- 
linquished his charge in 1843, but after a year's 
rest returned to it in 1844, resigning it a sec- 
ond tine in 1 1840. 

The present rector. Rev. De Lou Burke, was 
called to the church in 1898, holding his first 
service on Advent Sunday. 

First M. E. Church. 

There is no record, by which the exact date 
of the organization of the first "Methodist Soci- 
ety" in Vineennes, can be obtained; nor can the 
names of those composing that lirst society be 
obtained. It was probably organized about 
1808. In 1810. Vineennes was the head of a 
large "circuit," extending from Fort Harrison 
to the Ohio River, and from the Wabash River 
to Orange County. 

which Gov. Harrison was present and held the 
candle while the reverend gentleman read the 
hymn and scripture lesson. There is no record 
of the exact date of the building of the first 
"Meeting House" in Vineennes. The deed for 
the lot on which stood the old brick church that 
was torn down in 1900, and on which the par- 
sonage still stands, was made by William 
Henry Harrison, to David S. Bonner, Richard 
Posey and Thomas Collins, April 18, 1828. The 
present beautiful and commodious stone build- 
ing was erected at a cost of about $25,000, and 
is located on the corner of Fourth and Perry 
Streets. The corner stone was laid by Bishop 
Fowler, April IT. IS'.tO. The building was dedi- 
cated by Bishop McCabe, April 1, 1900. Archi- 
tect, Thomas Campbell: Building Committee, 
M. A. Bosworth. A. M. Sheperd, George Harris. 
At this date, February, 1902, 
there is a membership of 475. 
A Sunday school of 300. A 
Senior Epworth League of 
103 and a Junior Epworth 
League of 50 members. 

The church pays for the 
support of the ministry 
$1,725, and paid last year 
(1901) to missions and other 
benevolences $840. 

The next session of the In- 
diana Annual Conference, a 
body composed of 321 minis- 
ters, will be held in this 
church, in September, 1902. 

First Presbyterian 

The First Presbyterian 
Church of Vineennes was 
organized by Rev. Samuel 
Robertson in 1806, the first 
place of worship being a 
short distance in the country 
and known' as Upper Indiana 
Church. Rev. Samuel T. 
Scott was the first pastor and 
services were held in Vin- 
rrnnt's at private houses and 
occasionally at the court 
house at Third and Buntin 
Streets. There were two or- 
Among the first preaching services held by gauizations known as Upper and Lower Indiana 
the Methodists in Vineennes, of which there is churches, nnd membership was held with either 
any record, is one conducted by Rev. Wians, at of these till about 1832. when an organization 

First M. E. Church, Fourth and Perry Thomas Campbell, Architect 



was effected in the city by Rev. Scott with a 
meinl>ership of thirty-one. 
Through the influence of Revs. Alexander and 

whose pastorate was from 1833 to 1835. He 
was succeeded by Rev. John McNarr, 1835-36; 
Rev. Thos. Alexander, 1836-47; Rev. John P. 

Sunday School Class. Mrs. 

Hawley a considerable amount of money was 
raised In the East for the erection* of a Church, 
and a brick edifice, 40x60 feet, was built at 
Fifth and Busseron Streets. The first pastor 
of the new church was the Rev. W. W. Martin, 

New Christian Church, Third and Broadway From Architect's Drawing 

{Catherine Morse, M. E. S. S. 

Smith, 1847-56; Rev. John W. Ely the, 1856-58; 
Rev. J. F. Jennison, 1859-60; Rev. Eli B. Smith, 
1861-2. In 1862, during the pastorate of Rev. 
Smith, a schism arose in the church which be- 
came so bitter as to cause the withdrawal of 
eighty-seven mem- 
bers, wlho organized 
the Second Presby- 
terian Church of 
Vincennes. Rev. E. 
B. Smith continued 
pastor of the First 
Church until 1866, 
and was succeeded 
by Rev. J. F. Hendy, 
wlho was the pastor 
till 1872, when he re- 
signed and in the fol- 
lowing year the two 
churches were re- 
united under the pas- 
torate of the Rev. 
Joseph Vance. 

After the division, 
in 1862, the Second 
church was under 
the ministration of 
Rev. E. S. Wilson, 
who was stated sup- 



ply from June, 1862, to 1865. During this time 
the congregation erected the brick church on 
Main, between Fifth and Sixth Streets, at a 
cost of $9,000. Rev. Wilson was succeeded by 
Rev. Joseph Vance, wfoo was pastor of the 
Second Church until 1873, and of the re-united 
church until July 1, of the following year, when 
he resigned, and was succeeded by the Rev. C. 
B. H. Martin, who served the church until De- 
cember, 1877. Three calls were made before 
the church secured a successor to Rev. Thayer 
and it was Sept. 10, 1878, wten Rev. E. P. 
Whalen was installed. H remained in charge 
ten years, and the church was/then without a 
pastor some three years, until the Rev. T. S. 
Scott accepted a call and became pastor in 
1891, remaining unitil 1896 when 'he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. George Knox, 1896-1901. Rev. 
W. A. Hunter, D. D., the present pastor, as- 

First Presbyterian Church, Fifth < 

sumed charge December, 1901. 

In 1884 an elegant new cihurch was erected at 
Fifth and Busseron Streets at a cost of $14,000. 

and to this an addition was built in 1899, cost- 
ing about $15,000. 

First Baptist Church. 

The First Baptist Church was organized by 
Rev. Gillespie in 1860. The present churcfc 
buildimg was erected six years later at the cor- 
ner of Fifth and Broadway. Since the organi- 
zation of this cihurch the pastors have been 
Revs. Gillispie, Robinson, Bradenbury, Gavins, 
Stinson, Butler, Kerth, Thomas, Wolford and 
the present pastor, Rev. W. G. Law. The pres- 
ent membership is about 230. This church is 
in excellent working condition, every depart- 
ment being well organized and harmonious, and 
the work being successfulfully carried forward. 
It is interesting to note in this connection that 
the Rev. Gillespie, the founder of this church.,, 
is still living at Fort Worth, Texas, at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty- 
five years. 

Church of St. 
John the Baptist. 

Prior to the year 
1851 the German 
Catholics at Vin- 
cennes (had no sep- 
arate organization 
and worshipped at 
the Cathedral, with 
occasional services in 
German. In 1846, 
Rev. Charles Opper- 
man had his resi- 
dence at tlhe Cathe- 
dral and conducted 
services in German. 
He was succeeded 
by Rev. Conrad 
S c h n e i derjans in 
1847. Their first 
church was built 
der the adminis- 
tration of the Rev. 
Nicholas S.tauber in 
18M, being a brick 
building 40x80 feet 
ard forming part of 
the present hand- 

id Busseron 

some structure at Eighth and Main Streets. 
Rev. Stauber was succeeded by Rev. Leonard 
Brandt, who had charge till 1856. The first 



resident iirh'st and pastor was William Enjjeln. 
who reiuaimtd till 1853, and was succeeded by 
Jicv. Acu'ldins Joseph Merz, who took charge in 

was organized on the 3d Sunday in June, 1833. 
It is not known by whom the church was or- 
ganized, nor how many and who the charter 
members were. The 
only on>*5 that it is 
definitely known 
were charter mem- 
bers were H. D. 
Wheeler and wife, 
and Samuel Piety 
and wife.. For fifteen 
years after the or- 
ganization of the 
church, the society 
was without a fixed 
home of worship. 
During that time its 
services were held 
in private houses, 
town hall, court 
house &c. 

On May 5, 1846, 
the plot of ground on 

Baptist Church, Association Tiim Fifth, betw:n 

1863. In 1866, under direction of Rev. Merz 
the sanctuary was removed and the church en- 
larged in the form of a cross. It is' now 40x154 
feet and has a transept 40x80 feet. Rev. Merz' 
labors resulted in making this one of the finest 
church properties in the diocese. The first 
parochial school was opened in 1851, private 
houses being utilized in lieu of a school build- 
ing. In 1856 a small school building was erect- 
ed, and this was siiperseded in 1873, under the 
administration of Rev. Merz, by the present 
commodious two-story building. The school is 
now in charge of Prof. Nicholas Schnell, as- 
sisted by three Sisters of Providence, and has 
an average attendance of about 220. The 
priests' residence was erected about 1855 or '56. 
Rev. Merz continued in charge of this con- 
gregation till his death. March 27, 1897. The 
present pastor. Rev. Meinrad Fleischmann, 
came to the charge on the 10th of the following 
December, and has been here continuously 
sinice. The present membership includes about 
350 families. 

Christian Church. 

The Christian Church, of Vincennes, Ind., 


the present 
was pur- 
from Judge 

Broadway and Buntin 

Blackford anid deed- 
ed to H. D. Wheeler, Alpheus Draper and D. J. 
R. Mantle, in trust, as trustees of the 6hurch. 
In the fall of that same year the congregation 
began the erection of a house of worship. It 
was dedicated Oct. 19; 1848. For many years 
the church was without a regular pastor. It 
was dependent on evangelists and lay brothers; 
for preaching for many years. Among the 
first preachers were: Michael Combs, Father 
Palmer. Morris Trimble. David Worfor, James 
M. Mathes, Elijah Goodwin, Jdhni O'Kane, L. 
H. Jameson, P. K. Dibble, O. A. Bartholomew, 
Prof. Amzi, At/water, J. K. Speer, Stephen Bur- 
net, Dr. Eccles, J. H. Harrison. In 1861 the 
church was visited by Alexander Campbell. In 
18C5 the church employed T. T. Holton as its 
pastor for full time. He was the first man so 
employed. In 1869 W. H. Tiller was called to 
the past orate. In 1871 T. J. Clark was called. 
He remained with it for 21 years. He was 
followed bq J. W. Jessup, 'he by G. M. Weimes, 
who was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. 
Wm. Oeschger. The church at present num- 
bers 500 members. In the spring of 1902 it will 
build one of the finest churches in the city, cor- 
ner Third and Broadway, at a cost of $30,000. 



Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

The First Cumberland Presbyterian Church 
of Vincennes was organized at the court house. 
April 28, 1890, by Rev. H. Clay Yates, assisted 

Watson, Mrs. Mary Underwood, Elizabeth In- 
gram, Joseph Roseman, Hannah Presnell, Jen- 
nie Hazen, Lueinda Sawyer, Ella J. Medcalf, 
Emma McCarrell. The church building waa 
erected during the summer of 1890. The church 

by Rev. Alonzo Yates, of Monroe City. The 
following are the charter members: Mrs. Sallie 
Setzer, Nannie Setzer, Alfred Reel, W. H. Wil- 
son, Lee Milam, Emma Presnell. John S. Saw- 
yer, Cassada Pinkstaff, N. E. Medcalf, Wm. A. 
Reel, Mary A. Mass, Emma Setzer, Lueinda 

has had four pastors, Rev. H, Clay Yates, from 
April 28, 1890, to April 1, 1895; Rev. F. A. 
Grant, from July 1, 1895. to Jan. 1. 189(5; Rev. J. 
X. McDonald, from March, 1897, to April, 1901; 
Rev. J. B. Miller, the present pastor, took 
charge May 5, 1901. The church has a pres- 



ent membership of 230 and a Sunday school en- 
rollment of 237. There is also a Ladies' Aid 
Society, Malonna Circle, Missionary Society and 
Senior and Junior Christian Endeavor Societies. 

St. John's 



St. John's Evangel- 
ical Church was or- 
ganized in 1849 by a 
little band of no 
more than six fami- 
lies of Germans who 
had settled in Viii- 
cennes and Who had 
begun to hunger tc 
hear the gospel 
preached in their 
mother tongue, when 
in August, 1849, a 
young preacher, 
Rev. P. C. Thomson, 
on his way to St. 
Louis chanced, to 
stop over for a day 
or so in the city. The 
few German fami- 
lies here, both Lu- 
therans and Evan 
gelical, by consider- 
able effort, prevailed 
on him to remain 
and preach to them. 
Then* meetings were 
for a time held ii> 
the town hall. Mr. 
Thomson proved an 
energetic and capable man and though his in- 
come from his small congregation was neces- 
sarily very small, not over 30c or 40c a day, he 
added somewhat to his income by teaching 
German and by "boarding around" among the 
members of his congregation was enabled to 
live. At the end of nine mouths, however, re- 
ceiving a call from Louisville, he was con- 
strained to accept and his little congregation 
paid him ini full and released him with earnest 
prayers for his success in a field better adapted 
to his abilities. Rev. Thomson was succeeded 
after an interval of some months by the Rev. 
Carl Kuster. 18.">l-53. Rev. Kuster being called 
to Terre Haute the congregation was again for 

some time without a pastor. Then came Rev. 
Frederick Schlundt Who appears to have sys- 
tematized the work of the church, prepared a 
code of by-laws and the firat preserved records 

Church of St. John The Baptist Eighth and Main 

of the church were begun under his administra- 
tion. He was succeeded in December, 1855, by 
Rev. Cornbaum, under whose administration 
the first church edifice was erected, at Eighth 
and Scott Streets. Soon afterward there was a 
division in the church, one faction adhering to 
the Evangelical and the other to the Lutheran 
faith. Of the Evangelical branch the first 
pastor was Rev. Christopher Jung, 1857-9. For 
some time thereafter there was no regular pas- 
tor but the church was occasionally supplied 
by Rev. Hoffmeister, of Freelandville. Rev. 
Frederick Durlitz became pastor in 1862, and 
continued in charge till 1804. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. C. Hoffmeister, 1864-65; Rev. 



Wm. Jung, 1865-70; Rev. Nicholas Burkhart, 
1871-73; Rev. Paul Werber, 1873-74; Rev. Albert 
Schorey, 1874-83; Rev. Otto J. Kuss, 1884-85; 
Rev. Reller, 1886-1901; Rev. Henry Mehl, nine 
months of 1901, his pastorate 'having been ter 
urinated by Ms death. The pastor-elect is Rev. 
Louis Holman. Mr. and Mrs John Hamm, of 
1204 North First Street, are probably the only 
living members of the original organization. 
The present 'handsome church edifice at Fifth 
and Hart Streets, was erected in 1886, at a cost 
of $12,000. The present parsonage was built in 
1899 at a cost of $3,800. 

St. John's Lutheran Church. 

St. John's Lutheran Church was organized in 
1859. The congregation erected a church build- 
ing at the corner of Eighth and Scott Streets. 
The first pastor was the Rev. Peter Seuel, who 
was ordained and in- 
stalled Oct. 26th, 
He was s u c- 
ceeded by the Rev. 
F. R. Tramm, Sept. 
26th, 1869, who 
continued in charge 
pastorate the congre- 
till 1880. During his 
gation builded a 
larger 'house of wor- 
ship, a handsome 
brick structure, cost- 
ing $10,000 at the 
corner of Eighth and Scott Streets, to succeed 
the first church building; the new edifice was 
dedicated Dec. 10, 1876. Rev. Tramm was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. C. F. Huge, Sept. 26, 1880. 
His successor, the Rev. G. Goesswein, was in- 
stalled Jan. llth, 1885, and served till June, 
1897. The present pastor, Rev. Carl Kretz- 
mann, was installed Sept. 12, 1897, and his as- 
sistant pastor and 
missionary, the Rev. 
Martin Kretzmann, 
was ordained and in- 
stalled Aug. 4, 1901. 

This congregation 
maintains continual- 
ly a parochial- school 
since 1859, and erect- 
ed a two-story bricM 
school house, next to 
the church, in 1866. 

Rev. Martin Kretzmann The number of 

Rev. Carl Kretzmann 

scholars at present is ninety, wlio are in charge 
of the teacher, Mr. August Fathauer and the 
Rev. Martin Kretzmann, and their assistant, 
Mrs. Julia Steffen. 

The trustees at the present time are Messrs 
E. H. Younghans, John Kirsch and Geo. Hall. 


Malluch Court, No. 45, T. B. H. 

Malluch Court, No. 45, Tribe of Ben Hur, was 
organized at Yincentnes Dec. 4. 1895, with eigh- 
ty-one (83)- charter members. The first officers 
were: Chief, Dr. H. S. Latshaw; Judge, Alfred^ 
Laue; Teacher, Rev. J. N. Jessup; Scribe, Will 
L. Te Walt; Keeper of Tribute, John T. Boyd; 
Captain, Samuel Thompson; Guide, Ed. S. 

The trustees were William C. Bierhaus, Geo. 
W. Donaldson, and Alfred S. Laue. 

The court lias had a prosperous existence and 
has always had a strong membership, composed 
of the better class of citizens. Its' present mem- 
bership is about four hundred, with the follow- 
ing 'officers: Past Chief, Arthur T. Cobb; Chief, 
John (j. Wise: Judge, Mrs. Mamie Sliugert; 
Teacher. Mrs. Melissa Evans; SCribe, Will L. Te 
Walt; Keeper of Tribute. Mrs. Nannie Lat- 
shaw; Captain, Winfield W. Robinson; Guide, 
Miss Gertrude Scott: Keeper of the Inner Gate, 
Jas. Hensley; Outer Guard, T. J. Burrell. Since 
the organization of Malluch Court nine deaths 
have occurred in its membership and the losses 
paid to beneficiaries have aggregated $12,500. 
Ini every case payment was made promptly 
after proof furnished, in some cases within a 
week from Hhe date of death. 

Malluch Court is a live and active organiza- 
tion, has excellent paraphernalia and fine uni- 
forms and one of the best drilled teams in the 
state for the exemplification of the work. 


In no case will more than $3,000 be granted 
on any one life. 

A monthly payment, as above, from each 
member holding a beneficial certificate will be 
due on the first day of each month, and must 
be paid to the Scribe of his or her Court on, OP 
before the 25th day of each month, without 

In addition to above payment, as per the* 
table of rates, each beneficial member must 
pay a per capita tax of 75 cents in June an'l 


I. WinfieldW. Robinson, Captain. 2. James Hensley, Master Cer. 3 . Miss Dollie Phillips, Pianist. 4. J. C. Wise, Aus. 
5. Mrs. Nannie E. Latshaw, Past Chief. 6. Peter J. Burns, Sitting Chief. 7. Miu Lizzie Bombarg, Terza. 8. Mr. Sue 
Hensley, Judge. 9. Mrs. May Burns, Lady Guide. J 0. Dr. H. S. Latshaw, Drill Master. J J. Fred. Shugrt, Guide. 12. Mrs. 
Malissa Evans, Teacher. 13. Miss Effie Bombarg, Hebrew Girl. 14. Mrs. Mamie Shugert, Mother of Hur. 15. Albert Brook*, 
Rabbi Joseph. 1 6. A. Grant McKay, Ben Hur. 





Ben Hur Boat in Floral 
of each year, in addition to the local 

Court dues. 



Whole One and One 
At the Certificate, Mo. half Certificate, 
ages Payment Mo. Payment, 
of $1.00 $1.50 

25 to 29 1,400 2,100 

Mo. Pa>- 

ment $2.00 


29 to 33 




33 to 37 




37 to 40 




40 to 43 




43 to 45 


1,350 . 


45 to 47 




47 to 48 




48 to 49 




49 to 50 




18 to 15 



. $3,000 

The cost to become a member -of the Tribe of 
Ben Hur is as follows: 
Membership Fee, $5.00; Certificate and Regis- 

Parade July 4, J900 

tration, $1.00; Local Medical Examiner, $1.00; 
Supreme Medical Examiner 50 conts. 

The above fees must be paid to the authorized 
Deputy in Charge of the institution of the Court, 
as follows, viz: $2.50 when application is made, 
and $5.00 upon the delivery of certificate. 


First Men affld women are alike eligible to 

Second The protection is graded according 
to age, but tfhe monthly payments remain the 

Tfhird No assessments upon death of mem- 

Fourth An Old Age Disability, of one-tenth 
of the face of the Certificate, after 70 years of 

Fifth A Partial Disability of one-half of the 
face of the Certificate for the "loss of both legs, 
both arms, or one leg and one arm by amputa- 
tion, or the loss of the sight of both eyes. Or, 



one-fourth of the face of the Certificate for the 
loss of one leg or one hand by amputation. 

.Sixth A Reserve Fund is created by setting 
aside ten per cent, of the monthly payments. 


It is a new order, founded in 1894, has a 
beautiful ritualistic work, drawn from the 
book Ben Hur. 

It has a very rigid medical examination; none 
but first-class risks accepted. 

The amount of a member's certificate does 
not change with advancing age, but remains 
the same in. amount as when issued. 

Its plans are entirely different from all as- 
sessment orders that collect assessments only 

the only heretofore weak feature in fraternal 

Tecumseh Camp, 3945, M. W. A. 

Tecumseh Camp, No. 3945, Modern Woodmen 
of America, was after two preliminary meet- 
ings, organized June 17, 1896, and its charter 
bears date Aug. 29, 1896. The charter members 
were: C. W. Benham, M. D., F. A. Berry, John 
Branon. Otto Brandt, John T. Boyd, Earl H. 
Buck, Peter J. Burns, Owen Coleman, Thos. B. 
Coulter, J. H. Cannon, W. W. Cassell, C. W. 
Fyffe, L. Geschwindner, W. A. Hartwell, Jas. 
X. McCoy, M. D., F. W. Planke, H. E. Planke 
Z. Pulliam, Ohas. A. Sanford, M. D., Alex P. 
Smyth, W. T. Smith, J.' F. Somes, M. D., W. 
L. Te Walt, Edward L. Townsley, Robert P. 

Photo by She res 

Old Town Hall, Built 1837. Removed 1886 

on the death of their members, but make no 
provision for future years wlien the death rate 

It makes mo assessment at death, but collects 
a uniform monthly payment, thus enabling you 
to know just what to pay. 

A reserve fund of 10 per cent, is set aside 
from each stated monthly payment. This fund 
and its accumulations, cannot be used for any 
other purpose except to provide against exce-s 
sive or unusual mortality. This makes strong 

Weems. Gilbert Williams, O. B. Williamson. 

The officers elected and installed at the meet- 
ing of June 17, 1896, were as follows: Dr. J. F. 
Somes, V. C.; Wm. T. Smitih, W. A.; John T. 
Boyd, E. B.; Will L. Te Walt, Clerk; O. B. 
Williamson. Escort; Alex Smith, W.; Wm. 
Hartwell. Secretary; C. W. Beniham, J. N. Mc- 
Coy, Physicians; Edward L. Townsley, Dele- 
irate: Z. Pulliam, Chas. A. Sanford, O. W. Cole- 
ma in. Managers. 

The organization has suffered but one death 


12. John Burway, Forestr. 13. E. J. Worth, forester. 



loss at this place, that of Ohas. A. Sanford, who 
died in November, 1896, about five months from 
the date of the organization. The increase in 
membership of this camp lhas not been rapid, 
but it is now experiencing a steady and healthy 
growth and has a present membership of about 
120. The present officers are: V. C., Dr. J. H. 
Hammon; W. A., Edward Yocum; E. B., Jesse 
P. Haughton; Clerk, Robt. N. Johnson; Escort, 
Geo. Glass; W., Henry Mull; Sentinel, Alex 
Cornoyer; Managers, Otto C. Busse, Wm. S. 
Racy, Chas. Fyffe. 

The Modern Woodmen of America had its' 
beginning at Lyons, Iowa, when Pioneer Cam]). 
No. 1, was organized, Jan. 5, 1883. The origi- 
nator of Woodcraft, Mr. J. C. Root, of Lyons. 

Photo by Townsley 

was practically confined to Illinois, Iowa, Kan- 
sas and Nebraska, the most marked growth be- 
ing in t!he first named state. At the close of 
the year 1888, the membership was 24,980. The 
society had paid eighty-five death claims, every 
one but the first (which occurred before the as- 
sessments collected amounted to $1,000) being 
paid in full, and the total disbursements had 
amounted to $170,000. 

In 1890 Head Consul Root having withdrawn 
from the order and organized a rival society, 
W. A. Northcott, of Greenville, 111., now Lieu 
tenant-Governor of Illinois, became Head Con- 
sul and under his leadership the order has had 
a phenomenal growth, distancing all competi- 
tors in the field of fraternal insurance. 

The New Grand, Third and Busseron 

became the Head Consul of the order and so 
continued for a number of years. 

The second and third camps of the order 
were organized at Fulton and Lanark, 111., re- 
spectively, and for a number of years the work 

The total insurance In force Nov. 1, 1901, was 

The total paid to beneficiaries to the same 
date was $23,649,449.30. 

The total membership in good standing was 



657,310, distributed among 10,010 local camps. 
The average cost of insurance in this organi- 
zation never has exceeded $4,95 per thousand 

members of the order has therefore ruled lower 
than in any similar order in existence. Deputy 
Head Consul P. W. Whirlock, \viho resides in 


per annum, being lowest of any beneficiary or- 
ganization in the world. 

The ritual of the Modern Woodmen of Amer- 
ica is original and striking and the work digni- 
fied and impressive. The fraternal features of 
the order are strong and binding. This char- 
acteristic of woodcraft 'has done much to give 
'< Uie great lead it has gained and maintained 
for a number of years among fraternal benefici- 
ary societies. 

The confinement of its organizations to the 
Northern states, Where the death rate is much 
lower than In the Southern states and the ex^ 
elusion from membership of the more hazard- 
ous occupations has also tended, in no small 
degree, to keep down the death rate and conse- 
quently the required number of assessments 
which have never exceeded eleven In any year. 
The cost of benefits to families of deceased 

Vincenries aoid who has charge of the work of 
extension of the order ill a district comprising a 
number of adjacent counties, is a reliable, capa* 
ble and consciencious worker, selecting his can- 
didates for membership carefully both as to 
character and quality of risk, and the member- 
ship he has gained has added strength and mor- 
al standing to the various camps within hia 
jurisdiction!. . 

4 s 

New Grand Hotel. 

The new Grand Hotel, of which a cut ap- 
pears herein, is one of the best appointed and 
best managed hostelries in the state. The Old 
Grand Hotel was bought by Messrs. C. W. 
Padgett and P. H. Blue, of Sullivan, Ind., In 
1899, at executor's sale. They immediately 
had plans prepared for its improvement, direct- 







ing their architect to provide for a generous ex- 
penditure of money in that direction. Early 
in the following year work was begun and the 
old structure was thoroughly remodeled and 
rebuilt at a cost of $50,000. As the house now 
stands it has seventy elegant sleeping rooms 

luxuriously furnished throughout. In its culi- 
nary appointments anid in the conveniences and 
comforts offered in a general way to its guests 
the New Grand is surpassed by few hotels in 
the state. The manager, Mr. Al M. Ford, is a 
thoroughly experienced hotel man, familiar 








with every department, and knows full well 
how to add to the comfort and pleasure of his 
guests. The rates are two to three dollars and 
the popularity of the New Grand with the trav- 
eling public is such that there is seldom a time 
when! they are not taxed to meet the demands 
for accommodation. 

The First Regiment Band. 

The First Regiment Band is the successor of 
'Balue's Independent Band," organized by 
Arthur M. Balue, in March, 1899, the name be- 
ing changed to that at present worn in June, 
1900, when it was attached officially to the 
First Regiment of the Indiana National Guard. 
In the presenit organization are four members 
of the original "Independent Band." There 
are in the present organization tAventy-five 
members, as follows: Arthur M. Balue, Direct- 
or; Q. V. List, Solo Cornet: J. G. Hunckler, Solo 
Cornet; J. B. King, Solo Cornet; J. C. Wagner, 
First Cornet; C. W. Miller. Second Cornet; 
Joseph Goddard, Solo Clarinet; Wm. Oatlett, 
First Flarinet; F. W. Boone, Second Clarinet; 
Ohas. Leonard, E Flat Clarinet; John Marvel, 
First Alto; M. Gluck, Second Alto; T. J. Acker, 
Third Alto; A. Furguson, Fourth Alto; A. F. 
Raker, E Flat Bass: Jos. I, Stoll. E Flat Bass; 
A. F. Fischer, Trombone; Ohas. Purcell, Trom- 
bone; J. W. Brockfcmith, Baritone; Jos. Moss, 
Saxophone; Jas. Williams, Trombone; .Chas. D. 

K;irson, Bass; W. C. Teschner, Side Drum; Al- 
vin McCormick, Trombone; Howard Earl, 
Drum Major. 

It is an unusually strong aggregation of 
musicians and has never failed to carry off the 
honors whenever it has been pitted against 
other organizations. 

Arthur M. Balue, the director, was born at 
Cerro Gordo, 111., and at the age of eight years 
came with his parents to Vincennes, where he 
was educated. He early developed a musical 
talent of a superior order, and taking up the 
study without an instructor, began, at the age 
of nineteen years to give special attention to it. 
When twenty-one years of age he became a 
member of Piankeshaw Band, of the city, un- 
der the leadership of George McDonald. He 
soon after went on the road as a professional, 
which he continued for several seasons, being 
connected with a number of the best profes- 
sional aggregations. In March, 1899, as stated, 
he organized "Balue's Independent 'Band and 
Orchestra," which, in June, 1900, became the 
.First Regiment Band. Mr. Balue has con- 
tinued to direct the band from its first organi- 
zation to the present, with great satisfaction 
to its membership. In a business way Mr. 
Balue is associated with Mr. L. P. Colenbaugb 
in the grocery business at 1008 North Second. 

Mr. Balue was married in October, 1900, to 
Miss Mary Acker, of Vincennes. They have 
one soni. 

"Little Joe" Earl and His Drawing, Made at Age of Four Years 



A Youthful Prodigy. 

"Little Joe" Earl, whose portrait appears 
above, taken when in his fifth year, is a prodigy 
in many respects and has been a puzzle to phy- 
sicians and nmtfy others who have taken an in- 
terest in his talents and genius. Before he was 
four years of age his parents, Mr. and Mrs. 
Howard Earl, of Eleventh and Main Streets, 
discovered signs of a remarkable mechanical 
genius and a talent for drawing which came to 
tfhern as a surprise, and they began more closely 
to observe tlieir little sou. They soon found him 
unlike other children in that he possessed a re- 
markable memory, seldom forgetting anything 
one told him. His father being a switchman 
in the employ of the I. & V. Railroad, 'he natur- 
ally took an interest in engines. He was soon 
able to produce with dialk on a blackboard 
with which he had been provided a wonderfully 
true sketch of a locomotive engine. One of 

these, drawn when "Little Joe" was four years 
of age, was photographed and is here repro- 
duced. Joe is a diminutive bit of humanity, 
but may be depended on to give an intelligent 
answer to almost any question on any subject. 
There is niot the smallest part of a railway en- 
gine whose name and use he has not known for 
years. He is familiar with the rules governing 
tllie engineer in various emergencies that may 
arise. But it is not only in these matters that 
he is informed; he knows much of history, of 
physiology and various other knowledge n<ot 
'. ound in the average head many times the age 
of his own. His ready understanding and re- 
tentive memory make 'him truly a wonder on 
account of his extreme youth. He has never 
attended school, physicians having advised 
against it on account of his frail little body. 
His wonderful knowledge seems to be almost 
intuitive, so readily is it acquired. 

The public schools of Vincennes are equal in 
equipment and efficiency to those of any other 

of which the central building at Seventh and 
Buntin Streets was the first* erected, 1865. It 
has a corps of eleven 
teachers and is pre- 
sided over by Prof. 
M. R. Ivirk, a gradu- 
ate of the State Nor- 
mal School of Terre 
Haute and of the 
State University at 
Bloomington, where 
he took the classical 

No. 2, which was 
built in 1884, a con- 
siderable addition be- 
ing made in 1895, is 
located at Second 
and I n d i anapolie 
Avenue, North Vin- 
cennes, and has six 
teachers, of whom 
M iss Josephine 
Crotts is principal. 

No. 3, erected in 
1877, is the school 
Vincennes High School. Fifth and Buntin f or colored pupils, 

city of the same size in the state. They are sup- and is loeatedfat Twelfth and Seminary Streets. 

plied with six large and commodious buildings, The principal. R. L. Anthony, is a colored edu- 



cator of ability and there are three departments. 
No. 4. erected in 1878, Seventh and Barnet, 
the "West Side School," 
has four departments, 
with A. B. Mavity as 

No. 5. built in 1891, 
Eleventh and Hickman, 
"East End School." has 
a corps of six teachers, 
with Miss Melvina 
Keith as principal. 

No. 6, the High 
School, was built in 
1897. and is one of the 

M. J. Nfclacfc. Prudent mogt 

school buildings in the 
state. It is a handsome 
structure of yellow 
brick, with every mod- 
ern appliance, including 
a finely appointed gym- 
nasium, which is under 
the supervision of a 
thorough teacher of 
physical culture, and a 
large and commodious 
auditorium, where lec- 
tures and a variety of 
e n t e r t a i nments are 

The public library, 
which is a part of 
the educational sys- 
tem and under the 
control and manage- 
ment of the school 
board, is located in 
the City Hall, where 
it has a very hand- 
s o in e 1 y appointed 
apartment. It was 
established in 1889, 
the first librarian be- 
ing Miss Mary Scott, 
now Mrs. G. W. 
Shaw, who served in 
that capacity till 
Dec ember, 1897. 
when she tendered 
lier resignation, and 
Miss Myrtle Ruddy 

H. T. Wa, Secretary 

Huddy has served continuously since that date. 
There are in th? library about five thousand vol- 
umes, selected with a 
special view to the 
wants of the students 
of the public schools, 
but the benefits of the 
library are open to any 
citizen of Viucennes 
without charge, on com- 
pliance with the rules 
of the institution. The 
expenditure for the 
library in 1901 was $730. 
The members of the 
School Board are Hon. 
Mason J. Niblack, President; Eugene Hack, and 
H. Thornton Willis, Secretary, all broad-minded, 
progressive men, who spare no pains or ex- 
l>ense. when the good of the schools is involved 
Superintendent A. E. Humke is an educator of 
broad culture and large experience and pos- 
sessed of the requisite energy and judgment to 
maintain the high standard of excellence of 
these schools, which is. indeed, in no small 
measure due to his labors. 

The investment in school property in the city 
of Yinf-ennes will easily reach $150.000. and the 
annual expenditure largely exceeds $30,000. 

E. Hack 

was appointed to 
succeeded her. Miss 

Central School, No. \, Seventh and Buntin 



The expenditure for the year 1901, includ- 
ing salaries of teachers and janitors and fuel, 
water, furniture, repairs, apparatus, books, &c, 
including also the public library, amounted to 
$34,155. The board has under consideration 
plans to enlarge the 
facilities by the erec- 
tion of further build- 
ings to accommodate 
the increasing num- 
ber of pupils, due to 
the growth of the 
city. It is highly 
probable that the 
next few months 
will see another 
handsome school 
building under way. 

H. T. WILLIS, Sec. 
Henry Thornton 
Willis was born at 
Bruceville, K n o x 
County, Aug. 29, 
1862. He received 
his early education 
In the public schools 
and later attended' 
the State Normal 
School at Terre 

Haute and became a teacher in the schools of 
Knox County, being so engaged for six years. 
He was then for five years city editor of the 
Daily Sun, after which, in 1891, he became 
cashier of the Union Depot Hotel, a position 

East End School, Eleventh and Hickman 

North Vincennes School, Second and Indianapolis Avenue 

which he has held 
continuously since 
that date. 

The high estima- 
tion in which Mr. 
Willis is held in the 
community is evi- 
denced by the num- 
ber of positions of 
trust and responsibil- 
ity he has held. He 
was elected secretary 
of the Board of 
Trade, March 24, 
'1899, and has served 
in that capacity 
since that time, hav- 
ing been re-elected 
annually. He be- 
came a member of 
the City Board of 
Education in June, 
1899, and was at the 
first meeting there- 



after elected secretary of the board. The fol- 
lowing year he was chosen treasurer and secre- 

West Side School, Seventh and 
tary again the next year, in which position he 
still serves. He was for a number of years 
secretary and treasurer of the Security Spoke 
Manufacturing Co., of the city, and was for 
twelve years, from 1889 to 1901, secretary of 
the Old Settlers' As- 
Bociation. of Knox, 
County. He is a 
member of the 
Christian C h u r c h; 
and has been treas- 
urer of that organi- 
zation since 1896. In 
politics he is a dem- 
ocrat, though of Re- 
publican stock. Mr. 
Willis was married, 
June 17, 1896, to 
Miss Grace Burnet 
of the city. They 
have one son. 


January 23, 1864. He attended the public 
schools and a gymnasium of his native country 
until fifteen years of 
age, when he, with 
mother and family, 
immigrated to this 
country, coming di- 
rect to Wabash, Ind., 
in 1869, soon after 
locating in Laketon, 
where our subject 
attended the public 
schools for three 
years and then be- 
came a teacher. The 
better to fit himself 
for his chosen pro- 
fession he attended 
the State Normal 
School at Terre 
Haute, from which 
he was graduated 
with honors in 1877. 
Subseque ntly he 
taught as principal 
Baxt of one of the Ward 

schools of Wabash. Following this he was 
for seven years instructor in reading in the 
State Normal School at Terre Haute. In 1891, 
Prof. Humke became superintendent of the 
city schools of Vincennes, a position which he 

Albert E. Humke 
was born in Lippe, 
Detmold, Germany, 

Colored School, Twelfth and Seminary 



has since held, to the pleasure and profit of 
their patrons and whose duties he has per- 
formed with an 
assiduity and wis- 
dom that has 
resulted in one of 
the best conduct- 
ed educational de- 
partments in the 

Humke was mar- 
ried in 1877 to 
Miss Mantle D. 
Gregory of Mar- 

I Would Love to Go Back. 

tinsville, 111. 



St. Rose Academy. 

St. Rose Academy, conducted by the Sistera 
of Providence, whose Mother House is at St. 
Mary's of the Woods, 
Vigo County, Indi- 
ana, was founded in 
1842. During the 
sixty years of its ex- 
istence it has kept 
pace with the edu- 
cational demands of 
the times, offering 
accommodations for 
resident students as 
well as day scholars. 
The regular course 
of instruction com- 
prises three depart- 
ments: Primary, In- 
termediate, Acad- 
emic. A commercial 
course can also be 
pursued if desired. 
The scholastic year 
is divided into two 
terms of twenty St. Rose 

weeks eacli. The number of pupils attending 
is two hundred and sixty; the number of teach- 
ers employed is twelve. Instruction is given 
in piano and vocal music, and the various 
stringed instruments. Public recitals form a 
feature of the educational system, thus pre- 
paring the pupils for appearance in public and 
maintaining among them a spirit of interest 
and emulation. 

(George R. Harvey's Muse Sings of His 
Heart's Desire.) 

I would like to go back 
To the days of my boyhood, 
In life's morning march, 
When my bosom was young; 
Re-tread the old paths 
That ran through the wild-wood, 
And sing the old songs 
That we neighbor boys sung. 

I would love to go back 
To that double log cabin, 
In wihich I was taught 
My first little prayer, 
And hear Brother Strainge, 
The old Circuit Rider, 
Preach to the people, 
Who came far and near. 

Academy, Fifth and Seminary 
I would love to sit down 
In my father's old orchard, 
Where the Romanite, Pippin^ 
And bellflower grew. 
'Twas the fruit of the country; 
Yes, fruit of my boyhood, 
But where it's all gone 
Good Lord only knows. 



I would love to look back 

On the old sweep-mill in the valley, 

In which I once worked 

In life's early morn, 

In a seat on the sweep, 

Behind the two horses, 

To keep them both moving 

While grinding the corn. 

Yes, I would like to go back 

To that old beech log 

By the path through the forest, 

On which I once sat 

Near the pigeon roost ground, 

And see the birds coming 

By thousands, yes. millions, 

And cover the trees for many miles round. 

'Twas a sight of a life-time, 
And oft I have wondered 
If the days that have passed 
Would ever roll round 

And bring back the good times 
I had in my boyhood 
In bagginig wild pigeons 
That roost near the ground. 

I would love to look back 

On that. old wooden flax brake 

And scutching board, 

Sharpen'd and driven in ground, 

Where we broke and we scutched 

And we ran through the heckle 

Preparing flax fiber 

For the spindle and loom. 

I would love to go back 
To the days of wild turkey 
Anld venison steak 
And pigeon pot pie, 
With corn bread for dinner 
Mixed well with stewed pumpkin 
And a few juicy cracklings 
Just fresih from the fry. 


CHAPTER 1., Early Settlement 5 

CHAPTER II., The Jesuit Missionaries 9 

CHAPTER III., Under English Rule 11 

CHAPTER IV., Expedition of Col. George 
Rogers Clark. Biographical foot note of 
Clark 14 

CHAPTER V., Clark makes preparations to 
secure Vincennes 17 

CHAPTER VI., Vincennes captured by Gov. 
Hamilton. Clark prepares to march 
against the Post 23 

CHAPTER VII., Clark captures the "Old 
Post" 29 

CHAPTER VIII., Clark captures Hamil- 
ton's boats. Plans against Detroit. Early 
events following 37 

CHAPTER IX., Governor St Glair. Laws 
for the Northwest Territory. Indian 
troubles 41 


CHAPTER X., Gen. Harrison becomes sec- 
retary of the Northwest Territory. Leg- 
islature established. First delegate in 
Congress. Count De Volney writes of 
Vincennes 47 

CHAPTER XI., Establishment of Indiana 
Territory. Governor Harrison. First 
Grand Jury. First Legislature. Various 
matters of Interest 50 

CHAPTER XII., Indians become restless. 
Tecumsch. Tippecanoe 53 

CHAPTER XIII., War of 1812. Gov. Har- 
rison in command of U. S. forces. Capi- 
tal leaves Vincennes 68 

CHAPTER XIV., Indiana becomes a state. 
Blackhawk War. War of the rebellion. . 72 
Spanish-American War 77 

CHAPTER XV., Corporate History. His- 
torical Miscellany 80 

CHAPTER XVI., Vincennes University . . .84-9 
The Vincennes of To-day 90 



Adams, T. H .155 

Alexander, H. W 7..174 

Alsop, George R 100 

Arnold, Stephen 134 

Baecher, E. A 151 

Baker, William 99 

Bank, First National 95 

Bank, German National 98 

Bank, Second National 97 

Bayard, Joseph L 95 

Bayard, Joseph L., Jr 96 

Beckes, Duncan L 168 

Beckes, Lyman M., Dr 160 

Ben Hur Tribe of 188 

Bey Lawrence 120 

Blerhaus Brothers 116-17 

Blerhaus, E. & Sons 116-18 

Board of Trade 91 

Boeckman, Henry J., 100 

Bonner, Daniel 148 

Boog, Herman 124 

Boyd, John T., 98 

Bratton-Racey Grocery Co.... 118 

Brokhage & Sons, H 113 

Buckles, John L 172 

Burke, Rev. DeLou 177 

Burns, Peter J 131 

Cassell, J. W 119 

Cassell, W. W 121 

Campbell, Thomas H 136 

Cauthorn, Hon. H. 8 173 

Cauthorn, H. S. Jr., 173 

Cauthorn. Robt. G 173 

Central Foundry Co 106 


Churches . . .179-188 

City Hall Drug Store 123 

Clark, Edward S., 133 

Claycomb, M. A., 140 

Cllppinger, Rev. H. C 175 

Cobb, A. T... 166 

Cobb, O. H. Judge 166 

Cobb. Hon. Thomas R., 169 

Cohen, J. C 114 

Coulter, Major T. B., 168 

Cross, T. Ray 129 

Crotts, A. V., 159 

Cullop, Hon. W. A 166 

Curtis, F. W 159 

Dalley, C. E 167 

Davidson, Win., 147 

DeBruler, A. P 138 

Donaldson, G. W., 97 

Duesterberg, John M., 124 

Du Kate, J. Ralph 159 

Eagle Brewery 102 

Earl. "Little Joe" 197-8 

Eastham, Thomas 148 

Ebner, John. Ice Co 101 

Eluere, P. & Sons 130 

Emison. Frank P 153 

Emlson, James W., 163 

Enterprise Stove Co Ill 

First Regiment Band 196-7 

Fleischman. Rev. M., 175 

Flouring Mills Ill 

Franke. T. F., 114 

Frederick, Henry 155 

Frederick, L. A., 127 


Freeman, William -98 

Gardner & Son 132 

Ghee, M. P., 139 

Gimbel, Haughton & Bond 114 

Glass. R. M 125 

Goodman, John T., 170 

Green, Frank 136 

Green, Perry D 158 

Greene, George E., 147 

Greeuhow, R. J., 143 

Guegen. Rev. Louis 176 

Hack, John. 146 

Hack & Simon 102 

Hall, Dr. S., 162 

Hall, John F 98 

Halter, M 120 

Hainmon. Dr. J. H., 163 

Harbison. A. L., 169 

Hartigan, John 134 

Hartley. O. J 131 

Hartman Mfg. Co 108 

Hartwell Handle Co 107 

Harvey. George R 125 

Held, Dr. H. W., 153 

Helle, C. W 126 

Hellert, H. J., 144 

Henderson. J. A 128 

Hershey , Jere 150 

Hitt, Harvey B., 159 

Hoover, W. S 174 

Horsting, Frank 150 

Humke, Prof. A. E., 201 

Hunter, E. B., 127 

Hunter, Rev. W. A., 176 



Iiidiana Handle Co 107 

Inter-State Distilling Co 112 

James R. O., 122 

Judah, Samuel 169 

Judah, Samuel B 170 

Kitchell, J. S., 145 

Klieu, George 129 

Kuapp, Dr. George, Sanitar- 
ium 100 

Knappe, W. T. Von 162 

La Croix, J. D., 12S 

Latshaw, Dr. H. S 1 .45 

Laundries 138 

Law. Rev. W. G 177 

Lewis, Harry R 167 

Lewis, J. P 152 

Lieberman, Prank 147 

Loten, Mrs. E. J.,. i.25 

Louis, J. A 115 

McCarthy, P. R 108 

McClure, A. M 174 

McCord, C. G., 171 

McCoy, Col. Geo. W UW 

McGowen, John W 1?5 

McJimsey Opera House 146 

Mail, J. F 136 

Maxedon, Dr 162 

Miller, Rev. J. B., 177 

Modern Woodmen of America. 191 

Moffett, Judge W. W 164 

Moore, Dr. R. G 123 

Moore, W. H., 135 

New Grand Hotel 194-7 

Newspapers 155-60 

Niblack, Hon. M. J 165 

Norton & Co., D. W., 135 

O'Donnell, P. M., 96 

Oeschger, Rev. Wm., 178 

Orr, James T., 109 

Page. John B., 110 

Palfrey, Thos. F 129 

Pennington, W. H 154 


Phillippe, Peter 153 

Phillips, O. C 171 

Planke Bros 124 

Plummer, J. A., 106 

Presnell, M. V 133 

Printers and Publishers . . . 155-60 

Pritchett, J. S 166 

Propes, W. H -. 142 

Public Schools 198-201 

Purcell, R. E 156 

Purcell, W. B 157 

Racy-Palfrey Shoe Co 129 

Randolph, Joseph T 170 

Recker, Garret R 110 

Recker, W. P 119 

Reel, Abe S 144 

Reiman, W. A 143 

Reiter, Gerard 99 

Riddle, Samuel 144 

Rlsch, J. A 115 

Risch, S 115 

Robertson, Thomas 149 

Robinson, W. B 168 

Rogers, John 154 

Roush, G. W. H 105 

Rumer & Son 121 

Ryder, E. L 128 

St. Rose Academy 201 

Salyards, E. M 131 

Samoniel, Fred 154 

Schoenfeld, V 123 

Schultz, C. W 120 

Selby, John 141 

Shepherd, Chas 129 

Shores, E. E 133 

Simon, Anton 102 

Simpson, Wm 136, 178 

Smith, Dr. H. M 161 

Smith, N. & Sous 130 

Somes, Harry V 96 

Somes, Dr. J. F 162 

I age 

Spiker, J. S 137 

Spiker, A. C 137 

Stork. J. M 153 

Summit, L. C 151 

Taylor, Ayers J . . . . 149 

TeWalt. Will L 140 

Thuis, F. A 141 

Thuis, F. A. Estate 109 

Tindolph, E. P 122 

Todd, C. E 134 

Townsley, I. E 133 

Tribe of Ben Hur 188 

Twietmeyer, J. Herman 120 

Utterback, Carlin 141 

Vlncennes Bridge Co 105 

Vincennes Egg Case Co 105 

Vincennes Elevator Co Ill 

Vincennes Galvanized Iron 

Works 108 

Vincennes Novelty Mfg. Co. ..113 

Vincennes Paper Co 105 

Vincennes University 84-9 

Vincennes Water Supply Co.. 112 
Vinceunes Window Glass Co. 103 

Von Knappe, Dr. W. T 162 

Wagner, John C 142 

Watson, Edward 91 

Watson, Henry 109 

Weed, W. A 130 

Weisert, C. A 152 

Weisert, Edward 150 

White Bicycle Co 126 

Wilhelm, John 172 

Willis, H. Thornton 200 

Willis, T. H., Rev 175 

Williams, Hon. S. W 165 

Williams, James D 152 

Williamson, O. B 172 

Yelton, A. M 142 

Yunghans, E. H 145 

Zuber, John B 142